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better contribute to the fulfilment of his patriotic intention than by inviting the consideration of political students in this Dominion to the governmental institutions of the mother country, as described in these volumes, which claim to present fuller information upon that subject than is obtainable elsewhere.

For the same reason, I venture to hope that my work may be of service to public men in England, inasmuch as, whatever may be its defects or omissions, it is the first attempt that has been ever made to collect and embody, in a systematic form, the laws, usages, and traditions of parliamentary government.

ALPHEUS TODD.

LIBRARY OF PARLIAMENT, OTTAWA, CANADA :

February, 1869.

ERRATUM.

On page 713 of the first volume, line 12, instead of 'In vol. ii. precedents will be found,' &c., read On page 799 (vol. i.) precedents, &c.

" CHAPTER II.

THE PRIVY COUNCIL UNDER PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT.

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I. The origin and early history of the Cabinet

A private advising Council inseparable from the Monarchy of

England

90

Its relation to Parliament

91

Committees of the Privy Council under the Stuart Kings

92

Unpopularity of Government by a Cabinet

93

Cromwell's method of Government

94

The Cabinet under Charles II.

95

Sir W. Temple's plan for remodelling the Privy Council

98

The King's Council under James II.

101

Constitutional Government secured by the Revolution of 1688 . 101

Condition of the House of Commons at this period

103

Formation of the first Parliamentary Ministry

104

Notices of the presence of Ministers, and other placemen, in the
Tudor and Stuart Parliaments.

105

Attempts to exclude all placemen from the House of Commons,

before the Revolution

114

Formal introduction of a

united Ministry into Parliament by

William III.

117
Subsequent legislation, permitting Ministers to sit in the House of

Commons, but excluding other officials

Early resort to ‘Nomination Boroughs' to secure seats for Ministers 126

Benefits derived from their use

127

Advantages resulting from the presence of Ministers in Parliament 128

And the exclusion therefrom of other officials

129

History of the Cabinet, from 1693 to 1702

130

Parliamentary Government during Queen Anne's reign

133

Progress of opinion concerning the Cabinet .

134

II. The later history, and present organisation of the Cabinet

135

(1) Development of the rule requiring unanimity therein

135

Coup d'état of the Whigs to thwart the designs of Boling broke 137

Divisions in the Cabinet after Queen Anne's death .

140

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