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, relic of the martyr, they tore off his clothes in fragments, ASSASSINATION OF KOTZEBUE.

cut the hair from his head, dipped their kerchiefs in his | May 19, 1820, will be long memorable in German

blood, and evinced every possible demonstration of their history. Augustus Kotzebue, after the war of 1813, regret and sorrow at his fate. To this day, these relics was accused, as a hireling partisan, of devoting his are preserved with religious veneration, and the name of literary abilities to the subversion of the liberties of

Sand, the avenger of his country's wrongs, in the Germany in favour of Russia ; and, like most persons per

person of the Russian traitor Kotzebue, but slumbers, to verted to wrong, he, notwithstanding frequent warnings,

awaken throughout Germany a direful vengeance on their persisted; and accordingly, havirg become obnoxious to oppressors. many of the secret associations then prevalent, was in most of them denounced. In one, that had the appellation of

DOES THE ANT PROVIDE FOR WINTER ? the Tugensbund, or Coalition of Virtue, his death, in 1817, was determined, yet some time elapsed before the

MODERN naturalists assert that ants do not in summer casting of lots was effected, as to whose hand the perpe- store up corn for their winter food. In Insect Architration of the deed shouid be committed. The chance tecture, published by the Society for the Diffusion of fell to Charles Frederick Sand, a young man then about Useful Knowledge, it is said — twenty-four years of age, of an ardent temperament, Gould disproved most satisfactorily the ancient fable of and anxious to avenge his country of one whose prin- ants storing up corn for winter provision, no species of ants ciples had excited so much hatred.

ever eating grain, or feeding in winter upon any thing. Sand set out from Jena on March 9, 1819, and on

The very reverse of this is expressly stated by the the 23rd arrived at Mannheim, where at an inn he Hebrew natural conversed with a country curate, till about five o'clock, at which hour, having resolved to perform his mission,

Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be he parted from the divine, and presented himself at

wise : which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth

her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the Kotzebue's door. He was admitted by a servant, who

harvest.—Proverbs vi. 6, 7, 8. conducted him to an apartment, with the assurance his master would shortly make his appearance. Kotzebue,

Again on entering the room, was by Sand stabbed repeatedly, The ants are a people not strong, yet they prepare their and he fell a corpse. A crowd was almost immediately meat in the summer. -Proverbs xxx. 25. collected, and Sand quietly passed into the street, The reading of the Vulgate is similar in meaning to kneeled down, and in an energetic tone, exclaimed the authorised version, in both of these passages. With “ It is I who am the murderer! May all traitors thus such very strong authority in favour of " the ancient perish !" Then, with uplifted eyes, with much fervency, fable,” it does not seem wise to relinquish it, unless continued_“I thank thee, O God! for thy assistance some other consistent meaning can be put upon the in this work !"

Scripture texts. Having thus avowed himself the murderer of Kotzebue, Query, Does the word rendered ant in the English, he bared his breast, and with the same weapon, inflicted and formica in the Vulgate, really mean the insect a severe stab. In his hand was a paper, containing now known by that names these words : “ Sentence of death against Kotzebue, It is worth noticing that Saint Chrysostom, in his executed 23rd of March, 1819;" and in his bosom was Eighth Homily, on Philippians, speaks of the ant as a secreted a riband, with an inscription purporting that good provider; and that such, during the middle ages, Kotzebue had been condemned to death two years was the constant belief. before. Sand survived, but, as usual, his trial was

EDWARD PEACOCK. delayed more than twelve months, when, at length, sen Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsay. tence of death was passed on him, and his execution fixed at eight o'clock in the morning of May 19, 1820. The authorities seem to have been apprised that a Your correspondent should have imitated the ant, the rescue would be attempted, and that many of his least possible industry would have convinced him that friends would then arrive at Mannheim. At six o'clock, Solomon never alluded to winter provisions, but to the when all was mournfully silent, Sand was led forth to activity of that insect during summer. So that “the execution. He seemed calm and collected, his coun- wisest of men ” said nothing on the subject that could tenance void of fear; he appeared composed in mind, be “disproved by modern naturalists." and wholly resigned to his fate. He held a rose, that The passages in Proverbs simply say, “ The ant prohe frequently raised, and seemingly enjoyed its refresh- videth her own meat in the summer, gathereth her oren ing fragrance. The execution was hastened, and at the food in the harvest," vi. 8. “The ants are a people not moment the executioner held forth the severed head of strong, yet they prepare their own meat in the sumSand, his friends poured in from Heidelberg, and rush- mer,” xxx. 25, while the sluggard sleeps away his time, ing to the scaffold, it was soon in their possession, and expects others to toil and labour for him." Exasperated at his death, and eager to secure some Wybunbury, Nantwich. M. MARGOLIOUTA.

VABALATHUS UCRIMDR EXPLAINED.

The BRANK, OR SCOLD's Bridle. A few months since, a friend sent me for interpreta- THE brank is noticed as a Scottish instrument of Ection from the Continent an impression from a Canaan- clesiastical punishment, chiefly employed for the coercion itish seal that had been submitted to numerous learned of female scolds, and those adjudged of slander and defapersons, without the desired attainment. This semi- | mation.* It may be described as an iron skeleton Phænician signet with some little difficulty I made out; helmet, having a gag of the same metal, that by being the elucidation was acknowledged to be correct, and the protruded into the mouth of an inveterate brawler, effecanswer made by one of these savans was, “ Ah! je le

tually branked that unruly member, the tongue. As an vois : mais j'ai de quoi le puzzler ; " so the Vabalathus | instrument of considerable antiquity, at a period when legend has also, I believe, made its grand tour on the the gag, the rack, and the axe were the ratio ultima Continent, without the desired effect, and I shall attempt | Romae, it has doubtless been employed, not unfrequently, to give that a solution.

for purposes of great cruelty, though in most examples, The coin I have seen, and what I recollect is-on the

the gag was not purposely designed to wound the mouth, obverse is the head of Aurelian, with a radiated crown,

but simply to restrain or press down the tongue. and on the reverse, the laureated head of VABALATHUS

| Several of these instruments are yet extant, though VCRIMDR. Vabalathus is supposed to have been the their use is now, thanks to more considerate civilization, son of Zenobia by her first husband, an Arab Prince ; l become obsoshe had also two sons by Odenathus, her second husband,

lete. The Biupon whose assassination, in 266 or 267, Zenobia, then

shop's brank, Queen of Tadmor or Palmyra, conferred the imperial

here shown, dignity upon her sons by both husbands. Naturally, remaining in therefore, we are to look for a solution of the difficulty

St. Mary's hitherto attached to the legend or title of VABALATHUS

Church, at St. VcRIMDR, in the Arabic language, that of Zenobia's Andrew's, is first husband.

traditionally Descriptive names were in early times, in the East, said to have given to persons of mature age, as their dispositions or

been placed habits in life became fully developed ; Vabalathus may,

developed ; Vabalatnus may, on the head of therefore, have been the name given to Zenobia's son,

Patrick Haon account of a determined ardour for hunting, and

milton, and Ucrimdr, his title, derived from his birth and authority

others of the in the State. Vabalathus appears to be a name com early Scottish pounded of the Arabic Jug, vabal, pursuing with Martyrs, who e

perished at the stake in that city during the religious vehemence, hunting close ; and wg, tus, nature

persecutions of James the Fifth's reign. That the gag or disposition; the name Vabalathus is therefore equi- | here represented may possibly have supplied in the hands valent to “a mighty hunter."

of both Archbishop and Cardinal Beaton a ready means Ucrimdr seems to be the title of Vabalathus, com- of restraining less confirmed recusants, and thereby aspounded of the Arabic , ukr, to be reverenced sisted to suppress the advancement of the new heresy, and honoured by reason of his authority, see Willmet's

there can be but little doubt; but that it was applied to

Hamilton, in his case more particularly, no particle of Arabic Dictionary; and scho, madrah, a prince; historical evidence can be adduced in support of the traUcrimdr will therefore, by contraction, signify, the pow- dition, and it seems therefore to have been an assertion erful prince, and conjointly, the name and title will read hazarded at a later age. The real origin of its designa-“ Mighty Hunter and Potent Prince !”

tion as “The Bishop's brank," is apparently and with From Vopiscus's account of Aurelian's triumph, we more truth derived from the use that Archbishop Sharp, read “ Germani, religatis manibus captivi præcesserunt, in more recent times, made of it, to silence the scandal inter hos etiam Palmyreni, qui superfuerant Principes an incautious and obstinate dame promulgated against civitatis." We know that Vabalathus was one of these him openly before his congregation, princes.

In the fifth volume of the Abbotsford edition of the I have applied the name and title to the test of other Waverley Novels, 1844, p. 270, the Bishop's brank is languages, but cannot obtain from them legitimate engraved as an illustration of “The Monastery." It is etymons.

there stated to have been “formerly kept at St. Mary's Southwick Vicarage, May 1.

T. R. BROWN, Church, St. Andrews,” but the brank was then at AbEAST AND WEST POSITION OF CHURCHES.-Can a

• Wilson's Archæology of Scotland, 1851, 8vo., p. 692. reason be assigned for the departure, by the Roman Jamieson in his Scottish Dictionary explains: “ To brank : Catholics of the present age, from the practice when our to bridle, or restrain." Thus the term brank is also used in cathedrals were erected, of building churches east and Scotland to designate a rude substitute for a horse's bridle west, and placing the altars at the east end? J. DE B. l and bit, formed most frequently of a halter and stick.

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botsford. Since that time, the brank has reverted to here takes the place of the gag, the upper point pierced its original depository, and placed in the care of the the roof of the mouth, while the lower one bored through Sexton, where it is regarded with such general interest the tongue. The evident intention in applying an imthat its preservation is certain.*

plement so satanic in its form and construction, to those The Burgh records of Glasgow, under April 1574, who were condemned to be burned at the stake as guilty notice that Marione Smyt and Margaret Huntare, bav- of Witchcraft and Sorcery, or dealing with the devil, ing quarrelled they appear, and produce two cautioners was not so much the inevitable torment that its use neor sureties, " bat bai sal abstene fra stryking of utheris cessarily involved, but the purposed prevention of the in tyme cuming, under pe pane of x lib., and gif þe flyte pronouncing the potent formula, the unearthly powers to be brankit," or undergo the punishment of the brank. their victims were supposed to possess; by which means From the fact of the brank here represented having

it was implicitly believed they could at will transform themselves to other shapes, or transport their bodies to where they pleased, and thus effectually evade their tormentors. A mere glance at the representation of this frightful instrument of torture induces a melancholy reflection on the barbarism that prevailed at a period so very recent; that educated men could credit such follies and inconsistencies, or that even among the illiterate and rude, there could be found persons willing to apply to a woman an agent of restraint so diabolically cruel, the pictured semblance alone being calculated to create feelings of no common horror and indignation.

Mr. Wilson, in reference to the earlier Scottish branks, observes :

It would not be difficult to add to these common instruments of punishment and of torture, others equally characteristic of the spirit of the age, though not brought into general use. The Registers of various Kirk-Sessions re

cently printed by the Abbotsford Club, the Spottiswode been found in 1848, secreted behind the oak-panelled Society, and others of the Scottish Literary Book Clubs, diswainscot, in one of the rooms of the old mansion of the close much curious evidence of the petty tyranny and Earls of Moray, in the Canongate, at Edinburgh, there cruelty too frequently exercised by those courts in the enis reason to suppose the use of the brank was at times forcement of ecclesiastical discipline, most frequently by adopted in some of the old baronial houses.

means little calculated to promote reformation, or good Some few years since, was retained in the old steeple

morals. In these, however, as in the traces of earlier manat Forfar, “ The Witch's brank," or bridle, as it was

ners, which we have sought to recover, the historian finds a key to the character of the age to which they belong, and indications of its degree of advancement in civilization, such as no contemporary historian could furnish, since it supplies elements for comparing and for contrasting the present with the past, no less available than the rude pottery and the implements of Aint or bone, which reveal to us, the simple arts of aboriginal races. The great difference in point of value between the two classes of relics is, that these more recent indices of obsolete customs supply to us only an additional element wherewith to test, and to verify by the instruments themselves, the invaluable records which the printing press supplies, while the latter are the sole chronicles we possess of ages more intimately associated with our human sympathies than all the geological periods of the preadamite earth.

The earliest use of the brank in England, that is termed. The date 1661, punched on the circle, with known to the writer, is not antecedent to the reign of letters that seemed to denote Angus S.t A spur-rowel King Charles the First. Brayley notices a Gossip's

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• Wilson's Archæology of Scotland, 1851, p. 693. took effect, is pointed out to strangers, as a place of sur

+ Dalyell's Darker Superstitions of Scotland, p. 686. The passing interest. Where this brank is now, is not stated ; Witch's brank is described in the old Statistical Account of the late Mr. Alexander Deuchar, a well-known collector, in the parish of Forfar, as the bridle used in conducting to ex- | Edinburgh, carried off some years since from Forfar, " the ecution the wretched victims of such gross superstition. Witch's bridle,” to add to his antiquarian treasures. The field, it is added, where those human sacrifices | • Archæology of Scotland, 1851, 8vo., p. 694.

BRIDLE as being preserved in the vestry of Walton | Biddlestone drawn through the streets by an officer of the Church; it had, according to a previous account, the same Corporation holding a rope in his hand, the other end source of which is now forgotten, been “presented to the

fastened to an engine called the branks,' which is like a parish, more than two hundred years since, by a person

crown, it being of iron, which was musled over the head and of some consequence at that period, whose name was

face, with a great gap or tongue of iron, which forced into Chester, with the date 1633, and the following inscrip

her mouth, forced the blood out; and that is the punishment

the magistrates do inflict upon chiding and scoulding wotion:

men, and that he hath often seen the like done to others." Chester presents Walton with a bridle

Gardiner further mentions, “ Scoulds are to be duck'd To curb women's tongues that talk too idle.

over head and ears into the water in a ducking stool;" Its presentation arose from the circumstance of the in- he adds : dividual whose name it bears losing a valuable estate

These are practices as are not granted by their Charter through the instrumentality of a gossiping lying woman.

law, and are repugnant to the known laws of England. When this note was taken does not appear; the gossip's

These punishments, as he was informed, were but gentle bridle has since “ become so corroded, the inscription admonitions, to what they knew was acted by other magiscannot now be read, only some few indications of letters trates of Newcastle. remaining."

In Current Notes, vol. i. p. 45, is inserted the repreThe skeleton helmet, here shown, “is made of thin

sentation of a brank or scold's bridle, yet extant among some old armour in the Guildhall, Worcester, said to have been formerly in use in that city, and probably of the date of Henry the Seventh's reign. It is, however, extremely doubtful if the civic records can render any notices of its use as a punishment at so early a period.

In some instances, it would appear, when too old to walk, or infirm, the brank was placed on the head, and the scold secured in the market or

some public place, against
iron, and so contrived as to pass over and about the head, / a post, to attract the pub-
when the whole clasps together, and is fastened at the lic gaze,t thus-
back of the neck, by a small padlock. The bridle bit, as Plot, describing the
it is called, is a flat piece of iron, about two inches customs of Staffordshire
broad, passes into the mouth, and keeps down the tongue in his time, cynically
by its pressure: an aperture in front admits the nose to observes, “ Lastly, we
pass through. The woodcut exhibits the bridle opened come to the acts that re-

spect mankind, amongst
which, as elsewhere, then
civility of precedence
must be allowed to the Jkaindle
women, and that as well
in punishments as favours. For the former whereof
they have such a peculiar artifice at Newcastle-under-
Lyme, and Walsall, for correcting of scolds, which it
does, too, so effectually, and so very safely, that I look
upon it as much to be preferred to the Cucking-stoole,

Gardiner illustrates this now obsolete custom by an enbefore being placed on the head of the delinquent. graving, that Brand copied into his History of Newcastle.

Ralph Gardiner, of Chirton, in his England's Grievance upon-Tyne, 1789, vol. ii., p. 192. He added, “the brank discovered in the Coal Trade and the Tyrannical Oppres- was then preserved in the Town Court.” A recent letter sion of the Corporation Magistrates of Newcastle-upon from Mr. John Adamson, to the Editor, intimates, “ tho Tyne, 1655, 4to., chap. lv., notices the prevalence of the corporation still retain it." use of the brank in that town.

Kindly communicated by a correspondent from Yar.

mouth, from a manuscript of the seventeenth century in his John Willis, of Ipswich, upon his oath, said that be,

possession; with no other particular than the intimation this deponent, was in Newcastle, and he there saw one Ann

here retained,—“How oulde Mary Curtys tongue was

branked for skandle," a sketch doubtless made at the time • Topographical History of Surrey, vol. ii. p. 331. by some adept observer of “ Current Notes."

that not only endangers the health of the party, but also following is its tenor-the words within brackets are gives the tongue liberty 'twixt every dipp; to neither of added in writing: which is this at all

By the Maior. liable, it being such a

Vnto the Wardmote Inquest bridle for the tongue,

[of ye parish of St. Dunstan in ye West. ] as not only deprives them of speech, but

| The Hospitall and Children poore, your goodnes do con

fesse, brings shame for the

And pray to God to ayde you all, that help the fatherlesse, transgression.” After

Beseeching you as heretofore, to them you haue been kind; detailing the appli

So sitting now in Wardmote quest, to haue them in your ances of the brank, or

mind. bridle, as here shown, CV

Desiring you to further them, and help them with your he continues,-“This

store being put upon the B

Who for the purpose to you all, have sent a bo.ce therefore. offender, by order of

And though they cannot it requite, yet such their prayers the Magistrate, and (Y

are, fastened by a padlock

That blessings heapt on blessings still, God will for you behind, she is led

prepare. round the towne by an officer, to her shame, nor is it

Sweet comforts to all Comforters, the Scripture doth ex

presse, taken off till after the party shews by all external signes

That suocour giues to Widdowes poore; and to the fatherimaginable, humiliation and amendment."

lesse, In the Borough gaol in the town of Leicester, was He lends unto the Lord +1

He lends ynto the Lord that gives ynto the poore reliefe ;+ formerly deposited, pro bono publico, another of these | He's blest that for the poore prouides, the Lord keeps him branks; but it is

frö griefe. now in private hands.

Do good (saith Paul) distribute eke, forget not this to doe: The drawing from

This sacrifice is sweete to God, hee blessings addes thereto; 5 which the wood-cut

One graine a thousand shall bring forth, seven-fold shall be was made, was libe

receive, rally contributed by

Into his bosome for reward, that lookes not back to leaue. Mr. William Kelly,

Good measure full and pressed down, yea streaming o'er

the brim, of Leicester, Chains,

That meteth out with bounteous hand, the Lord will mete or their appliances,

to him. appear to have been

Rich Zache said vnto the Lord, foure fold I'le wrongs restore, attached to most of

But halfe the goods that I possesse, I giue vnto the poore. these branks ; to this

The sweet embaulmed words of truth, that did proceed fro last, a link or two is !

Christ, shown, as part of the

Gives comfort heavenly vnto him that comforts the distrest. chain, about twelve

Me did you harbour, me you cloath'd, you gave me drink inches long, that pertains to the original.

and meat,

When ye relieued these little ones, and gaue them for to Christ's HOSPITAL PETITION FOR Relief.

eate.

Come therefore, Come, receiue the seate prepared for you THE fact that the richly-endowed seminary, the Blue | by me, Coat School, established at the suppressed Grey Friars'

Which glorious seate surpassing pence, God graunt you all Monastery in Newgate Street, by King Edward the

to see. Sixth, should at any time have petitioned for relief, or

And we as incense will lift up, our prayers and will sing, for the smallest sum in aid of their funds, seemsso little

All glory to the God on high, that lets us lack nothing. known, that “the blues " repudiate it altogether, and

From Christ's-Hospitall this [28] of December (1613.] deny that any proof of the fact can be adduced. It is

God saue the King. true, the annual revenue now exceeds 50,0001. but the The petition is thus dated seven days later than the editor having been challenged to establish his assertion, holding of the Wardmote inquest, held in the parish the proof is now respectfully submitted.

church of St, Sepulchre, on the Tuesday preceding, Formerly the custom appears to have been, to trans- being the 21st. On the back, is written the following: mit to all the parishes in London, at stated intervals or Receiued ye xyth of Januarie 1613[-14] for ye Beneuo. seasons, a printed refresher of the requirements of the lence of the Ward mott Enquest of ye parish of St. DunHospital ; and the name of the parish to which it was addressed was written by the clerk, as also the date • Deut. xxiv. 19. These references are printed in the appended at the end. One of these printed petitions margin of the original petition, opposite to the lines. remains pasted among the minutes of the Farringdon- + Prov. xix. 17. | Psalm xli. 1. IIebr. xiii. 16. without Inquest Book, in December, 1613; and the | Luke vi. 38. (Luke xix. 8. ** Matt. axv. 35.

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