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for a new town, and the rapid spread of new and elsewhere, each in its place, fresh and enstructures over the portion of the ancient site tire, as drawn by the last generation of travellers. where the noblest edifices were formerly accu. I scarcely think I missed a single ruin, or even mulated, has permanently extinguished all hopes a single stone, noted by either Dodwell, Gell, or of profiting by these favourable circumstances. Leake, on our line of route, with the exception As regards the Acropolis it may further be re- of such as have been carried off by antimembered that the natural features of this rock quarian plunderers. During the various sieges have at all periods rendered its summit a dan- of Athens at least 6000 cannon-shot or shells gerous position for the monuments that adorn were aimed at the Acropolis; yet, by a strange it; and the wonder is, perhaps, how any por- enough fatality, the only very serious damage tion of them should have survived the vicissi- its building sustained, the fall of the porch of tudes to which they have already been exposed. the Erechtheum, was caused, not by the shot, As long as the capital of the country surrounds but by the precautions taken by Gouras, the its base-in spite of all the present schemes to chief of the garrison, to render it harmless. convert it into a great museum of art—an Ac. Having selected this edifice as his own quarters, ropolis, in the military sense of the word, it he attempted to render it bomb-proof by heapmust still remain. While Greece continues to ing earth on its roof, which, after his own deaih, enjoy the uninterrupted blessings of peace, the sinking beneath the weight, buried under its improvements of Signor Pittákys may continue ruins his widow, so distinguished for her beauty to be successfully prosecuted; but should she, as and virtue, together with some of the principal can hardly fail to be the case at no very distant ladies of Athens, who had sought the same period, again become the theatre of war, foreign place of refuge during the bombardment. In a or domestic, the site of the Parthenon will pro- large number of cases, indeed, the desolation of bably be one of the first victims of its ravages. the war has been, in so far, beneficial to the On the approach of an enemy, by sea or by land, present race of antiquaries by disencumbering it can hardly fail to become, if not the chosen ancient relics of the Turco-Greek habitations stronghold of a faction, a place of refuge for under which they were concealed. The sucpersons and goods. Motives of public or per- cessive sacks and sieges have here performed sonal security will then outweigh all considera- the same service, in stripping them of these untions of taste and virtù ; its museums and tem, seemly appendages, as the aquafortis in cleansples will assord, even in its present dismantled ing the surface of a gem or vase from the filth state, too convenient a material for its re-fortifi- with which it had been encrusted in its subtercation ; and will again be converted into maga- ranean abode. Among the more pointed illuszines or bastions, and their valuables into wea- trations of these reinarks may be quoted, in pons of defence.
addition to this elegant monument (the Choragic • The best mode of promoting the interests of Monument of Lysicrates], which, from its dimiGreek art, as concentrated around Athens, nutive size, tended more immediately to suggest would have been to have made her, not the them, the neighbouring Tower of Andronicus London or Paris, but the Windsor or Versailles Cyrrhestes and the Doric Temple of Corinth. of the new court. The seat of government By reference to the old drawings of these remight have been fixed at Nauplia, or in what mains it will be seen that, previous to the war, ever other position was considered most central both were in a great measure encased in modern and convenient: Athens might have become masonry. Both now stand in the centre of a the favourite villa or country residence of the considerable extent of free space.'—Vol. ii., pp. sovereign. The town being then limited to 93, 94. such buildings as were requisite for the accommodation of his court, might have been so planned If the Turks and Greeks had been better as to encroach as little as possible on the area skilled in the arts of attack and defence, of the ancient city, which would thus have been the result might not have been so favouraleft as one extensive field for the prosecution of the most interesting of all researches.'-Vol. ii., ble; and there is little security that future
convulsions will be conducted with such
feeble and ill-concerted measures. War has The late war, it is remarkable, seems
no æsthetic reverence for works of art-a hardly to have injured any of the great, or chance bomb first made the fatal breach in even of the smaller, monuments of anti- the Parthenon, which had defied centuries quity :
of ordinary decay; and should the Acro• There is indeed nothing which conveys
polis ever endure a civilized battering, the more distinct idea of the excellence of the subsequent traveller would speak gently ancient masonry than the almost complete state enough of antiquarian plunderers.' of preservation in which we still find every We will hope indeed that these are bul refragment that existed at the commencement of mote dangers; and we confess we look with the revolution, amid the total and often reiterat- more immediate apprehension on the quesed ruin of the surrounding modern edifices with tionable proceedings of restoration which which they were in many cases connected as have been adopted—and are, it seems, to integral parts, and in common with which they have been exposed to all the recent vicissitudes be carried much farther-doubtless from of fire, battery, bombardment, and wilful dilapi- the best of motives, by the present governdation. Yet there they stand, both at Athens I ment. As yet these operations have been
confined to the Aeropolis. There can be , be perfect; even if time--and in that atno doubt of the general propriety of the mosphere it would require a very long recent proceedings as far as regards disen- time-should harmonize the new and the cumbering the ancient ruins on this spot old work so as to soften away the patched from modern structures. Mr. Mure, how- and mended appearance; should the sculpever, pleads eloquently, and we think suc- tures be copied by accurate casts from those cessfully, for one which forms a main in England and elsewhere-it will not, it feature in all the views of the Acropolis, cannot be the Parthenon of the Athenian rethe great square Frank lower on the south- public; Signor Pytlàkys cannot be Phiern side :
dias, or King Otho-Pericles. All may look
smooth and bright, and finished—the col• It is built almost entirely of solid blocks of umns may stand
in their ancient regularity, marble, from the ruins of the Propylæa, or of and a well-poised roof protect us from the other ancient buildings in the neighbourhood. While its materials, therefore, are the same, its
weather-a marble pavement may be agreemasonry is also so compact and substantial, as
able to the tread-but the temple in which to require a somewhat close examination before Aristides, and Socrates, and Demosthenes any great difference can be perceived between worshipped is gone; the temple (let us reits style or merit and that of the contiguous vert to our own sacred associations) on works of the Periclean age. It forms, whether which St. Paul gazed from the Areopagus as seen from the interior of the Acropolis or the is no more : we say nothing of the loss of immediate environs, a great addition both to its the picturesque effect of the ruins—which beauty; and in the distance gives its whole out- Mr. Mure, looking upon their yet unviolated line a relief and effect which the other more outlines, is so feelingly anxious to preserve; classical edifices on its summit fail to impart. but we plead for all the deep and indelible The ancient building on which it is erected, the associations, which are more to us right wing or bastion of the Propylæa, is con- than the highest architectural majesty and fessedly but an unimportant constituent part of beauty. That we should have the Parthethat edifice, being much smaller than the one on the opposite side, containing the Pinacothek;
non as it was, is now impossible ; but let us nor is there good reason to suppose that the still indulge the undisturbed conviction that materials of the tower itself comprise any all which we do see belongs to the real, valuable remains of antiquity. Under all these the Perielean, the Phidian Parthenon. circumstances I cannot but think that its demo- We are unwilling to leave the subject lition would be an act of Gothic barbarism, little without some notice of the curious discovshort of that of which its constructors may have eries made in the excavations of the Acrobuildings to procure materials for their work. – polis, the legitimate spoils of which have Vol. ii., p. 66.
already filled one museum, and require
another. Of this museum Mr. Mure No one unquestionably can object to the
writes, reconstruction of the small Temple of Victory, which had totally disappeared since
Among its more interesting contents are the the days of Spon and Wheler, and which architectural fragments of the old Hecatompedon has been completely recomposed from its or primitive Parthenon, destroyed by the Perold materials. The walls, the porticoes, sians; which were found imbedded in the rubthe entablature, with its reliefs , belonging bish employed, after the completion of the
new to a very perfect period of Grecian art, structure, to level the surrounding area. They were found almost in a perfect state of pre- with stucco,'on which the ornamental portions
are of stone, of not very fine quality, covered servation, and replaced with great skill :
are painted of various colours, chiefly blue, red, the whole temple has re-appeared like a and yellow.* There have also been discovered, new edifice ; its white marble columns and similarly buried, numerous large blocks of marwalls stand glittering in the sun with a ble, wrought and unwrought, among which are splendour little short of that which they some colossal drums of columns, originally displayed when fresh from the chisels of destined for the peristyle of the new temple, but their original constructors. Many frag
* No doubt most of our readers have seen some of ments, likewise, of the Erechtheum have the masterly drawings and paintings of Egyptian been disenterred and replaced, and to this temples, &c., executed during a recent tour by Mr. there can be no objection, though we have Roberts
, R. A. The splendid colouring of the pilgreat doubt as to the new Caryatis
, which lars and interior walls of those edifices had not teen
seen with careless eyes by the old Greek travellers. is in process of execution by a Swiss sculp- We are glad to observe that Mr. Roberts is publishtor. But against the restoration of the ing a series of engravings from his delineations, both Parthenon we enter our strongest protest; ing architectural monuments of the Holy Land ; two
of these Egyptian remains and of the most interesteven if, and that is most improbable, the numbers of the work have reached us, and most. proportions of every restored part should I beautiful they are. VOL. LXX.
thrown aside from some defect in the material | dom of making great roads, at very conor the execution. A large portion of the rubbish | siderable cost, where there is no traffic, and in which they are imbedded consists of marble where the communication of this kind does chippings, the same doubtless that once strewed the workshops of Ictinus and Phidias. From not seem to be demanded by public conthe midst of it have also been culled many of venience. This, however, we cannot but that minor class of relics, which, by their very think questionable censure.
He is chiefly homeliness, realize more effectually' to the ima- opposed, however, to the erection of the gination the epoch from whence they have been vast marble palace for the king, while the preserved, and thus speak more directly and exigencies of the state are so considerable, powerfully to the sympathies, than gigantic and even the streets of Athens are unpavruins or high-wrought works of finished art. Such are the fragments of the tools handled by ed, filthy, and inconvenient. We have an the workmen, or even perhaps by the great engraving of this palace, as the frontismasters themselves, to whom these precious piece of a work which we have received models of the perfection of art are indebted for and read with much interest, though of their existence; the lead pencils employed in course, as regards the opinions of the writsketching the design, the chisel and mallet in er, not with entire and unquestioning conits execution; the wooden dovetails that confidence. We allude to Mr. Strong's offinected the drums of the columns, and other contiguous blocks of the masonry of the Heca
cial, and it should seem, authorised account tompedon ; pieces of charred wood, still fresh of Greece as a kingdom.'*
It presents from the flames of the Persian conflagration; the statistics of Greece from the govern. besides small bronze images and coeval fragments ment returns in as ample and various forms, of the inferior departments of art.'--Vol. ii., pp. though in a far more compendious shape, 77, 78. *
than that vast pile of blue books which anmay
here break off our account of nually accumulate on the floors of an Eng. Mr. Mure's observations on the antiquities lish member of parliament, and over which of Greece, which we have kept as much Joseph Hume is brooding with parental as might be apart from other subjects, at the solicitude. We are disposed to make some same time strongly recommending our read. extracts from this work, which in a literary ers to follow him in his Peloponnesian tour poiut of view is very well executed, in orto Corinth, Argos, Mycenæ, Lacedæmon, der to show, more clearly than we could and Olympia. Mr. Mure surveyed the ex- from any other quarter, the actual state of isting state of things in this young king things in the kingdom of Otho. The Gredom, we have said, with dispassionate im- cian dominions, according to the boundapartiality; our general impression of the ries finally established by the intervenmeasures of the government from his jour- tion of the great powers, contain 'in all nal would not be altogether favourable, but 13,887.68 British geographical square miles he gives a striking summary of its peculiar --which are equal to about 12,000,000 difficulties. His general principle seems acres; of these not one-uinth part is prito be, that with its limited resources, the vate property, by far the greater portion primary object should be to promote that belonging to the state.' which is clearly and practically useful, rather than to enter into larger and more tics.
The following Tables will show the statis
The figures represent stremas, one of magnificent schemes. He doubts the wis- which is 1000 square peeks, or as many
square metres. * A Russian traveller of large fortune, M. Davidoff, who received part of his education in this been rendered accessible to the European public by a country, and is now, we believe, in the diplomatic translation either into French or English. service of the Emperor Nicolas, published a few
• Greece as
a Kingdom; or, a Statistical years ago in his own language a magnificent work Description of that Country, from the Arrival of on the remains of Greek Architecture, the engravings King "Otho, in 1833, down to the present time. of which we can understand rather better than the Drawn up from Official Documents and other
These afford far minuter details of the actual Authentic Sources. Dedicated by express pcrinisworking of the ancient builders and masons than sion to His Majesty the King of Greece. By can be found in any other work whatever. The Frederick Strong, Esq., Consulat Athens for their section on the Parthenon is especially curious and Majesties the Kings of Bavaria and Hanover.' Yaluable, and we are surprised it at least has not London, 1812.
No. 4.- Table of cultivated Lands belonging to Government and Individuals.
No. 5.—Table of uncultivated Lands belonging to Government and Individuals.
The number of inhabitants to the square , five years of age. Before they poll they (British) mile was, according to the census take a bribery-oath, which we are bound to of 1836, in the Morea 63; on the continent insert, partly as a specimen of the current 26 ; in the Islands 35. The total popula- official language, partly as it may afford tion had risen between the returns of 1836 some hint to Mr. Roebuck in his Catonian and 1840, from 751,077 to 856,470. Mr. plans to restore the immaculate virtue of Mure gives the population at only 560,000 our ten-pound voters. If it were adminisbefore the war, but thinks this a high es- tered in its original Greek among the contimate; he quotes however a government stituencies of Sudbury, 'Harwich, or Ipsreturn in 1837, as giving 926,000: differ- wich, could its awful sounds be without efing from Mr. Strong, whose returns show fect ?less than that amount in 1840. The population of Athens is 26,237, including the Ορκίζω εις την Υπεραγίαν και 'Αδιαίρετον Τριάδα garrison, 1367, and foreigners, 3573. The <a eis to "lepov Euayyedrov, čre Bedw ówcei tin ngàn price of provisions is tempting. We sub- μου κατά συνείδησιν, και έχων προ οφθαλμών μόνον τα προς
τον Βασιλία μου, προς την Πατρίδα, και προς τον Δήμος join a few items.
Beef, in British money, μού χρέη, ελεύθερος από πάσαν ξένην επιρροήν, κατ' ιδίαν is 2,d. the British pound; mutton, 23d. μου πεποίθησιν, και ότι δεν εδίχθην, ούτε θέλω δεχθή ποτέ Vegetables are very clieap; and the fruit, επι τούτω δώρα και υποσχέσεις αμέσως ή εμμέσως. apricots, figs, and even peaches, are cheaper than apples and pears, at ld. or 1}d. To I swear by the Most Holy and Undivided return to the population : throughout the Trinity, and the Holy Gospels, to deliver my kingdom the small number of illegitimate vote conscientiously, and with due regard to my children speaks favourably for the state of king, my country, and my commune, to the best morality in Greece. In several entire pro- foreign influence; and further, that I have not
of my conscience, independently and free of any vinces there are none at all, in others only received, nor will I ever receive, any money, one or two. The proportion is considera
present, or bribe from any one whatsoever, either bly less than 1 per cent. on the whole directly or indirectly, for the purpose of influamount of births. The climate appears encing me in my voie,' unfavourable to the rearing of children. One-half of the deaths take place at a very Every commune is responsible for the tender age. Teething appears to be a very acts of violence and of robbery committed difficult process.
within its jurisdiction. It is bound to the As to the constitution, the king is a mo- restitution of property, and to indemnify narch in the highest sense, and considering persons wounded by violence, or, in case of the large proportion of the land which is in their death, their wives and families. Some the actual possession of the state, it is im- of Mr. Mure's adventures, and others possible to conceive authority more fully which he relates, intimate pretty clearly vested in the sovereign. He is assisted by that this law has not yet been found quite a council of state, now consisting of about effective to correct the kleftic or heroic twenty members nominated by himself. habits of centuries. The whole territory is divided into com- Commerce and agriculture, but chiefly munes (Anuou) of three classes : 1st, can- the latter, must be the conservative, or rataining a population of 10,000 and up- ther the civilizing, elements of modern wards : 2d, from 2,000 to 10,000 ; 3d, of Greece. On the commerce, as well as on less than 2000,
all other points, the work of Mr. Strong afThe communes of the first class are goy- fords ample details : we will only observe erned by a mayor (Anuap xos), forty-six alder that the mercantile navy of Greece, accordmen (Tiapropor), and a municipal council ing to the returns, exhibits a progressive (ANPO Fixov EvpBoulcov) of eighteen members. increase in the total of the tonnage emIn the smaller communes there is a Anuap xos, | ployed in commerce. In 1841 it amounted but proportionably fewer aldermen and a less to 111,201 tons, employing 18,609 marinumerous council.
The demarchos is the ners. The number of persons employed “great unpaid ;' his office is purely honorary; solely in agriculture is about 100,000, behe receives no salary, and has no exemption ing nearly one-half of the male (adult ?) from public imposts : he is guaranteed, how- and about one-eighth of the total populaever, the expenses of his office. He admin- tion of the kingdom. But though possessisters with the advice and assistance of his ing such an extent of fertile and uncultiTlapedpor and council, the whole local govern- vated land, Greece still imports corn, ment of the district. All the municipal of- chiefly from the ports of the Black Sea. ficers are elected hy the commune. The The two great practical defects in Grecian privilege of election is, with some restric- agriculture are, the awkwardness of their ţions, in all male inhabitants above twenty-l implements, which have hardly improved