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the narrative are convenient vehicles for his theories of political causation, but have often little semblance of reality; while the annalistic form, suggested as it was by the yearly change of consuls, fatigues the memory and disturbs the judgment in tracing the natural connection of events. But these defects belong in a great measure to the literary standards of his age and country, and we should not fail to recognize the merits which are peculiarly his own, his high moral tone and honesty of purpose, the eloquence and pathos of his speeches, the vivid powers of portraiture, and the varied beauties of his style, which have given his history so high a place among the works of classical antiquity.



In order to illustrate the peculiarities of Livy's style, a list is now given of those forms of expression which, though for the most part found elsewhere, recur more often in his pages than in those of earlier writers such as Cicero and Cæsar,

SUBSTANTIVE. Concrete for collective, e.g. eques, pedes, Poenus ; abstract for concr. : in sing. levis armatura, remigium; plur. servitia, dignitates, robora legionum. Large number of verbals in us : trajectus, saltatus, effectus ; and in tor: concitor, ostentator; the same used adjectively, domitor ille exercitus.

ADJECTIVES used substantively : in sing. acc. or abl. neut. : in medium, in publico, in immensum altitudinis, in majus vero, in multum diei, per Europe plerumque, hoc tantum licentice; plur. neut. : per aversa urbis, per patentia ruinis, per cetera pacata, tædio præsentium; plur, masc. less frequent : potiores,

1 Compare Nägelsbach, Lat. Stilistik. Kühnast, Liv. Syntax. Fabri, Liv. XXI. XXII.

docti, mortales, cum expeditis militum; forms in osus frequent : procellosus, facinorosus, and in bundus: contionabundus, tentabundus ; predicative adj. used adverbially: repens nuntiatur clades, conferti pugnabant.

PRONOUN. Alius =ó illos: alia acies, alius exercitus; alter for alteruter XXI. 8. 7 ; nullus for nemo; quicunque, qualiscunque, quantuscunque, &c., without a verb.

ADVERB instead of attributive adj.: omnibus circa solo æquatis, postero ac deinceps aliquot diebus ; use of ceterum for sed, ferme for fere, juxta for pariter, adhuc for past time; unde, ibi, inde for persons; admodum with numerals ; large number of forms in im, e.g. coesim, generatim.

VERB. Affection for frequentatives, often in sense of simple verb : frequent recurrence of vadere, currere, trahere ; form of perf. pass. with fui and pluperf. with fueram ; forem in place of essem ; use of pres, and perf. subj. in Or. obliqua, to give vivid colour to description.

PREPOSITION. Common use of circa, not only for space, but for time and mode.

IN CONSTRUCTION. Frequent forms of σχήμα κατα oúveow: pars magna... nantes, millia ... eosdem, R. legiones...ulti, civitas...oriundi, Senatus populusque voluit, Gallia...iis xxi. 20. 1, equestre prælium...qua parte copiarum 41. 4, scriba pontificis...quos vocant 57. 3; in pregnant sense : blandientem ut ducere


tur, in orbem pugnantes, in prælium rediit ; irregularities in the use of pronouns : remisso id quod erepturi erant, id de quo ambigebatur...eventus belli...victoriam dedit, quod quidam auctores sunt, quibus si videretur denuntiarent ; quicquid used adverbially=quo longius ; interrog. within a final sentence : quid ut a vobis sperent; or participial: quid credentes; suus referring to an oblique case of a subordinate sentence.

GENITIVE. Of possession extensively used : plebs Hannibalis erat, alterius totus exercitus erat, dicionis facere, H. annorum novem erat. Of object with relative adj. like improvidus, nimius, æger; or without, ancipitis certaminis victoria, moris sui carmine.

ABLATIVE. Large use of instrumental, modal and local abl. without prepos., but Livy constantly has prepos. with abl. for motion from a town; frequency of comparatio compendiaria, as spe celerius, solito magis.

DATIVE. In predicative sense : caput Italic, auctor rebellionis Sardis, quibusdam volentibus erat bellum.

ACCUSATIVE. With adj. or partic. pass. : cetera tereti, sollicitus, omnia, paratus omnia, ictus femur, longam indute vestem, assueti devia ; omission of object with verbs used absolutely : transmittere, movere, superare, jungere, incolere, fallere, &c.

ADJECTIVE. Expressing the object of subst. with which it agrees : dictatoria invidia, consularia impedimenta ; with infin.: dignus, obstinatus, dubius.

INDICATIVE. In hypothetical construction, fames quam pestilentia gravior erat ni.

SUBJUNCTIVE. With ut after causa, cum eo, pro eo,

ab eo.


GERUNDIVE. Frequently used in abl. abs. or instrumental abl. : quærendis pedetentium vadis evasere ; sertion of ipse, quisque in abl. gerund. phrases. Cf. note on XXI. 45. 9.

PARTICIPLE. Substantival use of past part. pass. : for an abstract subst., as Sicilia amissa, ex dictatorio imperio concusso; for a concrete subst., as ridentis speciem, strepentium pavores; as object to the verb, id male commissum ignavia in bonum vertit; as subject to the verb, diu non perlitatum dictatorem tenuit ; absolute use in nom. : habitantes Lilybæi ; absolute use in abl. : inexplorato, edicto, auspicato; hypothetically: invicta si æquo dimicaretur campo; future part. to express intention, or assumption : ita transmissurus si; omission of participle, cursus per urbem, pugna ad Trebiam, rudis ad artes; asyndeton in use of part. : pulsa plebs armata profecta ; in comparative and superl. forms: conjunctius, conspectior; Greek idiom with fallo: fefellere instructi; large number of deponent part. in passive sense : pactus, emensus ; neuter verbs impersonally in part. pass. : concursum est, tumultuatum.

PLEONASM. Of frequent occurrence : legati retro domum unde venerant redierunt, novus

rursus de integro labor, ante præoccupare.

BRACHYLOGY. Quo ad conveniendum diem edixerat, ad fidem promissorum obsides accipere, neutros pugnam

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