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exhibit more distinctly its peculiar formation ; trustworthy. We would have, however, an the whole body of the mountain being a solid authority who shall discriminate, on scienmass of rock-salt. The ridge is in general very tific and historic principles, the periods to uneven and rugged, varying from one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet in height. It is which the various magnificent ruins in all indeed covered with layers of chalky limestone this region ought to be assigned. We would or marl, so as to present chiefly the appearance know whether, in Petra or elsewhere, there of common earth or rock; yet the mass of salt are any or what remains of the old Asiatic Fery often breaks out, and appears on the sides form of building, the ante-Grecian epoch, in precipices, forty or fifty feet high, and several that of the kings of Tyre or of Solomon-hundred feet in length, pure crystallized fossil how far Egyptian forms had been adopted in salt. We could at first hardly believe our eyes, those times-in what period of art the beauuntil we had several times approached the pre- tisul Grecian forms, the columns, the porti. cipices and broken off pieces to satisfy ourselves both by the touch and taste. The salt

, coes, the sculptured pediments, began to prewhere thus exposed, is everywhere more or less vail—how much belongs to the more florid furrowed by the rains. As we advanced, large and gorgeous Roman period of the decline of lamps and masses, broken off from above, lay art. There can be no doubt that the greater like rocks along the shore, or were fallen down as débris. The very stones beneath our feet part of the buildings at Petra are of this latter were pure salt. This continued to be the cha- period—the Roman-Grecian of the Antonines racter of the mountain, more or less distinctly and their immediate successors: they belong marked, throughout its whole length, a distance to the Nabatean, not to the Edomitish city. of two and a half hours, or five geographical It is extraordinary how entirely, how inmiles. The Arabs affirmed that the western side geniously ignorant, most writers on this subof the ridge exhibits similar appearances. The ject have been concerning the rise and fall, lumps of salt are not transparent, but present a the vicissitudes rather, of this remarkable dark appearance, precisely similar to that of the large quantities of mineral salt which we after city. That it stands on the site of the ancient wards saw at Varna and in the towns along the city of Edom there can be no doubt; the lower Danube, the produce of the salt-mines of graphic allusions of the Jewish prophets those regions.

designate it with unerring accuracy. Nor • The existence here of this immense mass of can there be the least question that their awfossil salt, which, according to the latest geo- ful denunciations were completely fulfilled logical views, is a frequent accompaniment of in the utter devastation of this hostile city, volcanic action, accounts sufficiently for the excessive saltness of the Dead Sea. At this time and at the time and in the manner best fitted the waters of the lake did not indeed wash the to vindicate their truth. We may surely base of the mountain, though they appear to do presume that predictions of this kind against so on some occasions; but the rains of winter, the enemies of the chosen people, who took and the streamlets which we still found running the opportunity of their danger and depresto the sea, would naturally carry into it, in the sion to league with their powerful foes, the course of ages, a sufficiency of salt to produce Assyrians or Chaldeans, for their ryin, were most of the phenomena.'-vol. ii., pp. 482, 483. designed to raise the hopes of the Israelites

From the foot of the Dead Sea our travel and confirm their trust in their God; or as lers pursued their way to Wady Musa, and to warnings to the neighbouring tribes, and the city of Petra. But their departure from assertions of the superior might of the God of Petra was rather precipitate, on account of Israel. Their own age, the existing generathe turbulent and menacing conduct of the tion, or that immediately following, no doubt Arabs. Petra, with its wonderful ruins in beheld the full accomplishment of these fearthe clefts of the rocks, its tombs, and its tem- ful denunciations. Edom was probably ples,' is as yet by no means exhausted. Dr. swept away in one of those desolating invaRobinson refers to the descriptions of the sions of the great eastern monarchies, which first travellers who visited this city, Burck- enslaved all this part of western Asia. It is hardt, and Irby and Mangles, as the most ac- a very strange way of dealing with these curate. Laborde's views have made the prophecies, which evidently in their language singular site and character of the buildings point to a speedy and immediate accomplishknown to the general reader ; but, in all this ment, to adjourn their fulfilment for five cenregion of Syria and its adjacent provinces, we turies, and then to suppose them fulfilled still want a traveller of profound architectural against a people of another race; and after knowledge, who has studied the art itself and that to permit them, as it were, to slumber the history of construction in all its various in obscurity for sixteen or seventeen cen. ages. Dr. 'Robinson, we doubt not, possesses turies more, before the notice of mankind is a fair general knowledge on such subjects, awakened to their accomplishment. Yet we and his remarks on the different styles of would not be supposed to deny that vestiges building appear, on the whole, judicious and of the ancient city of Edom may be found in

these extensive ruins. It is precisely with This point we conceive to be in many rethis object that we wish them to undergo a spects of great interest—the vast cost of pubmore searching and accurate investigation by lic buildings, particularly of religious edifices, some person versed in the history of archi- during this period of the Roman empire. In tecture. Some of the buildings, some of the Egypt, not only in honour of the deified rock-hewn tombs, even though fronted by a minion of Hadrian, but of the age of the later style of building, may retain traces of Antonines, there are some temples, and still earlier use or habitation. Dr. Robinson has more additions to buildings of the older ages not read the history of this remarkable region of the Ptolemies and the Pharaohs. In Asia with the negligence or blind prepossession Minor the sumptuous temples of Labranda, with which it has been clouded over by oth- Mylassa, and a temple at Ephesus (see Choisers. He is perfectly aware that, after their seul Gouffier, Antiq. Ioniennes) are of this subjugation by the eastern conquerors—the date. In Syria, we have, first, the vast and date of the fulfilment of the prophecies--the gorgeous structures of Baalbec, one of which Edomites either spread, or, as we think more we learn from Malala, * as well as from the probably, were pushed on, by the invasion of building itself, was raised by Antoninus Pius: stronger and more prosperous tribes, upon we have all Palmyra, where we can scarcely the south of Judæa." Here we find them in hope to find remains of Tadmor, or of the possession of the country during all the later 'enchanted walls' of Solomon, but of which period of Jewish history. Petra, in the mean the stately ruins must be confined within the time, rose again to splendour and wealth un- date of Hadrian, and their destroyer Aurelian : der the Nabatean Arabs ; for, notwithstanding we have the cities of the Decapolis, Gerasa, the loose expression of Strabo, who asserts Gadara, or Gamala (Om-keis), Philadelphia, them to be Idumeans, perhaps 'as inhabiting all described by Burckhardt and others. “We the ancient Idumea, there can be no doubt mention these as occurring to our immediate that they are the Nebaioth of Scripture. recollection. They all appear to have been

Now, according to the unerring authority built in one style-a very rich but not very of the sacred writings, the Nebaioth were of pure Corinthian order—but with a size and the race of Ishmael, and the whole of this is massiveness which show lavish profusion of confirmed by a clear and distinct passage of wealth and that imposing magnificence which Josephus, on a point of this kind, next to the might become the homage of the mistress of sacred writings, unquestionably the safest the world to her deities. But some of these guide. It was under this Arabian dynasty superb edifices were raised no doubt, as on that this city became the capital of Arabia old hallowed sites, so on ancient substructures Petræa. It was flourishing at the time of our -Baalbec, for instance, or Heliopolis, was Saviour and his apostles : the kings of this race the seat of the old Syrian worship, and unare several times mentioned in the New questionably some of the enormous stones Testament; and, it is possible (we are pleas- which form the base of the Temple there are ed to indulge in such conjectures, giving them of an earlier and ruder period. So no doubt but as conjectures) that the three years passed in Petra; and the similitude of any of the by St. Paul, after his conversion in Arabia, forms, modes, or materials of the building, (Gal. i. 17) were spent in asserting the doc- with any vestiges which have been or may be trines of Christ in the face of some of these discovered of ancient Jewish edifices, distinsplendid temples, as afterwards before the guished by a man of intimate and scientific Parthenon at Athens, and the Fane of the acquaintance with the history of architecture, Capitoline Jove in Rome. During all this might throw much light on the progress of period Petra was one of the great emporia of the arts, and the growth of civilisation. the eastern trade ; a large portion of that This outburst of profuse expenditure on wealthy traffic passed through its gates, and the temples, in the East especially, during the enriched its citizens. The caravans brought reigns of the Antonines and their successors, the merchandise of the East from Arabia, and is itself an historical fact not unworthy of atfrom the ports of the Red Sea to Petra, and tention. It might seem to show that paganso to Rhinocolura, Joppa, or other harbours ism, at this time of its approaching strife on the Mediterranean. This formed a line with Christianity, had by no means lost so of commerce which rivalled that by Berenice much of its hold on the mind of man as has and the Nile. Petra was not incorporated in the Roman empire till the reign of Trajan; • P. 280, edit. Niebuhr. and no doubt many of the buildings are of † Malala states that the Templo of Antoninus the later period, that age of lavish architec- was raised to Jupiter ; it may have been to Baal tural expenditure, the reigns of Hadrian, the (the principal Syrian dcity), properly the Sun, but

who might be translated by an inaccurate writer Antonines, and their immediate successors. into the supreme deity of the Olympian mythology.

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sometimes been supposed. It displays cer- ART. VI.-1. Traité des Droits d'Auteurs tainly more zeal than might be expected from dans la Littérature, les Sciences, et les decent reverence for the religion of the em- Beaur-Arts. Par Augustin-Charles Repire, or mere political respect for the estab- nouard, Conseiller à la Cour de Cassation. Iished deities.

Paris. 2 tomes 8vo. 1839. It is singular that just as they were about 2. Three Speeches delivered in the House of to be dethroned, or compelled to abdicate Commons in favour of a Measure for an their sovereignty, the gods of heathenism Extension of Copyright. By T. N. Talshould be honoured with more costly and fourd, Sergeant-at-Law.

7o which are magnificent palaces than they were accus- added, the Petitions in favour of the Bill, tomed to inhabit. No doubt the general peace and Remarks on the present State of the and wealth during the commencement of this Copyright Question. London. 12mo. period, the reigns of Hadrian and the Anto- 1840. nines, and the vast expenditure on public 3. An Historical Sketch of the Law of works of all kinds throughout the empire, Copyright. By J. Lowndes, Esq. Lonwith Hadrian's peculiar passion for building, don. 8vo. 1840. must be taken into the account. The tem- 4. A Plea for Authors. By an American. ples might be expected to receive their share New York. 1838. of the public wealth, with the roads, bridges, 5. Brief Objections to Sergeant Talfourd's aqueducts, forums, and basilicas,—and where New Bill, &c. By W. and R. Chambers. the government and the people took pride in Edinburgh. this kind of splendour, the temples, where 6. Observations on the Law of Copyright, necessary, might be rebuilt on a lofty and in reference to the Bill of Mr. Sergeant spacious scale. But in some of the cities, Talfourd, in which it is attempted to be those for instance in the Decapolis, the tem- proved that the Provisions of the Bill are ples appear out of proportion in magnitude opposed to the Principles of English Law; and costliness to the importance of the towns; that Authors require no additional Proand religious zeal, for some motive or other, tection; and that such a Bill would inrather than the necessity of maintaining the flict a heavy blow on Literature, and public worship of the empire in its various prove a great Discouragement to its Dif. local or national forms, must have demanded fusion in this country. London. 1838. the devotion of so much public or provincial 7. Objections to and Remarks upon Mr. wealth to the erection and embellishment of Sergeant Talfourd's Scheme. Feb., 1841. the temples. Are we to attribute it in part 8. Speech of the Right Hon. T. B. Mato that dominant and almost exclusive wor- caulay on Mr. Talfourd's Bill Mirror ship of the Sun which prevailed in this part of Parliament, Feb. 5, 1841. of the east, and which gave two emperors, the infamous Elagabalus and the virtuous Al. We do not propose to argue over again the exander Severus, to the throne of the world ? question, whether or not, on the broad prinSome of these buildings at least, and others ciples of natural equity, an author ought to of which we have records in history, were enjoy the same species and degree of interest contemporaneous, and not improbably were in the fruit of his intellectual labour that atconnected with this new, and, to a certain taches, by the consent of civilized nations, to extent, vigorous form of paganism. We con- almost every other distinguishable and divisitent ourselves with thus directing attention to ble product of industry. After memorable this curious subject. We should gladly here- arguments, in which some of the very highest after be tempted to resume it by an architec- of our legal authorities maintained opposite tural tour, which, on the concurrent testimo- sides, the law of England was finally declarny of the style and manner of building, and ed by the House of Lords, in 1774, to be perhaps of inscriptions, may establish the against the claim of a perpetual right; and it dates or periods of the various noble remains is a grave fact, to be well weighed by every of pagan temples throughout the east. In candid inquirer, that the ultimate legislation the mean time, (without, we may add, hav- of Great Britain on this subject has had a de. ing noticed the third volume, which is full of cisive influence in every other country where valuable matter,) we conclude our observa- science and literature are cherished, and great tions on a work, which, considering the beat- faculties are babitually engaged on the phien ground which the travellers have trod, by losophy of jurisprudence. When the celethe industry, good sense, and erudition 'dis- brated decision of 1774 was pronounced, the played throughout its pages, does great credit

, law of two considerable states in Europe acand we trust, is of happy omen, to the rising knowledged the principle of perpetuity in

literary property. In both it has since been 13

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literature of America.


abandoned. Down to the same period, in tion, acknowledged the author's right as a every other country on the continent the pro- perpetual one, capable of transmission to heirs tection of the author was directly or virtually or assignees for ever. By the existing law of insured by specific grant, privilege, or patent. Holland (and also of Belgium) the author is Now, with a few insignificant exceptions, this protected during his life-time, and the securancient system has been abolished. Hardly ity is extended to his heirs and represena trace of it can at this day be discovered in tatives during twenty years after his death. the practice of any country where any living The old Prussian law, like that of Holland, literature exists. "The English rule of legis- recognized the absolute property in the aulative, not privilegial protection, and that for thor during his life-time, and allowed him to some limited term only, has been everywhere bequeath it to his heirs. If he made no such adopted. When all over the enlightened bequest

, the right of printing the work passworld a legal principle, first distinctly declar- ed to the public; but so long as there survived and enforced in England, has thus delibe- ed any offspring of the author's body, no man rately been substituted for whatever had pre-could put forth a new impression without viously obtained, it becomes us to be slow and paying to them a certain proportion of its cautious about re-agitating the foundations on profits. The actual law (that of 1837) prowhich it rests. Little immediate good, at all vides protection to the author during his life, events, can be expected from disturbing them. and to his heirs, no matter whether the work On the other hand, it seems to be a point of has been published by himself or be a posfact not less deserving consideration, that, thumous one, during thirty years after his though the principle has found acceptance death. everywhere, the various legislatures of civil- In the different Saxon states, and the rest ized Christendom, successively undertaking of Protestant Germany, the protection lasts the revision of their codes, have each and all during the author's life, and for some time rejected the English example as to its appli- afterwards. In one case only is the rule excation in practice.

actly the same as in Prussia. Saxe-Coburg. Our rules, indeed, have been considerably Gotha allows the full term of thirty years modified since the principle was first estab- after death. In several, as in Saxe-Meinin. lished. They are now inore favourable to gen, the posthumous protection is for twenty the author than they originally were. But years : in various others, as in Hesse-Cassel, still they are far less favourable to the author it is only for ten years. In one or two insig. than those of any other great state in Europe, nificant governments it does not extend bewith one exception.

yond six. It is to be observed, however, Under the statute of Queen Anne, as in- that over and above these varying securities terpreted in 1774, the protection of the au- under the codes of the separate states, the thor's interest extended over fourteen years general law of the German Confederation from the publication of his work ; and in gives absolute protection to the author and case he were alive at the end of that term, his assignees, in all territories included in the over fourteen years more. By the law as it league, during ten years from the publication stands since 1814, the protection is absolute of the work. for twenty-eight years, and if the author The two great monarchies of Russia and survives that period, the right revives in him- Austria present in this matter a remarkable self, and is secured to him during the rest of contrast. In the latter, the security extends his natural life.

to the author's death ; but subsequent to that In the United States of America the regu- event the copy has no legal protection whatlation takes this form : the author is protect-soever, unless, by chance, the ten years of ed during twenty-eight years ; and should the Confederation have not expired. By the either he or his widow or an heir of his body Russian law, on the other hand, the protec. be then alive, the security is renewed in his tion is extended in favour of the author and or their favour for fourteen years more. Con- his family over twenty-five years from his sidering how rarely a man survives by more decease ; but if within the last five of these than twenty-eight years the appearance of years the work has been reprinted, the copyany intellectual work of much consequence right is secured to the survivors during ten -and how very rarely, indeed, his life-inter- years more. In short, the posthumous proest in any such property after the expiring tection is practically for thirty-five years. of such a period can be worth fourteen years' Whoever is curious about the history of purchase—we think there can be, little copyright under the old French monarchy doubt that this American variation is in fa- will find the subject treated with copious devour of the author's estate.

tails and excellent skill in the treatise of M. Holland, previously to the French Revolu- Renouard. The principle now in operation

dates from 1793, when the ancient corpora- supporters of the measure, and it can hardly tions and privileges having been abolished, be doubted that when the bill is revived, as and literary property deprived of all pro- we hear it is to be next session by M. De tection whatsoever, the anarchy of injustice Lamartine, the prime minister will redeem that ensued was represented to the revolution- the pledges of the studious deputy. * ary legislature with such effect, that a decree In America, within these few years, a was passed declaring the property of any great number of tracts and pamphlets have work of science or art to be in its author for advocated, some of them with distinguished his lifetime, and in his family, if he should ability, a revision of their code-first, in the leare any, for ten years more. Napoleon interest of the daily increasing and improving presided over a lengthened discussion in the class of their own authors—and secondly, in Legislative Senate of 1810, and the law of favour of English authors, who have never 1793 was ultimately confirmed, with certain as yet derived any profit from the vast circumodifications, all favourable to the author. lation of their works in the daughter-country. This is the law still in force in France. By Mr. Clay and Mr. Webster are understood to it, if the author leaves a widow, or any heir be equally zealous in the former movement, of his body, the property is secured to them and it does not seem to be doubted that, howduring twenty years after his death ; if he ever unprepared Congress may be to pass leaves neither widow nor offspring, it is se. immediately a bill protective of English cured to his other heirs for ten years.

The copyrights in America—or even as yet to code provides for the subdivision of the pro- sanction prospectively the principle of such fits during these vicennial and decennial pe- a bill—some measure for extending the proriods in a multitude of cases—but, as usual tection of native authors will soon be engraftin codification, vastly more cases of doubt ed on the law of the Republic. soon occurred than had been foreseen, and The British publications named at the head Renouard's treatise goes into those which of this paper sufficiently illustrate the difficult have been decided, with much candour and circumstances under which Mr. Talfourd sagacity. Such details, however, are beside maintained the cause of our own authorsour purpose.

The French law protects the with energy, eloquence, and unwearied good author's widow and children during twenty temper—throughout the last five sessions of years after his death.

parliament. We understand that, though he The result is that in England and in all is no longer in the House of Commons, the countries where there is any considerable subject is to be stirred again in the next sesactivity in the production of literary and sci- sion; and we are glad of this, for in the first entific works, save only in the United States place we are confident that every

discussion of America, the author is protected absolute- of it must operate advantageously on that publy during his lifetime; that if the American lic opinion by which all legislation in this law as to this particular point varies from the country must be ultimately determined ; and English, it probably so varies to his advan- secondly, though we are not sanguine in our tage ; but that, whatever may be thought as expectations of any immediate statutory to this one difference of detail between these benefit to the cause here concerned, we count two codes, there can be no doubt at all that with most entire confidence on her Majesty's they are both far less favourable to the inte- present ministers for a course of action in refrests in question than the law of any other erence to the matter totally and diametrically highly civilized region of the world-with opposed to that which the late government the one exception of the Austrian Empire— adopted in the case of Sergeant Talfourd. which mighty empire cannot be said to have Several members of the new cabinet have given one single great author to the litera- signified in different ways and at different ture of Germany.

periods their inclination towards the Sergeant's The Code Napoleon, we see, is very much views—but perhaps an equal number of the more advantageous to the author than ours. Melbourne cabinet were similarly disposed. Within the last twenty years, nevertheless, Sir Robert Peel has never, we believe, com. reiterated efforts have been made to obtain mitted himself at all upon the subject-down such a modification of that law as would put to a not very remote period we understand the French author in a better position ; and him to have professed that he had not found though a bill for extending the protection to fifty years after death, which lately passed The reader will find an interesting paper on the the Chamber of Deputies, was lost in the state of this question in France, in the number of the Chamber of Peers, it was lost by a narrow Revue des deux Mondes for January last

, by Count

Alfred de Vigny. It will be well to compare with vote, and when M. Guizot was not the gov- it a short but comprehensive one in the Law Maga. ernment. He was one of the most strenuous zinc for May, 1838, by Mr. Henry Shepherd, Q.C.

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