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1708. Charles's demand, a legate a latere, to compliment his royal

consort in her passage through Italy, and to treat her as queen of Spain, having given a fresh disgust to the courts of Vienna and Barcelona, the imperial troops, commanded by monsieur de Bonneval, in conjunction with those of the duke of Modena, invaded the duchy of Ferrara, and took poflession of Comachio, a sea-port town on the Adriatic sea, Lugo, Argenta, Canale, Presnero, Magnavacca, Condegoro, Pamposa, Bagnecavallo, and some other small places, on pretence of their being allodial states, belonging to the duke of Modena, and fiefs of the emperor, to which the holy see had no lawful claim, and which were exprefly excepted in the treaty between Clement the eighth and Cæfar of Efte. At the same time the viceroy of Naples forbid, on pain of death and banishment, the remitting any money to Rome, or any other part of the territories of the church; and the council of the kingdom drew up a long memorial of the pretensions of his catholic majesty against the court of Rome, which struck at the very foundations of the temporal power of the pope. Upon the first alarm of the Imperialists marching into the Ferrarese, the pope wrote a letter to the emperor, wherein he remonstrated, “ That these things

were attempted by the abuse of his imperial majesty's.

name, against all justice, equity, and reverence due to “ the Roman pontiff, and the rights of the church : that " they were contrary to the divine and human laws, and re

pugnant to the title of the defender of the church, which “ his famous ancestors had taken as a great honour and

glory.” The pope declared withal, “ That he would alsert this cause, though he should be sure to lose his life

upon that account. But, before his letter reached Vienna, general Bonneval had put his orders in execution ; and, when received, it rather exafperated than allayed the resentment of the emperor, who thereby plainly saw that the pope was so far from offering any fatisfaction, that, on the

contrary, he threatened him both with his spiritual and temThe pope poral arms. And, indeed, the pope resolved to repel force

by force; and, for that purpose, began to raise an army, the command of which he gave to count Marsigli, who was formerly dismissed the emperor's service, for not performing his duty at the siege of Brisac. At the same time the pope's minifters revived the project, which they had set on foot three years before, of a league of the princes and states of Italy, for their mutual security, which was defeated by the terror of the confederate fieet. Nor had his holiness's ear

railes an


nest application to the French king for succours better success, 1708. that prince having, at this juncture, too much work upon his own hands, and his country lying, besides, at too great a distance from the ecclefiaftical state. Notwithstanding these disappointments, the court of Rome went on with their new levies, which were increased by the troops fent from Avignon. But though the pope's subjects drew the first blood in the Ferrarese, and forced the Germans to quit several posts ; yet the emperor, chusing rather the way of negotiation than of the sword, sent orders to the marquis de Prié, a Piedmontese lord, to pursue his journey to Rome, to know from the pope himself, whether he could have peace or war ? in the mean time, his imperial majesty, and the duke of Savoy, by their intercession with the queen of Great Britain, suspended the execution of the orders sent to Sir John Leake for bombarding and destroying Civita Vecchia.

The pope's officers being exhausted, he held a consistory on the 24th of September, N. S. at which affisted forty-two cardinals, whom he acquainted, “ That he was obliged to “ have recourse to extraordinary means, and therefore “ thought, that part of the three millions of golden crowns, « depofited by Sixtus the fifth in the castle of St. Angelo, “ ought to be employed in these prefling neceflities of the ( church.” His proposal appeared extraordinary to fome cardinals, who represented, that this treasure was facred, and never to be made ule of, but when all other means failed: that the present case of the church was indeed difficult enough, yet far from being desperate, since they had to deal with the first christian prince, who could not have in view the destruction of the church : that this dispute might be made up in a pacific way, instead of being decided by the sword.And therefore they exhorted the pope to consider seriously the fans tal consequences of a raíh rupture with the emperor, and to stand on his guard against the suggestions of some fiery perfons, who were altogether for war, in hopes to better their fortunes during the confusions of it. But this representation had little effect upon

the pope, who was too partial to hearken to any advice, that was not for the interest of France; and, most of the cardinals there present being of the French and Spanish factions, they resolved to take out of the treafury of the castle of St. Angelo five hundred thousand golden crowns, upon a folemn promile made by the pope, that the likesum should be again deposited in the same place as soon as the war was

The pope was so highly elated with his success in this important debate, that he declared he would not hearken ta



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1708. any proposals made on the part of the emperor, nor receive

any envoy or minister from him, till the imperial forces were
withdrawn from Comachico, and other parts of the ecclefi-
aftical state, which rash resolution was probably suggested to

him by the maríhal de Teffé, who was lately come to Rome Sept. 13. N. with the character of the French king's ambassador extraor

dinary, in order to infiame the rupture, and encourage the
pope with great ailurances of support. He was ordered like-
wise to try, whether the grand duke of Tuscany, and the
republics of Venice and Genoa, could be engaged in an al-
liance against the Imperialists. The emperor bore all the
pope's threats with great patience, till the (duke of Savoy
ended the campaign, when the imperial troops, that had
been commanded by that duke, were ordered to march into
the pope's territories, and were joined by some more forces
drawn out of the Milanese and the Mantuan. The pope's
troops began the war in a very barbarous manner; for, while
they were in a sort of a ceffation, they surprised a body of
the Imperialists, and without mercy, put them to the sword,
But, as the imperial army advanced, the Papalins, or, as the
Italians in derifion called them, the Papagallians fled every
where before them, even when they were three to one.

they came on, the pope's territories and places were all cast
open to them. Bologna, the most important and richest of
them all, capitulated, and receive them without the least re-
fistance. The people at Rome were uneasy at the pope's
proceedings, and at the apprehenfions of a new fack from
a. German army. They fhewed this so openly, that tumults
there were much dreaded, and many cardinals declared openly
against the war. Upon this the pope declared, that he was
ready to receive the marquis de Prié, who arrived at Rome
on the 24th of October, N. S. however many days paffed
before the pope would admit him to his audience, upon a
punctilio about the ceremonial, because he had no other cha-
racter than of plenipotentiary of the emperor, which, it was
pretende:l, was not admitted at the papal court, This diff-
culty being at lait removed by the pope's signifying to the
marquis, that he would receive him with the same ceremonies,
as were cbserved at the audience of count Martinitz, when
he went through Rome for Naples, to take pofleffion of the
dignity of viceroy of that kingdom, that minister went to his
audience, on the 10th of November, N. S. and, in a few days
after, delivered his proposals for an accommodation, import-
ing in subítance, “1. That the pope should disband his new
« levies, 2. Give winter-quariers to the imperial troops in



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6 his territories. 3. And the investiture of Naples to 1708.
“ Charles III, and acknowledge him as king of Spain.
" And, 4. That he should allow the Imperialists passage
6 through his dominions, as often as there should be occa- The pope

sion. The pope was amazed at these high terms, but submits.
there was no remedy left. The ill ftate of affairs in France
was now so visible, that no regard was had to the great pro-
mises, which Tefle was making, nor was there any hopes
of drawing the princes and states of Italy into an alliance for
his defence. In conclusion the pope, after he had delayed
yielding to the emperors demands long enough to give the
Imperialists time to eat up his country, at last submitted to
every thing; yet he delayed acknowledging king Charles for
some months, though he then promised to do it; upon which
the emperor drew his troops out of his territories. The pope
turned over the manner of acknowledging king Charles to a
congregation of cardinals ; but they had no mind to take the
load of this upon themselves, which would draw an exclu-
fion upon them from France in every conclave, and there-
fore left it to the pope, who affected delays; so it was not
done till the 15th of January, 1709, N. S.

With regard to the campaign in Germany, the elector of Campaign in Bavaria had been sent to command on the Upper Rhine. Germany. The true reason was believed, that he might not pretend to continue in the chief command in Flanders. He was put in hopes of being furnished with an army so strong, as to be able to break through into Bavaria. The elector of Hanover again undertook the command of the army of the empire, Both armies were weak, but they were so equally weak, that they were not able to undertake any thing on either side ; and therefore, after some months, in which there was no considerable action, the forces on both sides went into winter-quarters.

The affairs in Hungary continued in the same ill state, in Affairs in which they had been for fome years. The emperor did not Hungary, grant the demands of the diet, that he had called ; nor did he redress their grievances; and he had not a force strong enough to reduce the malecontents; so that his council could not fall on methods, either to satisfy or subdue them,

Poland continued still to be a scene of war and misery, and in PoTo other calamities they had the addition of a plague, which land, laid some of their great towns waste.' The Party formed a gainst Stanislaus continued still to oppose him, though they had no king to head them, The king of Sweden's warlike humour possessed him to fuch a degree, that he resolved ta


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1708. march into Muscovy. The czar tried, how far fubmiffiors

and intercefsions could soften him; but he was inflexible. He marched through the Ukrain, but made no great progress. The whole Muscovite force fell on one of his generals, who had about him only a part of the army, and gave him a total defeat, most of his horse being cut off.

The elector Palatine was this year restored to the poslefsion of the Upper Palatinate, with the title and rank, which had been vested in the house of Bavaria by the treaty of Munster. And the elector of Brantwick Lunenburg was at Jaft acknowledged as such by the electoral college. The duke of Savoy received the investiture of the Mantuan, Montferrat, and other adjacent countries; and the ban of the empire was, on the 30th of June, N. S. published against the duke of Mantua, which probably hastened his death, which happened five days after. The mediation of GreatBritain did not a little contribute towards the pacifying of the intestine divisions of the city of Hamburgh. But though, at the desire of the king of Sweden, the queen had readily accepted the guaranty of the treaty of Alt-Ranftadt, yet the reformed in Silefia received no benefit from her majesty's earnest interposition in their favour; the court of Vienna, now freed from the dread of the king of Sweden's resentment, pretending, that the Lutherans only, and not the Calvinists, were included, both in that treaty, and in that of

Affairs at Our affairs at fca were less unfortunate this


than they had been formerly. The merchants were better served Commodore with convoys, and no considerable lofles were sustained. Wager de. Commodore Wager gained a fignal advantage against the

Spanish galleons in the West-Indies. He had, on the 22d Salleons,

of December, 1707, returned to Jamaica, froin the coast of Hispaniola, upon some advices of the arrival of monsieur Du Calle, with a French squadron of great force, in order, as it was supposed, to make some attempt upon Jamaica. The next day the conimodore, being then with his squadron in Port-Royal harbour, held a council of war, to consider of the several advices he had received. During the month of January, he sent out several ships to cruize, and to get intellicence of the enemy; and, on the 5th of February, it was refolved, in a council of war, to go over to the Spanish coast. Accordingly, the commodore failed in a few days after to the kers, where he was joined by several other ships and floops. Upon advice, that the Spanish galleons were gone from Carthagene for Porto-Bello, the conimodore failed with such

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