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137. • Of those two let mankind consider him as the CHAP.

III. superiour, whose father had studied the scripture, yet ' for the sake of performing rites with holy texts, the • other is worthy of honour.

138. · Let no man, at the prescribed obsequies, give food to an intimate friend; since advantage to a friend ' must be procured by gifts of different property : to ' that Bráhmen let the performer of a sráddha give ' food, whom he considers neither as a friend nor as

a foe.

139. · For him, whose obsequies and offerings of ' clarified butter are provided chiefly through friend

ship, no fruit is reserved in the next life, on account • either of his obsequies or of his offerings.

140. “ The man, who, through delusion of intellect, forms temporal connexions by obsequies, is excluded ' from heavenly mansions, as a giver of the sraddha ' for the sake of friendship, and the meanest of twice(born men :

141. · Such a convivial present, by men of the three highest classes, is called the gift of Pisáchas, and

remains fixed here below, like a blind cow in one ( stall.

142. “ As a husbandman, having sown seed in a · barren soil, reaps no grain, thus a performer of holy • rites, having given clarified butter to an unlearned Bráhmen, attains no reward in heaven; 143. • But a present made, as the law ordains, to a

« learned




CHAP. “ learned theologian, renders both the giver and the

' receiver partakers of good fruits in this world and in 6 the next.

144. “ If no learned Bráhmen be at hand, he'may at ' his pleasure invite a friend to the sráddha, but not a ' foe, be he ever so learned; since the oblation, being eaten by a foe, loses all fruit in the life to come. 145.“ With great care let him give food at the sráddha to a priest, who has gone through the scripture, but has chiefly studied the Rigvéda ; to one, who has 'read all the branches, but principally those of the

Yajush; or to one who has finished the whole, with particular attention to the Sáman :

146. • Of that man whose oblation has been eaten, ' after due honours, by any one of those three Bráh

mens, the ancestors are constantly satisfied as' high as the seventh person, or to the sixth degree. 147. ' This is the chief rule in offering the sráddha to the gods and to ancestors; but the following may · be considered as a subsidiary rule, where no such ' learned priests can be found, and is ever observed by good men : 148. - Let him entertain his maternal grandfather, his maternal uncle, the son of his sister, the father of his

wife, his spiritual guide, the son of his daughter, or · her husband, his maternal cousin, his officiating priest, or the performer of his sacrifice. 149. For an oblation to the gods, let not the man,

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' who knows what is law, scrupulously inquire into the CHAP. ' parentage of a Bráhmen ; but for a prepared oblation Ito ancestors let him examine it with strict care.

150. ^ Those Bráhmens, who have committed any inferiour theft or any of the higher crimes, who are

deprived of virility, or who profess a disbelief in a ' future state, Menu has pronounced unworthy of honour at a sráddha to the gods or to ancestors.

151. ' To a student in theology, who has not read " the Véda, to a man punished for past crimes by being ' born without a prepuce, to a gamester, and to such

as perform many sacrifices for other men, let him never give food at the sacred obsequies.

152. ' Physicians, image-worshippers for gain, sellers • of meat, and such as live by low traffick, must be

shunned in oblations both to the deities and to pro· genitors. · 153. ' A public servant of the whole town, or of the prince, a man with whitlows on his nails, or with

black-yellow teeth, an opposer of his preceptor, a • deserter of the sacred fire, and an usurer, 154. “A phthisical man,

feeder of cattle, one ' omitting the five great sacraments, a contemner of

Bráhmens, a younger brother married before the elder, 6 an elder brother not married before the


and a man who subsists by the wealth of many relations, 155. ' A dancer, one who has violated the rule of chastity in the first or fourth order, the husband of a







Súdrà, the son of a twice-married woman, a man who · has lost one eye, and a husband in whose house an adulterer dwells,

156. • One who teaches the Veda for wages, and one ' who gives wages to such a teacher, the pupil of a Sú

dra, and the Súdra preceptor, a rude speaker, and the son of an adulteress, born either before or after the death of the husband,

157. ' A forsaker, without just cause, of his mother, · father or preceptor, and a man who forms a connexion, ' either by scriptural or connubial affinity, with great



158. ' A house-burner, a giver of poison, an eater of ' food offered by the son of an adulteress, a seller of

the moon-plant (a species of mountain-rue), a navigator • of the ocean, a poetical encomiast, an oilman, and a

suborner of perjury,



159. · A wrangler with his father, an employer of gamesters for his own benefit, a drinker of intoxicating spirits, a man punished for sin with elephantiasis, one of evil repute, a cheat, and a seller of liquids,


160. ' A maker of bows and arrows, the husband of a younger sister married before the elder of the whole · blood, an injurer of his friend, the keeper of a gaming-house, and a father instructed in the Véda by his own son,

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• An epileptick person, one who has the ery





sipelas or the leprosy, a common informer, a luna- CHAP. tick, a blind man, and a despiser of scripture, must all be shunned.

162. “ A tamer of elephants, bulls, horses, or camels, ' a man who subsists by astrology, a keeper of birds, and one who teaches the use of arms,

163. · He, who diverts watercourses, and he, who ' is gratified by obstructing them, he, who builds · houses for gain, a messenger, and a planter of trees ' for pay,

164. · A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, a seducer of damsels, a man delighting in mischief, a ' Bráhmen living as a Súdra, a sacrificer to the infe* riour gods only,

165. · He, who observes not approved customs, and he, who regards not prescribed duties, a constant importunate asker of favours, he, who supports himself by tillage, a clubfooted man, and one despised by the virtuous, 166. · A shepherd, a keeper of buffalos, the husband of a twice-married woman, and the remover of dead · bodies for pay, are to be avoided with great care.

167. Those lowest of Bráhmens, whose manners are contemptible, who are not admissible into company at a repast, an exalted and learned priest must avoid at both sráddhas,


168. · A Bráhmen unlearned in holy writ, is extin



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