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forming the sacrament of the Gods; for, being em- CHAP.

ployed in the sacrament of deities, he supports this · whole animal and vegetable world ;

76. • Since his oblation of clarified butter, duly cast • into the flame, ascends in smoke to the sun'; from the ' sun it falls in rain; from rain comes vegetable food ; and from such food animals derive their subsistence.

77. • As all creatures subsist by receiving support ' from air, thus all orders of men exist by receiving support from house-keepers ;

78. And since men of the three other orders are ' each day nourished by them with divine learning and ' with food, a house-keeper is for this reason of the s most eminent order :

79. · That order, therefore, must be constantly sustained with great care by the man who seeks unperish• able bliss in heaven, and in this world pleasurable ' sensations; an order which cannot be sustained by men with uncontrolled organs. 80. * The divine sages, the manes, the gods, the spirits, and guests, pray for benefits to masters of

families ; let these honours, therefore, be done to ' them by the house-keeper who knows his duty:

81. Let him honour the Sages by studying the Véda : the Gods, by oblations to fire ordained by law; the Manes, by pious obsequies; men by supply• ing them with food; and spirits, by gifts to all animated creatures.

82. ( Each

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82. ' Each day let him perform a sráddha with boiled ' rice and the like, or with water, or with milk, roots, ' and fruit; for thus he obtains favour from departed progenitors.

83. · He may entertain one Bráhmen in that sacra' ment among the five, which is performed for the

Pitris ; but, at the oblation to all the Gods, let him ' not invite even a single priest.


84. ' In his domestick fire for dressing the food of · all the Gods, after the prescribed ceremony, let a ' Bráhmen make an oblation each day to these following divinities; 85. First to Agni, god of fire, and to the lunar god, severally; then, to both of them at once; next ' to the assembled gods; and afterwards, to DHAN

WANTARI, god of medicine ; 86. “ To Cuhu', goddess of the day, when the new moon is discernible; to ANUMATI, goddess of the day, ' after the opposition; to PRAJAẤPATI, or the Lord of • Creatures; to Dra'va' and Prithivi', goddesses of sky ' and earth; and lastly, to the fire of the good sacri

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87. ' Having thus, with fixed attention, offered cla• rified butter in all quarters, proceeding from the east ' in a southern direction, to INDRA, YAMA, VARUNA, and the god So'ma, let him offer his gift to animated creatures :




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Saying, " I salute the Maruts,or Winds, CHAP. let him throw dressed rice near the door; saying, “ I salute the water-gods,” in water; and on his pestle and mortar, saying, “ I salute the gods of large trees.”

89. “Let him do the like in the north-east, or near

his pillow, to Sri', the goddess of abundance; in the south-west, or at the foot of his bed, to the pro

pitious goddess BHADRACAʼli'; in the centre of his mansion, to BRAHMA' and his household god; 90. - To all the Gods assembled, let him throw up his oblation in the open air; by day, to the spirits ' who walk in light ; and by night, to those who walk rin darkness :

91. - In the building on his house-top,

or behind ' his back, let him cast his oblation for the welfare ' of all creatures ; and what remains let him give to

the Pitrīs with his face toward the south :

92. · The share of dogs, of outcasts, of dog-feeders, ' of sinful men, punished with elephantiasis or con

sumption, of crows, and of reptiles, let him drop ' on the ground by little and little.

93. ' A Bráhmen, who thus each day shall honour ' all beings, will go to the highest region in a straight path, in an irradiated form. 94. · When he has performed his duty of making oblations, let him cause his guest to take food be






fore himself; and let him give a portion of rice, as " the law ordains, to the mendicant who studies the « Véda :

95. - Whatever fruit shall be obtained by that student, as the reward of his virtue, when he shall have

given a cow to his preceptor, according to law, the ' like reward to virtue shall be obtained by the twice• born house-keeper, when he has given a mouthful • of rice to the religious mendicant.

96. « To a Bráhmen who knows the true principle • of the Véda, let him present a portion of rice, or a

pot of water, garnished with fruit and flowers, due ceremonies having preceded :

97. - Shares of oblations to the Gods, or to the • Manes, utterly perish, when presented, through de·lusion of mind, by men regardless of duty, to such ignorant Bráhmens as are mere ashes ; 98. ' But an offering in the fire of a sacerdotal mouth, which richly blazes with true knowledge and

piety, will release the giver from distress, and even ' from deadly sin.

99.“ To the guest who comes of his own accord, ' let him offer a seat and water, with such food as he • is able to prepare, after the due rites of courtesy.

100.“ A Bráhmen coming as a guest, and not re'ceived with just honour, takes to himself all the ' reward of the house-keeper's former virtue, even ' though he had been so temperate as to live on the

• gleanings

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' gleanings of harvests, and so pious as to make obla- CHAP. « tions in five distinct fires.


101. • Grass and earth to sit on, water to wash the feet, and, fourthly, affectionate speech are at no time • deficient in the mansions of the good, although they

may be indigent.

102.“ A Bráhmen, staying but one night as a guest, ' is called an'atiť hi ; since continuing so short a time, · he is not even a sojourner for a whole tiť hi, or day

of the moon.

103.' The house-keeper must not consider as an ' atiť hi a mere visitor of the same town, or a Bráhmen, who attends him on business, even though he

come to the house where his wife dwells, and where « his fires are kindled.

104. - Should any house-keepers be so senseless, as ' to seek, on pretence of being guests, the food of

others, they would fall after death, by reason of ' that baseness, to the condition of cattle belonging to ' the giver of such food.

105. ' No guest must be dismissed in the evening by a house-keeper; he is sent by the retiring sun; and, ' whether he come in fit season or unseasonably, he ' must not sojourn in the house without entertainment.

106. ' Let not himself eat any delicate food, without asking his guest to partake of it: the satisfaction of L2

a guest

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