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The compiler tries his hand at a definition. 6 The first “ nine faculties or propensities," says he," are that species of “ faculties which give that of desire or propensity; they are
internal, and exist independent of the intent or will; they “ are Amativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, &c.; there are, be“ sides, other affective faculties, which are also internal, and “ produce equalization of the inclinations, but which do not “ mean those which are called Desires ; they manifest more of “ the emotions of the soul, which are called Sentiments, and “ will be spoken of under that name and order.” P. 11.
In treating of Concentrativeness in the Outlines of Phrenology, published in the Phrenological Transactions, it is said, “ From more enlarged observation, it now seems probable “ that part of its function is to maintain two or more powers in “ simultaneous and combined action, and to determine them “ towards one object.” In M. De Ville's Outlines, this doctrine is stated as follows :—" Mr Combe, and some of the principal
Phrenologists of Edinburgh, consider that it (the organ No “ III.) has the power of concentrating two or more ideas into a
general one, and therefore call it Concentrativeness.” P. 18.
Dr Spurzheim, in his French work, says,“ D'ailleurs, “ il y a quelque chose d'involontaire dans l'amitié, et elle est
souvent trop prompte pour resulter de la réflexion ; elle est
quelque-fois dénuée de tout sentiment moral. Il y a des mal“ faiteurs qui ont beaucoup d'attachement, et qui se détruisent
pour n'etre pas forcés de trahir leurs complices.”—M. De Ville's editor translates this as follows: Moreover there is a “thing involuntary in friendship, and it is frequently too prompt “ for the result reflection ; it is now and then void of all moral “ sentiments. There are malefactors which frustrate themselves, “ because they will not be forced to betray their accomplices.” In another passage, Dr Spurzheim has the following words,
II y a, en outre, d'autres facultés affectives qui sont aussi “ intérieures, et produisent, également, des inclinations, mais
qui ne sont pas bornées à ce qu'on appelle désirs ; elles mani“ festent encore des émotions de l'âme qu'on peut nommer sen“ timens, et qu'il faut sentir soi-même pour les connaître. Les
penchans sont seulement destinés à faire agir les animaux et l'homme ; les sentimens modifient les actions des penchans, et produisent d'autres actions d'après leurs propres
désirs." In M. De Ville's Outlines the translation is as follows:“ The following twelve faculties are, by Dr Spurzheim, called “ the Second Order of Affective Faculties, Sentiments, viz. “ Self-esteem, Love of Approbation,” &c.—“Of these other af“ fective faculties, which are also internal, and produce equali“ zation of the inclinations, but which do not mean those which
are called desires ; they manifest more of the emotions of the
“ soul, and which are called sentiments, and which must be “ sensible of itself, for knowing that the propensities are solely “ designed to act the animal and man, the sentiments to qualify “ the actions of the propensities, and produce other actions after « their own desires.
It is unnecessary to pursue this analysis farther, every reader will judge of the work for himself.
One word on the phrénological busts made and sold by M. De Ville. In them the organs are not marked in the same manner as on the busts used by Drs Gall and Spurzheim. The founders of the science state that each
organ has received a particular shape from nature, and that, in marking the busts, they have copied these forms as accurately, as possible; for example, in the cast of Mrs H., the two organs
of Conscientiousness are seen rising in eminences corresponding exactly with the forms assigned to this organ in Dr Spurzheim's busts. In King Robert Bruce's cast, Firmness stands out also in the same manner. In Bellingham, Destructiveness presents the figure assigned to that organ,and so on with the others. Now M. De Ville, in his busts, has indicated merely the position of each organ by a small circle, and has not given the forms or dimensions of them as they appear in nature. It will be more difficult to become a practical phrenologist by means of his than by the older busts. Conviction is greatly strengthened by observing the same forms in nature that
the casts, and this cannot happen to those who use M. De Ville’s busts, as the forms in these are entirely artificial. Every head does not present every organ in its peculiar shape; but it is impossible to observe cases in which single organs are decidedly large or small, without recognizing a distinct form, and which uniformly recurs in all similar cases; and, as this is clearly nature's stamp, we cannot see a reason for neglecting it.
We repeat, that we have a sincere respect for M. De Ville, and entertain a high sense of the services rendered by him to Phrenology. Let him, however, not pass beyond his sphere, and forbear diminishing with one hand the good he is doing
with the other. This admonition is offered in perfect respect and kindness, and we know his good sense so well, that we do not doubt that it will be taken in equal good part on his side.
We copy the following account of the dissection of Lord Byron's body from the public newspapers, not because it at present throws any phrenological light upon his character, but that it may be preserved and referred to should any circumstances yet transpire which may give it greater value.
“ The following account of the opening of Lord Byron's body, “ and the appearance it exhibited, is given by the professional “ gentlemen to whom that office was intrusted. asil. The bones of the head were found to be excessively
“hard, and the skull was without the slightest sign of suture, « like that of an octogenarian. It might have been said to “consist of a single bone without diploes.
“«2. The dura meninge was so firmly attached to the internal “ surface of the cranium, that it required the repeated exertions “ of two strong men to separate the outer bones from it. The «.vessels of this membrane were greatly distended and com
pletely full, and it was united to the pia mater in different ‘parts, by some membraneous filaments.
««3. Between the pia meninge and the furrows of the brain, a “ 'great many bubbles of air were found with drops of lymph
adhering in several places to the pia meninge.
««4. The grand falx of the brain was crossed with mem“ "braneous filaments, which attached it firmly to both the he"mispheres ; it was likewise extremely full of blood,
««5. The cerebral medulla was full of minute blood-vessels “ of a bright red colour, and very much swoln. Under the
pons Variolii at the base of the hemispheres, in the two su
perior or lateral ventricles, there was found an extravasation “of about two ounces of bloody serum ; and at the bottom of " " the cerebellum there was a similar expansion, the effects of a "severe inflammation of the brain.
~"6. The medullary substance was in much greater propor, “ition than is common in the cortex, and was very firm and «« consistent. The cerebrum and cerebellum, without any of the “ 'integuments, weighed about six medical pounds.
“ .7. The impressions or furrows of the blood-vessels, in the «« internal part of the skull-bones, though small, were much “ 'more numerous than usual.
««8. The lungs were very fine, perfectly sound, but large, to “ ' a size almost gigantic.
“«9. Between the pericardium and the heart there was an “ounce of lymphatic water. The heart was more ample and “'voluminous tħan ordinary, but its muscular substance was
very relaxed and fibreless. -10. The liver was smaller than the natural size, as were «« likewise the biliary vessels, which, instead of bile, contained “air. The intestines were distended with air, and of a deep
««11. The reins were very large and healthy, and the urin. “ary vessels comparatively smali.
“ °From this examination it was unanimously concluded, by the medical gentlemen who attended it, that if Lord By
ron, from the commencement of his illness, had consented to « any loss of blood, as his private physician repeatedly advised, “ or even if, at a more advanced stage of the disorder, he had
yielded to the pressing solicitations of his medical advisers, sito allow a copious blooding, his Lordship would not have « «fallen a victim to this attack. From the statements marked “:1, 8, 9, it may be confidently asserted, that his. Lordship « could not have lived many years, from his extreme suscepti“'bility of disease, either through the strength of his passions, “' his excessive occupations, or even through his utter disre
'gard of all the necessary means to prevent the effects of con“stipation.""*
Our medical readers will be aware that the appearances mentioned in the first six notes are the product of very acute inflammation, and greatly increased action of the vessels of the head ; and those who have had frequent opportunities of examining the bodies of the insane, will recognize, in the excessive hardness and compactness of structure of the skull mentioned in Note 1, a deep shade of that ivory hardness and appearance which is frequently met with after chronic insanity, and which is known to denote diseased action of very considerable standing. It is impossible to believe these changes, from the healthy state in Lord Byron, to have been entirely the
It is proper to notice, that the account of his Lordship's illness and death, given by his servant, and recently published, shews the necessity of receiving the preceding remarks with some caution.--EDITOR.
result of the ten days illness which brought him to his grave; for a much longer period is required for their completion. The appearances are altogether such as lead us to suppose that his Lordship's mental constitution, his propensities, sentiments, and intellectual faculties, even when in perfect health, must have been endowed with no small share of that intense and almost incontrollable activity which is peculiar to great genius, and which, from standing so close upon the verge of insanity, has given rise to the old adage of genius being allied to madness. At present we shall offer no other remarks ; but, if it shall turn out that a cast of his Lordship's head has been preserved, we may take another opportunity of returning to the subject.
MR ROLPH AND THE PHILADELPHIA JOURNAL ON
When this sheet was about to be sent to the printer, two books were handed in for our perusal. The one entitled, “ Strictures on Phrenology, showing that Anatomy, “ Reason, Common Sense, and Scripture, ARE NOT IN AC
CORDANCE WITH PHRENOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES," by Thomas Rolph, Surgeon, &c. London, 1st July, 1824; and the other, “ The Philadelphia Journal of Medical and Physical “ Sciences,” No XV. for May, 1824, containing a long analytical review of the Transactions of the Phrenological Society. Upon looking into them we were amused to find that they were, in every respect, the antipodes of each other. The first is far beneath any kind of refutation, and we notice it merely historically, as, in after times, our pages will be referred to for an account of all the circumstancess attending the progress of the new philosophy. With this view we select a few specimens of its contents, as a record of the manner in which the science was received by this author in the year