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vines, and the high-way is bordered at so advanced a period of life. There with pear and plum-trees, bent to the are here two towns of the same name. carth with excess of fruits ;

The French Brissac is two or three

miles from the river side, so I deterBlossoms and fruits at once, of golden hue, mined that same evening to depart for Appeared, with gay enamelled colours mix’d:

the German border. The German On which the sun more glad impress'd his

town called Alt-Brissac, is built upon beams Than in fair evening cloud, or humid bow,

a high and rocky promontory of the When God hath shower'd the earth. river, and presents a formidable aspect,

Now gentle gales though now in a state of great dilapi. Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense dation, having been dismantled by an Native perfumes.

opposite fortress, during the French Our course lay nearly south from this and forms a fine representative of its

wars.

It has still a noble appearance, time, and the scene in view contained some glorious features.

On the right

mighty country, hand were the French hills, the high “ With gray but leafy walls, where ruin est in the kingdom, with spots of

greenly dwells.” snow resting on their bald foreheads; At six in the evening I found mybefore us, as far as the eye could reach, self standing by the side of the Molay the fertile and beautiful Alsace; narch of European rivers, and a most and on the left, breaking through the magnificent object it is. Here it is clouds, were the blue summits of the not less than 600 feet broad, and runs Suabian hills.

Proceeding on our apparently at the rate of nearly seven journey, we arrived towards evening miles an hour. Immediately opposite at Colmar, a dirty town, but within a the German fortress, its waters are few miles of the German border, and confined within 200 feet of their nathe banks of the much wished for tural bed, and the impetuous flow is Rhine, which made ample amends for prodigious ; it rages past the dark rock its own inherent dulness.

which here endeavours to oppose its 12th.-Nothing worthy of note oc course, and appears as if rejoiced in curred during my short stay in Col- avenging this violation of its power, mar. I was informed by a valet-de on the low willowy isles which are place, that a huge meteoric stone had scattered on its bosom.

The trees on fallen in Alsace, a long while ago, and these islands have suffered from its that a large portion of it was still pre- force, and bend before it, there sumserved in this town. But where it was mits being only a few feet from the to be seen, I was unable to learn. ground, and pointing down the stream. This valet spoke an uncouth combina- Even those on the banks have the same tion of bad French, and worse Ger- oppressed appearance, having probably

felt the power of the green despot, 13th.- Towards the afternoon of this during the raging of the winter flood. day, I hired a char-a-banc, which is an This gives a singular character to many open carriage, in common use here, parts of the scenery, and impresses one and proceeded on my journey towards more forcibly than any other circumBrissac, a French town on the banks stance could do, with an idea of the of the Rhine. Mungo Park himself strength and rapidity of the river, becould scarcely have experienced a sides bestowing upon it the aspect of stronger desire to behold the yellow an almost living power. Niger, than I did to see the boundary The sun was now sinking behind of “ the mighty Germany.” Arriving the purple summits of the mountains at Brissac, I entered three gates, cross of Lorraine, the outline of which was ed over three fosses, passed under three bordered by a brilliant line of golden port-cullises, and had my passport ex- light, and many lovely clouds, adornamined by an old gentleman who could ed with the brighest hues, were restneither read French, German,or Dutch, ing in the western sky. The Rhine the only three languages of which it appeared in the distance sweeping was composed. He seemed to consider down the valley, and reflecting on its it chiefly in the light of Hebrew, as waters the last beams of the God of day, he begun at the end, and then turned while, on the opposite side, was heard it upside down. A few francs were the voice of the centinel, and the war. sufficient to convince him how forlorn like flourish of the trumpet, warning his hopes were of becoming a linguist the peaceful labourers in the fields that

man.

the gates of the fortress were about to trace of any thing resembling the footbe closed. In the back ground the steps of the human race. If I turned high hills of Suabia were visible, em- towards the land I might walk into browned with the remnants of the one of those deep pools filled with waancient forest, and their broad expanse ter to defend the frontier-if I bent rendered more magnificent, as seen my course in the other direction, one through the medium of the sultry step into the Rhine would be my first twilight. Ere long the clouds of night and last, and I might find myself off descended on the valley; the course of the Dogger-bank by the morning of the river was now only discernible by the ensuing day. What was to be a vast serpentine wreath of mist, which done? I was about to ruminate serigathered on its waters, though its ously on this important subject, when strong and sonorous flow was distinct- I heard the vociferous shout of a ferly audible, “piercing the night's dull ryman within a few yards of my forear," and the wild note of the bittern lorn post. I accosted him in good was heard while she ascended from Scotch and bad French, supposing if her lonely nest in some willowy isle, he were a German he would probably to the still region above the clouds. understand the one, if a Frenchman, Without other sight or sound I stood possibly the other. He seemed to comalone in this majestic wilderness. I prehend both, and with his assistance soon found, however, that I had un- and direction I succeeded in returning fortunately wandered so long and so to the town which I had left a few far among the low brushwood near hours before, my head-quarters for the the river, that I had entirely lost all night.

P. R.

MINERALOGY OF INDIA.

India has been celebrated from a very cannot be necessary to recommend it to the remote period on account of the num attention of the intelligent and curious. ber, variety, and beauty of the gems India is a country which I believe no minwhich it affords. Of late years geolo- eralogist has yet examined, and which would gists have endeavoured to ascertain the doubtless amply repay the labour of the situations of these precious mineral The discovery of new sources of wealth

first scientific adventurers who explore it. productions, with the view of their would probably be the result of such an indiscovery in other parts of the world. vestigation ; and something might perhaps The gold and tin of India have also be contributed towards the accomplishment been explored in a geological manner, of the ambitious projects of those philosoand the numerous volcanoes in the phers, who, from the arrangement of earths Indian islands have engaged the par- and minerals, have been bold enough to form ticular attention of many observers. conjectures respecting the general laws

which have governed the past revolutions of Some European mineralogists are, we

our planet, and which preserve its parts in understand, at this moment actively their present order. employed in examining the geological The botany of India has been less neglectstructure of the Himalaya Alpine land, ed, but it cannot be exhausted. The highwhile others are tracing out the dis er parts of the science

the structure, the tribution of the alluvial and secondary functions, the babits of vegetables-all rocks of the plains of Hindostan, and subjects intimately connected with the first investigating the structure of the vol- of physical sciences, though unfortunately canic islands of Java. Our celebrated the most dark and difficult

, the philosophy countryman, Sir James Mackintosh, rificed to objects of value indeed, but of a

of life-have in general been too much sacin a discourse pronounced at the opene value far inferior : and professed botanists ing of the Literary Society of Bombay, have usually contented themselves with ob. in the following passage, strongly re- serving enough of plants to give them a commends to mineralogists the inves- name in their scientific language and a place tigation “ of the mineral structure and in their artificial arrangement. Much inproductions of India.”

formation also remains to be gleaned on that “ The science of anineralogy, which has part of natural history which regards ani. been of late years cultivated with great ac

mals. The manners of many tropical races tivity in Europe, has such a palpable con

must have been imperfectly observed in a nexion with the useful arts of life, that it few individuals separated from their fellows, VOL. IV.

4 G

and imprisoned in the unfriendly climate of have given to all somo tincture of physiEurope.

cal knowledge. With even moderate preThe variations of temperature, the state liminary acquirements they may be very of the atmosphere, all the appearances that useful, if they will but consider themselves are comprehended under the words weuther as philosophical collectors, whose duty it and climate, are the conceivable subject of is never to neglect a favourable opportunity a science of which no rudiments yet exist. for observations on weather and climate; It will probably require the observations of to keep exact journals of whatever they obcenturies to lay the foundations of theory on serve, and to transmit, through their imme. this subject. There can scarce be any re diate superiors to the scientific depositories gion of the world more favourably circum- of Great Britain, specimens of every mineral, stanced for observation than India ; for vegetable, or animal production which there is none in which the operation of these they conceive to be singular, or with recauses is more regular, more powerful, or spect to which they suppose themselves to more immediately discoverable in their ef. have observed any new and important facts. fect on vegetable and animal nature. Those If their previous studies have been imper. philosophers who have denied the influence fect, they will no doubt be sometimes misof climate on the human character were taken. But these mistakes are perfectly not inhabitants of a tropical country.

harmless. It is better that ten useless “ To the members of the learned pro- specimens should be sent to London, than fession of medicine, who are necessarily that one curious specimen should be nespread over every part of India, all the glected.” above enquiries peculiarly though not ex: clusively belong. Some of them are emi. We intend to lay before our readers nent for science, many must be well informe an account of the contents of this very ed, and their professional education must interesting volume.

HORÆ HISTORICÆ.

No II.

On the Origin, among Rude Nations, of Political Institutions, out of Sentiment

and Passion.

In the history of very early nations, we tellectual power to rest in nothing less observe a singular concurrence of the than sovereignty ; till thousands of Institutions of Policy with the strong spirits were bowed under the ascendnatural feelings of men. Both their ancy of one, and the natural superiforms of government, and those laws ority of mind over these was converted which regulate individual rights into dominion over wealth, liberty, and throughout society, bear a character life. by which we might judge them to owe If we could look upon such an oritheir birth rather to deep-rooted sen- gin only as this, the government, as timent, than deliberating and con- constituted, would appear to us the triving thought; and accordingly, in wildest and most terrible subversion searching the records of their Institu- of all the rights and laws of nature. tions, we do not merely discover the But we look down through the history frame of polity under which a people of mankind, and we discover, that the chose or submitted to live; but in form of government which thus arose, them we read, as it were, the bosoms was that by which alone the societies of the men themselves, their charac- of men could be held together. It is ters, their affections, and their passions. that which the wisdom of- men would

I. Kingly government, not elective, have appointed, if their wisdom could but fixed and inviolable, has been, for have presided to establish their gothe most part, it is probable, in its vernment, for it is in effect that form origin an usurpation. It has been the which the necessities of their condition assumption by a single man of domi- demanded. So that, comparing the nation over a whole people ; and how beginning of monarchies with their reattained ? By the force within his sult, we find, that here, as elsewhere, single mind, of passions ungovernable the fierce and lawless passions of men, and insatiable, giving to Will a pre- in fulfilling their desire, have fulfilled ternatural impulse, which permits in a more important purpose, which was

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not their own : and we wonder to see, man feeling involved in such inquiry, that even the iron yoke, by which the that a necessary condition of the deusurpers of tyrannical sway have sub- votedness of zeal that characterizes the dued under them the strength of a loyalty here spoken of, is, that the nation, was the very bond by which, service to be rendered should be acin future, their restless, discordant, companied with the danger of life; infuriate wills required to be compelled that it is the peril and difficulty of the together into peace.

service that has made its law so deeply Thus, in the most important single binding on the hearts of men. It is point of all history, namely, the Su- plain, then, that the solution must be preme Government of the communities found deep in nature. When it is of human society, we find that which further considered, that much of the would seem to demand the utmost wis- force of loyalty depends on its transdom, effected by mere sentiments and mission from father to son; and as was feelings; and this is one memorable in- before observed, that a superstitious stance how, in looking into early times reverence, in place of a rational acfor the history of political institue knowledgment of utility, is requisite tions, we find ourselves engaged in to produce its high and noble strength, examining a picture of the conflicts no more need be said to shew in what and triumphs of human passions. curious, interesting, and affecting

II. To take another which is nearly problems of human feeling the in connected with it. Survey the world, quirer will be engaged, who attempts and we find, that one main pillar of to understand this portion of political the strength of these communities has "history. Whether he attempt to unbeen the institution of Nobility. If derstand it or no, he will surely be kings have held the people of vast re- moved with wonder and affection at gions in one union, the races of no the delineation. bility have more than any thing else III. If we turn from great political maintained, unchanging, stedfast, and institutions to the laws of domestic life, secure, the frame of political society, we shall still find, that we are read through successive generations. But ing the history of men's nature, not of look to the infancy of society for the the science of legislation. The two origin of nobility, and what do we most important obligations of life to find ? Human wisdom! No; the be guarded from violation are the conblindness of human imagination; and jugal and filial relations. Among many perhaps the generous blindness of hu- nations, altogether barbarous, the puman affection,

nishment of the adulteress was death The stability, the strength, and the from the husband's hand. Among one authority of the noble races of barbar' tribe of the northern barbarians of Eurous nations, is found chiefly in two rope, she was scourged half-naked, causes; first, the reverence of super- from village to village, by the women, stition with which the imagination of till she sunk and expired under their the people very rapidly invests an il. strokes. The purity of the unmarried lustrious house ; and secondly, that is guarded by the sanctity of marriage. legal and devoted zeal with which men It is related of Hippocrenes, a citizen bring themselves to hazard in service of the blood of the kings, that when of protecting power,-if that power he discovered a man with his unmarhave a hold on their imagination. ried daughter, he crushed him bencath

If we could pursue this various in- the wheels of the chariot in which he, quiry, we should soon find, that in with his daughter, rode, whom afterfollowing the line of political investi- wards he immersed alive.”.

The nam gation, we were brought into the re tions who visited with such dreadful cesses of human feeling. There is retribution the stain ot' chastity, were scarcely any more interesting part of rearing up a moral strength among history than that which regards the themselves of immeasurable impos tance nobility of barbarous and half-civilized and power ; but they knew not the nations. Witness the Clans of Scot- work in which they were labouring; land.-Witness the feudal history of they only felt, with an intensity and Europe. Without engaging further depth of which we have no longer a in the question, it may be sufficient conception, the holiness oi' woman's to observe, in proof of what was said purity; and they leaped up in mada of the intimate developement of hu ness to revenge its violation.

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IV. Of the reverence with which the blood. Nature seems to us to require filial relation has been guarded, we this satisfaction. But we cannot the have an admirable example among the less wonder at that lofty and fearless early Romans. They gave to the fa- character of mind which could look in ther the power of life and death over altogether a different light upon the his children. The institution seems act of death, and which in some sort dreadful to us, who have no under- lifted the men above the law of our standing of the force with which the

common nature. great laws of nature are felt by men in How are we changed from our anthe primitive conditions of society. cestors ! we who requite the dishonour We judge unjustly, if we perceive in of the marriage-bed by money; and thai law nothing but the inhumanity guard the pettiest interests of our proof a barbarous people. The Romans perty with the blood of man. were not murderers of their children. Ví. The origin, among rude nations, But the authority of a father over his of Political Institutions, out of sentichild appeared to them one of those ment and passion, may be illustrated in great inherent rights with which no quite another kind. We can hardly other authority may interfere ; and conceive any thing more remote from the liberty given to sell into slavery, government and law than the art of and to put to death, was with them poetry. Yet we find, among some not the constituting of a barbarous nations of remarkable manners, the privilege, but the recognition of a na office of the poet having the name, and tural ungainsayable right;-a nobler, the national importance of political conception, and a policy wiser in the institution. Such were the Sennachies, truth of nature, than that of the Spar- the scalds, the bards. Not without tan lawgiver, who attributed to the reason : when not only the national state a paramount property in the chil renown was committed to their care, dren of its members, and broke up the who recorded all high deeds and virrelation of parents and children to tues in their songs; but the national build upon its ruins an unlimited, but character and valour itself was, in a false and unnatural sovereignty of part, dependant on their skill, who the country. The Spartan did indeed kindled or sustained the lofty spirit of build

up

his invincible state. But the the people by the fervour of their ina state of Rome was yet more glorious spiration. and more heroic, upheld for ages the VII. The illustration might be carried sanctity of its domestic manners, and far with little difficulty. But it is has left a memory to the world, in much more interesting to pursue it in which the shadow of departed power the volume itself of history. One obappears yet more awful in the majesty servation suggests itself on considering of moral greatness.

such specimens as these, that there V. If we would see the minds of men seems to be some sort of energy or in their laws, let us compare with this power of human nature operative in severe sanction of the great obligatory such ages, which is not known to affections of nature, the penalties by times like ours. Advancing civilizawhich some rude nations, of most dis- tion seems to subdue and almost exa tinguished character, have protected tinguish in men's minds those great life. The visitation of public justice and prominent passions which in their on the head of the shedder of blood, earlier condition govern the courses of was, among all the German nations, á life, and even the establishment of pecuniary fine to the kindred : among society. It raises up above all the that heroic people the act of homicide other powers of our nature,

the power was regarded merely as an outrage to of intellect. In the rudest as in the the family, which might be compen- most enlightened time, opinion is the sated by acknowledgment. A wound mistress of life. But in those simwhich maimed-a blowma word of ple or barbarous ages, opinion is the scorn-had each its similar punish- offspring of sentiment and passion; ment. Each was an outrage demande under the influence of civilization, it ing, but also admitting compensation. will consent to acknowledge no parent The greater outrage had only its pro

but reason.

The student of history portionate amercement. Among most may be often inclined to question the nations a different law has prevailed. grounds of this change; and may, The retribution for blood has been perhaps, hold himself justified in

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