Imágenes de páginas

pole across the head of it, and an iron brander fixed on a stalk | have killed our fathers, our brothers, and uncles, and our in the middle of it, for holding a tar-barrel."-STEVENSON's cousins; and they are coming, thinking to surprise you, upon History, vol. ti. p. 701.

weak grass nags, such as they could get on a sudden; and God hath put them into your hands, that we may taire revenge of them for much blood that they have spilt of ours.' I desired they would be patient a while, and bethought my

self, if I should give them their will, there would be few or NOTE 2 T.

none of the Scots that would escape unkilled ; (there was so

many deadly feuds among them ;) and therefore I resolved Our kin, and clan, and friends to raisc.-P. 22. with myself to give them a fair answer, but not to give them

their desire. So I told them, that if I were not there myself, The speed with which the Borderers collected great bodies they might then do what they pleased themselves; but being of horse, may be judged of from the following extract, when present, if I should give them leave, the blood that should be the subject of the rising was much less important than that spilt that day would lie very hard upon my conscience. And supposed in the romance. It is taken from Carey's Me therefore I desired them, for my sake, to forbear; and, if the moirs :

Scots did not presently make away with all the speed they “ Upon the death of the old Lord Scroop, the Queen gave could, upon my sending to them, they should then have their the west wardenry to his son, that had married my sister. wills to do what they pleased. They were ill satisfied with He having received that office, came to me with great earnest- my answer, but durst not disobey. I sent with speed to the Dess, and desired me to be his deputy, offering me that I Scots, and bade them pack away with all the speed they should live with him in his house ; that he would allow me could; for if they stayed the messenger's return, they should half a dozen men, and as many horses, to be kept at his few of them return to their own home. They made no stay; charge; and his fee being 1000 merks yearly, he would part it but they were returned homewards before the messenger had with me, and I should have the half. This his noble offer I made an end of his message. Thus, by God's mercy, I esaccepted of, and went with him to Carlisle; where I was no caped a great danger; and, by my means, there were a great 800ner 'come, but I entered into my office. We had a stir- many men's lives saved that day.” ring time of it; and few days past over my head but I was on horseback, either to prevent mischief, or take malefactors, and to bring the Border in better quiet than it had been in times past. One memorable thing of God's mercy shewed unto me, was such as I have good cause still to remember it.

NOTE 2 U. “I had private intelligence given me, that there were two Scottishmen that had killed a churchman in Scotland, and

On many a cairn's grey pyramid, were by one of the Græmes relieved. This Græme dwelt Where urns of mighty chiefs lie hid.-P. 22. within five miles of Carlisle. He had a pretty house, and close by it a strong tower, for his own defence in time of The cairns, or piles of loose stones, which crown the sumDeed.-About two o'clock in the morning, I took horse in mit of most of our Scottish hills, and are found in other reCarlisle, and not above twenty-five in my company, thinking markable situations, seem usually, though not universally. to surprise the house on a sudden. Before I could surround to have been sepulchral monuments. Six flat stones are the house, the two Scots were gotten in the strong tower, and commonly found in the centre, forming a cavity of greater or I could see a boy riding from the house as fast as his horse smaller dimensions, in which an urn is often placed. The could carry him; I little suspecting what it meant. But author is possessed of one, discovered beneath an immense Thomas Carleton came to me presently, and told me, that if cairn at Roughlee, in Liddesdale. It is of the most bar. I did not presently prevent it, both myself and all my com barous construction; the middle of the substance alone hapany would be either slain or taken prisoners. It was strange ving been subjected to the fire, over which, when hardened, to me to hear this language. He then said to me, ‘Do you the artist had laid an inner and outer coat of unba

clay, see that boy that rideth away so fast? He will be in Scot-etched with some very rude ornaments; his skill apparently land within this half hour; and he is gone to let them know, being inadequate to baking the vase, when completely finished. that you are here, and to what end you are come, and the The contents were bones and ashes, and a quantity of beads small number you have with you; and that if they will make | made of coal. This seems to have been a barbarous imitahaste, on a sudden they may surprise us, and do with us what | tion of the Roman fashion of sepulture. they please.' Hereupon we took advice what was best to be done. We sent notice presently to all parts to raise the country, and to come to us with all the speed they could ; and withall we sent to Carlisle to raise the townsmen; for without foot we could do no good against the tower. There

NOTE 2 V. we staid some hours, expecting moro company; and within short time after the country came in on all sides, so that we

For pathless marsh and mountain cell, were quickly between three and four hundred horse; and,

The peasant left his lowly shed.-P. 23. after some longer stay, the foot of Carlisle came to us, to the number of three or four hundred men ; whom we presently The morasses were the usual refuge of the Border herdsset to work, to get to the top of the tower, and to uncover men, on the approach of an English army.-(Minstrelsy of the the roof; and then some twenty of them to fall down to Scottish Border, vol. i. p. 393.) Caves, hewed in the most gether, and by that means to win the tower.—The Scots, see- dangerous and inaccessible places, also afforded an occasional ing their present danger, offered to parley, and yielded them- retreat. Such caverns may be seen in the precipitous banks selves to my mercy. They had no sooner opened the iron of the Teviot at Sunlaws, upon tho Ale at Ancram, upon the gate, and yielded themselves my prisoners, but we might sce Jed at Hundalee, and in many other places upon the Border. 400 horse within a quarter of a mile coming to their rescue, The banks of the Eske, at Gorton and Hawthornden, are and to surprise me and my small company; but of a sudden hollowed into similar recesses. But even these dreary dens they stayed, and stood at gaze. Then had I more to do than were not always secure places of conccalment. “In the way ever; for all our Borderers came crying, with full mouths, as we came, not far from this place, (Long Niddry,) George sir, give us leave to set upon them; for these are they that Ferres, a gentlema of my Lord Protectorio

happened upon a cave in the grounde, the mouth whereofand consented to, as by appearance, by the Erle of Mures, was so worne with the fresh printe of steps, that he seemed upon Friday at night last, let slyp C of the best horsemen of to be certayne thear wear some folke within; and gone doune Glendaill, with a parte of your highnes subjects of Berwyke, to trio, he was readily receyved with a hakebut or two. He together with George Dowglas, whoo came into Ingland left them not yet, till he had known wheyther thei wolde be agayne, in the dawning of the day,; but afore theyre retorne, content to yield and come out; which they fondly refusing, they dyd mar the Earl of Murreis provisions at Coldingham ; he went to my lord's grace, and upon utterance of the thynge, for they did not only burne the said town of Coldingham, with gat licence to deale with them as he coulde; and so returned all the corne thereunto belonging, which is estcemed worthe to them, with a skore or two of pioners. Three ventes had cii marke sterling; but alsoo burned twa townes nye adjointheir cave, that we wear ware of, whereof he first stopt up ing thereunto, called Branerdergest and the Black Hill, and on; anoother he fill'd full of strawe, and set it a fyer, where-toke xxiii persons, lx horse, with cc hed of cataili, wnich, nowe, at they within cast water apace; but it was so wel maynteyn- as I am informed, hathe not only been a stage of the said ed without, that the fyer prevayled, and thei within fayn to Erle of Murreis not coming to the Bordure as yet, but alsoo, get them belyke into anoother parler. Then devysed we (for that none inlande man will adventure theyr self uppon the I hapt to be with him) to stop the same up, whereby we Marches. And as for the tax that shulde have been grauntyd should cyther smoother them, or fynd out their ventes, if for finding of the said jii hundred men, is utterly denyed. thei hadde any moe; as this was done at another issue, about Upon which the King of Scotland departed from Edynburgh xü score of, we moughte see the fume of their smoke to come to Stirling, and as yet there doth remayn. And also I, by the out: the which continued with so great a force, and so long advice of my brother Clyfforth, have devysed, that within a while, that we could not but thinke they must needs get this iii nyghts, Godde willing, Kelsey, in like case, shall be them out, or smoother within : and forasmuch as we found brent, with all the corn in the said town; and then they shall not that they dyd the tone, we thought it for certain thei have noo place to lye any garyson in nygh unto the Borders. wear sure of the toother.” Patten's Account of Somerset's And as I shall atteigne further knowledge, I shall not faill Expedition into Scotland, apud DALYELL'S Fragments.

to satisfye your highnes, according to my most bounden dutie. And for this burnyng of Kelsey is devysed to be done secretly, by Tyndaill and Ryddisdale. And thus the holy Trynite and

*** your most royal estate, with long lyf, and as much inNOTE 2 W.

crease of honour as your most noble heart can desire. Al

Werkworth the xxiid day of October.” (1522.)
Show'd southern ravage was begun.-P. 24.

From the following fragment of a letter from the Earl of Northumberland to King Henry VIII., preserved among the

NOTE 2 X. Cotton MSS. Calig. B. vii. 179, the reader may estimate the nature of the dreadful war which was occasionally waged

Watt Tinlinn.-P. 24. upon the Borders, sharpened by mutual cruelties, and the personal hatred of the wardens, or leaders.

This person was, in my younger days, the theme of many a Some Scottish Barons, says the Earl, had threatened to fireside tale. He was a retainer of the Buccleuch family, come within “ three miles of my pore house of Werkworth, and held for his Border service a small tower on the frontiers where I lye, and gif me light to put on my clothes at myd- of Liddesdale. Watt was, by profession, a sutor, but, by in. night;

and alsoo the said Marke Carr said there opynly, that, clination and practice, an archer and warrior. Upon ono seyng they had a governor on the Marches of Scotland, as occasion, the captain of Bewcastle, military governor of that well as they had in Ingland, he shulde kepe your highness wild district of Cumberland, is said to have made an incurinstructions, gyffyn unto your garyson, for making of any day- sion into Scotland, in which he was defeated, and forced to forrey; for he and his friends wolde bume enough on the fly. Watt Tinlinn pursued him closely through a dangerous nyght, lettyng your counsaill here defyne a notable acte at morass; the captain, however, gained the firm ground; and theyre pleasures. Upon whiche, in your highnes name, I seeing Tinlinn dismounted, and floundering in the bog, used comaundet dewe watche to be kepte on your Marchies, for these words of insult :-“ Sutor Watt, ye cannot sew your comyng in of any Scotts.—Neuertheles, upon Thursday at boots; the heels risp, and the seams rivc."l_“If I cannot night last, came thyrty light horsemen into a litil village of sew,” retorted Tiplinn, discharging a shaft, which nailed the myne, called Whitell, having not past sex houses, lying to-captain's thigh to his saddle,—“If I cannot sew, I can yerk.”! wards Ryddisdaill, upon Shilbotell More, and there wold have fyred the said howsos, but ther was no fyre to get there, and they forgate to brynge any withe theyme; and took a wyf being great with chylde, in the said towne, and said to hyr,

NOTE 2 Y. Wher we can not gyve the lard lyght, yet we shall doo this in spyte of hym; and gyve her iii mortall wounds upon the heid,

Billhope Stag.-P. 24. and another in the right side, with a dagger: whereupon the said wyf is deede, and the childe in her bely is loste. Be There is an old rhyme, which thus celebrates the placea seeching your most gracious highness to reduce unto your in Liddesdale remarkable for game: gracious memory this wylful and shamefull murder, done within this your highnes realme, notwithstanding all the in

“ Billhope braes for bucks and raes, habitants thereabout rose unto the said fray, and gave warn

And Carit haugh for swine, ynge by bocons into the countrey afore theyme, and yet the

And Tarras for the good bull-trout, Scottsmen dyde escape. And uppon certeyno innowledge to

If he bc ta'en in time." my brother Clyfforthe, and me, had by credible persons of Scotland, this abomynable act not only to be done by dyverso

The bucks and roes, as well as the old swine, are now exof the Mershe, but also the afore named persons of Tyvidaill, tinct; but the good bull-trout is still famous.

į kisp, crcak.- Rive, tear.

? Yerk, to twitch, as shoemakers do, in securing the stitch of their work.


beforehand, we would you caused secretly some number to

be provided; or else undermined with the pyke-axe, and so Belted Will Howard.-P. 24.

taken: either to be kept for the King's Majesty, or other

wise to be defaced, and taken from the profits of the enemy Lord William Howard, third son of Thomas, Duke of Nor-And in like manner the house of Carlaverock to be used.' folk, succeeded to Naworth Castle, and a large domain an- Repeated mention occurs of the Almains, in the subsequent Dexed to it, in right of his wife Elizabeth, sister of Gcorge correspondence; and the enterprise seems finally to have Lord Dacre, who died without heirs male, in the 11th of been abandoned, from the difficulty of providing these stranQueen Elizabeth. By a poetical anachronism, he is intro-gers with the necessary “ victuals and carriages in so poor 3 duced into the romance a few years earlier than he actually country as Dumfries-shire."History of Cumberland, vol. i. flourished. He was warden of the Western Marches: and, Introd. p. lxi. From the battle-pieces of the ancient Flemish from the rigour with which he repressed the Border excesses, painters, we learn, that the Low Country and German sol. the name of Belted Will Howard is still famous in our tradi- diers marched to an assault with their right knees bared. tions. In the castle of Naworth, his apartments, containing and we may also observe, in such pictures, the extravaganco a bedroom, oratory, and library, are still shown. They im to which they carried the fashion of ornamenting their dress press us with an unpleasing idea of the life of a lord warden with knots of ribbon. This custom of the Germans is alluded of the Marches. Three or four strong doors, separating these to in the Mirrour for Dlagistrates, p. 121. rooms from the rest of the castle, indicate the apprehensions of treachery from his garrison; and the secret winding pas “ Their pleited garments therewith well accord, sages, through which he could privately descend into the All jagde and frounst, with divers colours deckt." guardroom, or even into the dungeons, imply the necessity of no small degree of secret superintendence on the part of the governor. As the ancient books and furniture have remained andisturbed, the venerable appearance of these apartments,

and the armour scattered around the chamber, almost lead
us to expect the arrival of the warden in person. Naworth

Ready, aye ready,for the field.-P. 25.
Castle is situated near Brampton, in Cumberland. Lord
William Howard is ancestor of the Earls of Carlisle.

Sir John Scott of Thirlestane flourished in the reign of James
V., and possessed the estates of Thirlestane, Gamescleuch,
&c., lying upon the river of Ettrick, and extending to St.
Mary's Loch, at the head of Yarrow. It appears, that when

James had assembled his nobility, and their feudal followers, NOTE 3 A.

at Fala, with the purpose of invading England, and was, as is

well known, disappointed by the obstinate refusal of his peers, Lord Dacre.-P. 24.

this baron alone declared himself ready to follow the King

wherever he should lead. In memory of his fidelity, James The well-known name of Dacre is derived from the exploits granted to his family a charter of arms, entitling them to of one of their ancestors at the siege of Acre, or Ptolemais, bear a border of fleurs-de-luce, similar to the tressure in the under Richard Cæur de Lion. There were two powerful royal arms, with a bundle of spears for the crest; motto, branches of that name. The first family, called Lord Dacres Ready, aye ready. The charter itself is printed by Nisbet ; of the South, held the castle of the same name, and are an but his work being scarce, I insert the following accurate cestors to the present Lord Dacre. The other family, descend- transcript from the original, in the possession of the Right ed from the same stock, were called Lord Dacres of the Honourable Lord Napier, the representative of John of ThirleNorth, and were barons of Gilsland and Graystock. A chief- staine. tain of the latter branch was warden of the West Marches

JAMES Rex. during the reign of Edward VI. He was a man of a hot and We James, by the grace of God, King of Scottis, considerobstinate character, as appears from some particulars of and the ffaith and guid servis of of of' right traist friend John Lord Surrey's letter to Henry VIII., giving an account of his Scott of Thirlestanc, quha cummand to our hoste at Soutrabehaviour at the siogo and storm of Jedburgh. It is printed edge, with three score and ten launcieres on horseback of his in the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, Appendix to the In friends and followers, and beand willing to gang with ws into troduction.

England, when all our nobles and others refused, he was ready to stake at all our bidding; ffor the quhilk cause, it is our will, and we doe straitlie command and charg our lion herauld and his deputies for the time beand, to give and to

graunt to the said John Scott, ane Border of fieure de lises NOTE 3 B.

about his coatte of armes, sik as is on our royal banner, and

alsua ane bundell of launces above his helmet, with thir words, The German hackbut-men.-P. 24.

Readdy, ay Readdy, that he and all his aftercummers may

bruik the samine as a pledge and taiken of our guid will and In the wars with Scotland, Henry VIII. and his successors kyndnes for his true worthines ; and thir our letters seen, yo employed numerous bands of mercenary troops. At the bat nae waes failzie to doe. Given at Ffalla Muire, under our tle of Pinky, there were in the English army six hundred hand and privy cashet, tho xxvii day of July, m c and xxxü hackbatters on foot, and two hundred on horseback, com- zeires. By tho King's graces speciall ordinance. posed chiefly of foreigners. On the 27th of September, 1549,

“ Jo. ARSKINE." the Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector, writes to the Lord Dacre, warden of the West Marches :-" The Almains, in

On the back of the charter is written, number two thousand, very valiant soldiers, shall be sent to “Edin. 14 January, 1713. Registred, conform to the act of you shortly from Newcastle, together with Sir Thomas Hol- parliament made anent probative writs, per M‘Kaile, pror. croft, and with the force of your wardenry, (which wo would and produced by Alexander Borthwick, servar to Sir Wil. were advanced to the most strength of horsemen that might liam Scott of Thirlestane. M. L. J.” be,) shall make the attempt to Loughmaben, being of no such strength but that it may be skailed with ladders, whercof,

i Sic in orig.


Of milder mood the gentle captive grew,

Nor loved the scenes that scared his infant view;
An oged Knight, to darger steerd,

In vales remote, from camps and castles far,
With many a moss-trooper came on;

He shunn'd the fearful shuddering joy of war;
And azure in a golden field,

Content the loves of simple swains to sing,
The stars and crescent graced his shield,

Or wake to fame the harp's heroic string.
Without the bend of Nurdieston.-P. 25.

“ His are the strains, whose wandering echoes thrill
The family of Harden are descended from a younger son of The shepherd, lingering on the twilight hill,
the Laird of Buccleuch, who fourisbed before the estate of When evening brings the mcrry folding hours,
Murdieston was acquired by the marriage of one of those And sun-eyed daisies close their winking flowers.
chieftains with the heiress, in 1296. Hence they bear the cog. He lived o'er Yarrow's Flower to shed the tear,
nizance of the Scotts upon the field; whereas those of the To strew the holly leaves o'er Harden's bier :
Buccleuch are disposed upon a bend dexter, assumed in con But none was found above the minstrel's tomb,
sequence of that marriage.-See GLADSTAJNE of Whitelawe's Emblem of peace, to bid the daisy bloom :
NISS., and Scott of Stokoe's Pedigree, Newcastle, 1783. He, nameless as the race from which he sprung,

Walter Scott of Harden, who flourished during the reign of Saved other names, and left his own unsung.'
Queen Mary, was a renowned Border freebooter, concerning
whom tradition has preserved a variety of anecdotes, some of
which have been published in the Afinstrelsy of the Scottish
Border; others in Leyden's Scenes of Infancy; and others,
more lately, in The Mountain Bard, a collection of Border

ballads by Mr. James Hogg. The bugle-horn, said to have
been used by this formidable leader, is preserved by his des-

Scotts of Eskdale, a stalwart band.-P. 25. cendant, the present Mr. Scott of Harden. His castle was situated upon the very brink of a dark and precipitous dell, In this, and the following stanzas, some account is given of through which a scanty rivulet steals to meet the Borthwick. the modo in which the property in the valley of Esk was transIn the recess of this glen he is said to have kept his spoil, ferred from the Beattisons, its ancient possessors, to the name which served for the daily maintenance of his retainers, until of Scott. It is needless to repeat the circumstances, which the production of a pair of clean spurg, in a covered dish, an are given in the poem, literally as they have been preserved nounced to the hungry band, that they must ride for a supply by tradition. Lord Maxwell, in the latter part of the sixof provisions. He was married to Mary Scott, daughter of teenth century, took upon himself the title of Earl of MorPhilip Scott of Dryhope, and called in song the Flower of ton. The descendants of Beattison of Woodkerrick, who Yarrow. He possessed a very extensive estate, which was aided the Earl to escape from his disobedient vassals, contidivided among his five sons. There are numerous descond-nued to hold these lands within the memory of man, and were ants of this old marauding Baron. The following beautiful the only Beattisons who had property in the dale. The old passage of Leyden's Scenes of Infancy, is founded on a tradi- people give locality to the story, by showing the Galliard's tion respecting an infant captive, whom Walter of Harden Haugh, the place where Buccleuch's men were concealed, &c. carried off in a predatory incursion, and who is said to have become the author of some of our most beautiful pastoral songs:


Their gathering word was Bellenden.-P. 26.

“Where Bortha hoarse, that loads the meads with

Rolls her red tide to Teviot's western strand,
Through slaty hills, whose sides are shagg’d with thorn,
Where springs, in scatter'd tufts, the dark-green corn,
Towers wood-girt Harden, far above the vale,
And clouds of ravens o'er the turrets sail.
A hardy race, who never shrunk from war,
Tho Scott, to rival realms a mighty bąr,
Here fixed his mountain home ;-a wide domain,
And rich the soil, had purple heath been grain ;
But what the niggard ground of wealth denied,
From fields more bless-d his fearless arm supplied.

Bellenden is situated near the head of Borthwick water, and being in the centre of the possessions of the Scotts, was frequently used as their place of rendezvous and gathering word.-Survey of Selkirkshire, in Macfarlane's MSS., Advocates' Library. Hence Satchells calls one part of his genealogical account of the families of that clan, his Bellenden.

Note 3 G.

The camp their home, their law the stoord,
They knew no country, own'd no lord.-P. 27.

“ The waning harvest-moon shone cold and bright;
The warder's horn was heard at dead of night;
And as the massy portals wide were flung,
With stamping hoofs the rocky pavement rung.
What fair, half veil'd, leans from her latticed hall,
Where red the wavering gleams of torchlight fall?
'Tis Yarrow's fairest flower, who, through the gloom,
Looks, wistful, for her lover's dancing plume.
Amid the piles of spoil, that strew'd the ground,
Her ear, all anxious, caught a wailing sound;
With trembling haste the youthful matron flew,
And from the hurried heaps an infant drew.

The mercenary adventurers, whom, in 1380, the Earl of Cambridge carried to the assistance of the King of Portugal against the Spaniards, mutinied for want of regular pay. At an assembly of their leaders, Sir John Soltier, a natural son of Edward the Black Prince, thus addressed them:““I counBayle, let us be alle of one alliance, and of one accorde, and let us among ourselves reyse up the banner of St. George, and let us be frendes to God, and enemyes to alle the worlde ; for without we make ourselfe to be feared, we gete nothynge.'

** By my fayth,' quod Sir William Helmon, 'ye saye right well, and so let us do.' They all agreed with one voyce, and

“Scared at the light, his little hands he flung Around her neck, and to der bosom clung; While beauteous Mary soothed, in accents mild, His fluttering soul, and clasp'a her foster child.

80 regarded among them who shulde be their capitayne. Then engagement, contained in an ancient MS. in the Advocatos they advysed in the case how they coude nat have a better Library, and edited by Mr. Dalyell, in Godly Sangs and Bab capitayne than Sir John Soltier. For they sulde than have lets, Edin. 1802. good leyser to do yvel, and they thought he was more metelyer thereto than any other. Then they raised up the penon of St. George, and cried, “A Soltier ! a Soltier! the valyaunt bastarde! frendes to God, and enemies to all the worlde!'"

NOTE 3 L. PROISSART, vol. i. ch. 393.

When English blood swelld Ancram's ford.-P. 21

The battle of Ancram Moor, or Penielheuch was fought

A. D. 1545. The English, commanded by Sir Ralph Evers, NOTE 3 H.

and Sir Brian Latoun, were totally routed, and both their

leaders slain in the action. The Scottish army was comThat he may suffer march-trcuson pain.-P. 28. manded by Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, assisted by the

Laird of Buccleuch and Norman Lesley. Several species of offences, peculiar to the Border, constituted what was called march-treason. Among others, was the crime of riding, or causing to ride, against the opposite country during the time of truce. Thus, in an indenture made at the water of Eske, beside Saloja, on the 25th day of March,

NOTE 3 M. 1334, betwixt noble lords and mighty, Sirs Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and Archibald Douglas, Lord of Gallo

For who, in field or foray slack, way, a truce is agreed upon until the 1st day of July; and it

Saw the blanche lion e'er full back ?—P. 29. is expressly accorded, “ Gif ony stellis authir on the ta part, or on the tothyr, that he shall be hanget or hcofdit; and gif This was the cognizance of the noble house of Howard in all ony company stellis any gudes within the trieux beforesayd, its branches. The crest, or bearing, of a warrior, was often ane of that company sall be hanget or heofdit, and the rem used as a nomme de guerre. Thus Richard III. acquired his nant sall restore the gudys stolen in the dubble." - History of well-known epithet, The Boar of York. In the violent satire Westmoreland and Cumberland, Introd. p. xxxix.

on Cardinal Wolsey, written by Roy, commonly, but erro. neously, imputed to Dr. Bull, the Duke of Buckingham is called the Beautiful Swan, and the Duke of Norfolk, or Earl of Surrey, the White Lion. As the book is extremely rare,

and the whole passage relates to the emblematical interpretaNOTE 3 I.

tion of heraldry, it shall be here given at length.


The Description of the Armes. will cleanse him, by oath, of march-treason stain.-P. 28.

“Of the proud Cardinal this is the shelde,

Borne up betweene two angels of Sathan;
In dubious cases, the innocence of Border criminals was The six bloudy axes in a bare felde,
occasionally referred to their own oath. The form of excus Showeth the cruelte of the red man,
ing bills, or indictments, by Border oath, ran thus: “You Which hath devoured the Beautiful Swan,
sball swear by heaven above you, hell beneath you, by your Mortal enemy unto the Whyte Lion,
part of Paradise, by all that God made in six days and seven Carter of Yorke, the vyle butcher's sonne,
nights, and by God himself, you are whart out sackless of art, The six bulles heddes in a felde blacke,
part, way, witting, ridd, kenning, baving, or recetting of any Betokeneth his stordy furiousness,
of the goods and cattels named in this bill. So help you God." Wherefore, the godly lyght to put abacke,
-History of Cumberland, Introd. p. xxv,

He bryngeth in his dy vlish darcness;
The bandog in the middes doth expresse
The mastiff curre bred in Ypswich towne,
Gnawynge with his teth a kinges crowne.

The cloubbe signifieth playne his tiranny,

Covered over with a Cardinall's hatt,

Wherein shall be fulfilled the prophecy,
Knighthood he took of Douglas sword.-P. 28.

Aryse up, Jacke, and put on thy salatt,

For the tyme is come of bagge and walatt. The dignity of knighthood, according to the original institu The temporall chevalry thus thrown doune, tion, had this peculiarity, that it did not flow from the mo Wherefor, prest, take hede, and beware thy crowne." narch, but could be conforred by one who himself possessed it, upon any squire who, after due probation, was found to merit There were two copies of this very scarce satire in the library the honour of chivalry. Latterly, this power was confined to of the late John, Duke of Roxburghe. See an account of ! gonerals, who were wont to create knights bannerets after or also in Sir Egerton Brydges' curious miscellany, the Cenoura before an engagement. Even so late as the reign of Queen Literaria. Elizabeth, Essex highly offended his jealous sovereign by the indiscriminate exertion of this privilege. Among others, he knighted the witty Sir John Harrington, whose favour at court was by no means enhanced by his new honours.—See the

NOTE 3 N. Nuge Antiquæ, edited by Mr. Park. But probably the latest instance of knighthood, conferred by a subject, was in the case

Let Musgrave meet fierce Delorame of Thomas Ker, knighted by the Earl of Huntly, after the

In single fight.

P. 29. defeat of the Earl of Argyle in the battle of Belrinnes. The fact is attested, both by a poetical and prose account of the It may easily be supposed, that trial by single combat, so

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