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bosoming mass, the very same, and lying in just such clusters, as those imbedded in the earth around them; that pudding stone is formed by the efficacy of a fluid, cementing, and thus petrifying, the earth; and that its substance was not vegetable matter.

The well-bred people of Newport have the same polished, agrecable manners, which prevail along the Eastern coast of Massachusetts. The decay of business has produced here its customary consequences. The men of wealth live by loaning their money, without entering, in any great degree, into active, useful business. The poor people catch fish for their sustenance, and lounge, and saunter, for their pleasure. This state of things is unnecessary, and unhappy.

Religion and morals are, here, not on a high scale. In the church, where we attended divine service, there were perhaps thirty persons present in the morning, and in the afternoon, not more than sixty or seventy. The day was wet; but the streets are paved; the members of the congregation live at little distances from the church; and the minister is respected and beloved. I was informed, that in all the other churches, except one belonging to the Baptists, the attendance is usually thin.

The people of Newport are in general not very friendly to the college in Providence. For this, the following reason was mentioned to me. When the college was in projection, it was proposed to place it where the largest subscription should be obtained. Newport contributed the greatest sum: yet it was placed at Providence; and the resentment of the people of Newport has not subsided.

In a former part of these letters I mentioned that I would give some account of the fish, found on the coasts of New-England. Newport is acknowledged to be the best fish market in the United States. The following list of the fish, caught in the neighbouring waters, was furnished me by my friend Mr. S. of this town.

*5. Blue Fish,

6. Brill,

*1. Alewife,
*2. Anchovy,
*3. Bass,
*4. Sea Bass,

*7. Bonetta,
3. Bill Fish,

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9. Chiving, 10. Cusk,

*11. Cauchogset, 12. Cutfish,

13. Cravalley, *14. Mud Clam, *15. Beach Clam, 16. Cockle,

17. Conckle, *18. Green Crab,

19. Sand Crab,

*20. Sea Crab,
21. Spider Crab,

22. King Crab, 23. Running Crab, *24. Drum,

25. Dace,

26. Dog Fish, 27. Egg Fish,

*28. Sea Eel,

29. Sand Eel, *30. Lamprey Eel,

*31. Common Eel,

*32. Flounder,
#33. Frost Fish,
*34. Flying Fish,

35. Grunt,

*36. Haddock,

*37. Hake,

*38. Halibut,

*39. English Herring,

40. Lancet,

41. Limpet, *42. Lobster, 43. Maid, *44. Mullet.

*45. Black Muscle,

*46. Pale Muscle,

*47. Manhaden,

*48. Round Mackarel, *49. Small do.

*50. Spanish do.

*51. Large-horse do.

*52. Oyster,

#53. Plaice,

*54. Pout,

*55. Pike,

*56. Pumpkin Fish,

*57. Pollock,

*58. Sea perch,

*59. Pond do.

60. Porpoise,

61. Periwinkle,

*62. Quahaug,

*63. Rudder Fish.

*64. Roach, 65. Seal,

66. Shark,

67. Sting Ray,

68. Skip Jack,

*69. Scuppague,

*70. Succoteague,

*71. Sturgeon,
*72. Sheepshead.
*73. Salmon,

74. Skate,

*75. Shad,

*76. Smelt,

77. Soal,

78. Sucking Fish.

*79. Silver Fish.

*80. Escallop.

81. Squid, *82. Shrimp,

*83. Shiner,

*97. Whiting,
*98. Winkle,

99. Wilke,
100. Yellow belly,

84. Sea Snail,

85. Sager,

86. Sword Fish,

87. Tarpum,

*88. Tautaug or Black Fish, *104. Redfin Perch,

89. Thorn Back,

*90. Tom Cod,

*91. Trout,
*92. Mud Turtle,

*93. Toad Turtle,

*94. Terrapin.

*95. Loggerhead Turtle, 96. Toad Fish,

*101. Cod Fish.

*102. Dolphin,

103. Whale,

105. Sun Fish, two sorts,

106. Pickerel,

107. Portuguese man of war,

108. Horse-foot,

109. Razor-handle Clam,
110. Fresh-water Clam,

*111. Fresh-water Sucker,

112. Star fish or Five finger.

Mr. S. subjoins to this list the following observations. "Some of the fish named in the above schedule, have been seen here but seldom. The Horse Mackarel formerly frequented this coast in immense numbers, and in the season were constantly to be found in the market. But about the close of the Revolutionary war they forsook our waters, and have not made their appearance since. They were esteemed a great delicacy; and are the largest of the mackarel species. I have prefixed an asterisk to the names of those, which have been found fit for the table. Those annexed to the following numbers are in their season generally to be found in the Newport market. No. 3, 4, 5, 11, 14, 18, 30, 31, 33, 36, 38, 42, 48, 49, 52, 53, 62, 72, 88, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 101, 104.

On a skirt of this town is the foundation of a wind-will, erected some time in the seventeenth century. The cement of this work, formed of shell lime and beach gravel, has all the firmness of Roman mortar; and when broken off, frequently brings with it a part of the stone. Time has made no impression on it, except to increase its firmness. It would be an improvement in the art of building in this country, if mortar, made in the same manner, were to be generally employed.

Newport has always been esteemed one of the healthiest spots in America. The air of this island is almost absolutely sea air; is damp; often replenished with mists; less cold than the neighbouring continent in the winter, and less warm in the summer. The temperature resembles in some degree that of England. Whatever is the cause, it has long enjoyed this reputation; and has accordingly been a place of great resort; especially from the Southern States and the West-Indies.

Newport has ever subsisted by commerce; and is still to a considerable extent employed in various kinds of commercial business. It is the port of entry, if I mistake not, for most of the trading towns in the State, Providence excepted. The following is an abstract of the duties, collected here for ten years.

Duties. Years.

$205,153 1806
173,067 1807

134,605 1808

136,511 1809
222,525 1810













This town was settled, in 1639, by Mr. William Coddington, and seventeen others. These men, together with Mr. Vane, afterwards Sir Henry Vane, favoured the peculiar tenets of Mrs. Hutchinson. As these tenets became more and more unpopular, Mr. Coddington, who had been a Councillour in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, and been held in much reputation, was unwilling to continue in a country, where his character and influence had materially declined. In the year 1637, he and his companions purchased this island, then known by the Indian name of Aquidnec, or Aquetnec. Here he soon after settled himself, with several of his associates. Mr. Hutchinson speedily followed him with his family; and by the zeal and activity of his wife, was chosen Governour in the place of Mr. Coddington; whom this restless, turbulent woman, incapable of any enjoyment, unless when controlling both the civil and ecclesiastical affairs of the community, in which she lived, persuaded the inhabitants to lay aside. Mr. Hutchinson died in 1642; and Mrs. Hutchinson removed to Manhattan, afterwards.

New-York. Mr. Coddington was then reinstated, and continued to be respected until his death. From the effects of Mrs. Hutchinson's conduct on himself, he probably learned moderation and wisdom. The Colony does not appear to have been molested by the Indians. In truth, the inhabitants were secured by the strength and bravery of the other Colonies; which, however, placed no confidence either in them, or in their neighbours at Providence, and would never receive them into their union.

I am, Sir, yours, &c.

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