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PHILOLOGICAL NOTES. (a) Nishțhā. Telang translates it by “path.” Sankara's gloss is “two kinds of fixed rule.” Lassen's version is “vitæ institutum.”

(6) Prajāpati, Lord of creatures, a title of Brahmā as the creative power; comparatively of late introduction. It is found only once in the Rig-Veda, but often in later works. “This adorable and gracious God, Lord of all creatures, is known as Brahmā, S'iva, Rudra, Varuna, Agni, Prajāpati”. (Mahābh. Anuś.-parvan, 4112). "Prajāpati created living beings. From his upper vital airs he created the gods; from his lower vital airs, mortal creatures. Afterwards he created death, the destroyer of creatures" (Sat. Brāh. x. 1; Sans. T. iv. 55).

(c) Kāmaduk. Compounds of which the last member is the root of a verb have always an active force (Lassen). It means “that which causes (the object of) desire to issue.”

(d) Vyapāśraya, lit. the act of taking refuge. “Auxilii ullius expectatio” (Lassen); "object of use” (Thomson); “son secours” (Burnouf). The meaning is, that he need not seek for refuge or help among any of mankind, because he is independent of all human aid. The Peters. Dict. renders it by “ zuflucht,” “zufluchtsstätte."

(e) A sakta, “unattached,” i.e., free from the entanglements of sensuous things, and therefore unconcerned whatever may befall him, or in any course of action.

(f) Param. “Summum bonum” (Lassen); “the highest region ” (Thomson). It means absorption into the divine nature by nirvāņa.

(9) Lõkasangraha, from loka, world, and sangraha (from grah, to hold), which here means assemblage. “Genus hu

manum " (Lassen); “l'ensemble des choses humaines” (Burnouf); but the reference is more to men than to things.

(1) Joshayet, a causative form of jush, to receive or regard with favour. Lassen and Thomson translate the passage, “The wise man should fulfil all actions ;” but this does noi express the causative action implied in the verb. Burnouf, more correctly, renders it thus: “Il leur fasse aimer leur travail.” Telang has “Should set them to action."

(i) Ahankāra, self-consciousness, that which forms the ego; hence vanity or self-exaltation.

(j) Gunā guneshu vartanta. This passage has been variously interpreted. “Qualitates in qualitatibus versantur” (Lassen); “les attributs (de l'ame) se rapportent aux attributs (de la nature” (Burnouf). This is certainly incorrect. “He who knows the truth of the difference between the qualities and actions, believing that they revolve in the qualities" (Thomson). Dr. Lorinser has accurately rendered it by “kräfte in kräften wirken nur;" the kräfte (guņās) being the modes or constituent elements of Prakriti (Nature). All action is confined within them. The soul stands apart, and is not affected by them. Srīdhara explains the word "modes(gunās) by the senses and the outward objects to which they are related and with which they act. Both the senses and their objects are formed from the modes or constituent elements of Nature (Prakriti). Sankara’s gloss is, “The modes which have the nature of an organ deal with modes that have the nature of objects of sense."

(k) Adyātman, the Supreme Soul, Brahmă. Lassen's version is, “Cogitatione in intimam conscientiam conversa,” but this seems to be an error. “Der hochste Geist” (Peters. Dict.); “l'Ame Supreme” (Burnouf).

(1) Viguna, lit. wanting in (good) qualities, weak and erring. “ Etsi deficientibus viribus” (Lassen); "devoid of excellence"

(Thomson). Sankara's gloss is that it is a work in which qualities are lost or absent (vigata).

(m) Jnāna, spiritual knowledge; vijnāna, separate or worldly knowledge. “Spiritual knowledge” and “spiritual discernment” (Thomson). “Knowledge is that learned from books or teachers; experience (vijnāna) is that which is acquired by personal perception and so forth” (Telang).

(n) Durāsadam, difficult of approach, and therefore difficult to affect or control. “Intractable" (Lassen and Thomson); " à l'abord difficile” (Burnouf); “hard to tame” (Telang); “dem schwer zu nahen, dem zu nahe zu kommen Gefahr bringt” (Peters. Dict.)


THE HOLY ONE spoke. This eternal (doctrine of) yoga I taught of old to Vivaswat;1 Vivaswat taught it to Manu; Manu told it to Ikshwāku.

This, being handed down from one to another, the royal sages (Rajarshis) knew. This yoga (doctrine) was lost in this world by length of time, O destroyer of foes !

This same ancient doctrine is now declared to thee by me, who have said, “Thou art my worshipper and friend,” for it is a supreme mystery.

ARJUNA spoke. The birth of my Lord was later;2 the birth of Vivaswat 1 The author of the Bhagavad Solar dynasty, and one of the RajarGītā, in order to give a divine sanc- shis, or royal saints. tion to the Yoga system, ascribes it ? Krishņa, in his present incarnate in the first place to Kțishņa, as a form, was born after Vivaswat, but personification of Vishnu. He taught as a form of Vishnu he had had it to Vivaswat—that is, according mary previous incarnations or arato Madhusūdana, “to Aditya (the tāras. They are generally reckoned Sun), who was the source of the as ten in number, but soinetimes as whole Kshatriya race.” Manu, the twenty-two, and even as numberless, son of Vivaswat, is the last of the because all things spring from him. seven Manus of Hindū mythology The first was in the form of a fish, which have already appeared. He which grew to a vast extent, by presides over the present manwan, which he saved Manu, one of the iara (age of a Manu = 4,320,000 progenitors of mankind, from an years), and is presumed to be the universal deluge, bidding him to author of the Institutes of Law build for himself and the seven Rishis which bears his name. Ikshwāku, an ark, which was fastened to the his son, was the first king of the horn of the fish, and finally brought

was prior (to thine). How then may I understand this saying of thine, “I taught it in the beginning ?”


THE HOLY ONE spoke. Many have been in past time the births of me and of thee also, Arjuna! All these I know, but thou knowest them not, 0 slayer of foes !

Though I am unborn, and my nature is eternal, and I am the Lord also of all creatures, yet taking control of my Nature-form (Prakriti) (a), I am born by my illusive power (māyā).

For whenever piety decays, O son of Bharata ! and impiety is in the ascendant, then I produce myself.

For the protection of good men, for the destruction of evil-doers, for the re-establishment of piety, I am born from age to age.3 by it to a peak of Himavat (Sans. the world of existing things (sat) is T. i. 183, 200). The last, in the an emanation from Prakriti or pri. person of Kalkin, has yet to be mal matter, which is an inferior made. He will appear at the end part of the dual nature of the One of the present age (L'ali-yuga) seated Supreme Being. It is not certain, on a white horse, with a drawn sword however, that the word is used here blazing like a comet, to destroy the in its full Vedāntist sense. In one wicked and to form a righteous age. of the Upanishads, the Svetāśvatara

1 By transmigration in the case (iv. 10), Prakriti (Nature) is called of Arjuna.

māyā, and the Great Lord, the illu. 2 By mystic power (māyā, illu. sionist; but the explanation of Mād. sion). There is here a trace of the hava is that illusion is a creative later Mimānsā or Vedāntist doc force in hin, as heat is in fire trine. It is the mysterious power (Müller's Sans. Lit., p. 321). by which Brahma caused a sceming 3 The first four aratāras (incar. world to issue from himself. The nations) are said to have been in world has no real existence, accord. the first yuga, or age of the world ing to the Vedāntists, for the only (Kșita), the three following in the real existence is the One Universal second (Tretā), the eighth in the Soul. Kapila taught that the ex. third (Dwāpara), the ninth in the ternal world was as real and as self. present (Kali) age. The tenth has existent as, soul, and Patanjali that yet. to come.

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