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Sore have they toild-they are fallen asleep,
county: so hoping to draw forth the captain by that bait, and And their slumber is heavy, and dull, and deep! either to take him or the castle, or both. Neither was this When over their bones the grass shall wave,
expectation frustrated, for the captain did bite, and came When the wild winds over their tombs shall rave, forth to have taken this victual (as he supposed.) But ere he Memory shall lean on their graves, and tell
could reach these carriers, Sir James, with his company, had How Selkirk's hunters bold around old Stewart fell!" gotten between the castle and him; and these disguised car
WALLACE, or the Fight of Falkirk, (by Miss riers, seeing the captain following after them, did quickly
met the captain with a sharp encounter, being so much the
castle, but there he also met with his enemies; between NOTE 3 G.
which two companies he and his whole followers were slain, When Bruce's banner had victorious flow'd,
so that none escaped: the captain afterwards being searched, O'er Loudoun's mountain, and in Ury's vale.--P. 450.
they found (as it is reported) his mistress's letter about him.'
--HUME's History of the House of Douglas, fol. pp. 29, 30.1 The first important advantage gained by Bruce, after landing at Turnberry, was over Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, the same by whom he had been defeated near Methven. They met, as has been said, by appointment, at Loudonhill, in the west of Scotland. Pembroke sustained a defeat; and from that time Bruce was at the head of a consider
NOTE 3 I. able flying army.
Yet he was subsequently obliged to retreat into Aberdeenshire, and was there assailed by Comyn,
d ficry Edward routed stout St. John.-P. 450. Earl of Buchan, desirous to avenge the death of his relative, the Red Comyn, and supported by a body of English troops
“John de St. John, with 15,000 horsemen, had advanced under Philip de Moubray. Bruce was ill at the time of a scro
to oppose the inroad of the Scots. By a forced march he enfalous disorder, but took horse to meet his enemics, although deavoured to surprise them, but intelligence of his motions
was timeously received. The courage of Edward Bruce, apobliged to be supported on either side. He was victorious, and it is said that the agitation of his spirits restored his proaching to temerity, frequently enabled him to achieve health.
what men of more judicious valour would never have attempted. He ordered the infantry, and the meaner sort of his army, to intrench themselves in strong narrow ground. He himself, with fifty horsemen well harnessed, issued forth under cover of a thick mist, surprised the English on their march, attacked and dispersed them."-DALRYMPLE's Annals of Scotland, quarto, Edinburgh, 1779, p. 25.
NOTE 3 H.
When English blood ofl deluged Douglas-dale.-P. 450. The "good Lord James of Douglas," during these commotions, often took from the English his own castle of Douglas,
NOTE 3 K. but being unable to garrison it, contented himself with destroying the fortifications, and retiring into the mountains.
When Randolph's war-cry suell'd the southern gale.-P. 450. As a reward to his patriotism, it is said to have been prophesied, that how often soever Douglas Castle should be destroy Thomas Randolph, Bruce's sister's son, a renowned Scottish ed, it should always again arise more magnificent from its chief, was in the early part of his life not more remarkable for ruins. Upon one of these occasions he used fearful cruelty, consistency than Bruce himself. He espoused his uncle's causing all the store of provisions, which the English had laid party when Bruce first assumed the crown, and was made up in his castle, to be heaped together, bursting the wine and prisoner at the fatal battle of Methven, in which his relative's beer casks among the wheat and flour, slaughtering the cattle hopes appeared to be ruined. Randolph accordingly not only upon the same spot, and upon the top of the whole cutting the submitted to the English, but took an active part against throats of the English prisoners. This pleasantry of the "good Bruce; appeared in arms against him; and, in the skirmish Lord James” is commemorated under the name of the Doug- where he was so closely pursued by the bloodhound, it is said las's Larder. A more pleasing tale of chivalry is recorded by his nephew took his standard with his own hand. But RanGodscroft.-"By this means, and such other exploits, he so dolph was afterwards made prisoner by Douglas in Tweeddale, affrighted the enemy, that it was counted a matter of great and brought before King Robert. Some harsh language was jeopardie to keep this castle, which began to be called the exchanged between the uncle and nephew, and the latter was adventurous (or hazardous) Castle of Douglas; whereupon Sir committed for a time to close custody. Afterwards, however, John Walton being in suit of an English lady, she wrote to they were reconciled, and Randolph was created Earl of Mohim, that when he had kept the adventurous Castle of Dou- ray about 1312. After this period he eminently distinguished glas seven years, then he might think himself worthy to be a himself, first by the surprise of Edinburgh Castle, and aftersuitor to her. Upon this occasion Walton took upon him the wards by many similar enterprises, conducted with equal coukeeping of it, and succeeded to Thruswall, but he ran the
rage and ability. same fortune with the rest that were before him. For Sir James, having first dressed an ambuscado near unto the place, be made fourteen of his men take so many sacks, and fill them with grass, as though it had been corn, which they car 1 This is the foundation of the Author's last romance, Castle ried in the way to Lanark, the chief market town in that Dangerous. -ED.
reconciled with difficulty. Edward II. followed his father's NOTE 3 L.
example in this particular, and with no better success. They
could not be brought to exert themselves in the cause of their -Stirling's towers, Beleaguer'd by King Robert's powers ;
conquerors. But they had an indifferent reward for their for
bearance. Without arms, and clad only in scanty dresses of And they took term of truce.-P. 450.
linen cloth, they appeared naked in the eyes even of the ScotWhen a long train of success, actively improved by Robert tish peasantry; and after the rout of Bannockburn, were Bruce, had made him master of almost all Scotland, Stirling massacred by them in great numbers, as they retired in conCastle continued to hold out. The care of the blockade was fusion towards their own country. They were under comcommitted by the king to his brother Edward, who concluded mand of Sir Maurice de Berkeley. a treaty with Sir Philip Mowbray, the governor, that he should surrender the fortress, if it were not succoured by the King of England before St. John the Baptist's day. The King severely blamed his brother for the im policy of a treaty, which gave time to the King of England to advance to the relief of the castle with all his assembled forces, and obliged himself
NOTE 30. either to meet them in battle with an inferior force, or to retreat with dishonour. “Let all England come," answered
And Connoght pour'd from waste and wood the reckless Edward; “ we will fight them were they more."
Her hundred tribes, whose sceptre rude The consequence was, of course, that each kingdom mustered
Dark Elh O'Connor suay'd.-P. 450. its strength for the expected battle; and as the space agreed upon reached from Lent to Midsummer, full time was allowed There is in the Færdera an invitation to Eth O'Connor, chief for that purpose.
of the Irish of Connaught, setting forth that the king was about to move against his Scottish rebels, and therefore requesting the attendance of all the force he could muster, either commanded by himself in person, or by some nobleman of his race. These auxiliaries were to be commanded by
Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. Similar mandates were Note 3 M.
issued to the following Irish chiefs, whose names may asto
nish the unlearned, and amuse the antiquary.
Demod 0 Kahan, Duci Hibernicorum de Fernetrew; There is printed in Rymer's Fædera the summons issued
Doneval 0 Neel, Duci Hibernicorum de Tryowyn; upon this occasion to the sheriff of York; and he mentions
Neel Macbreen, Duci Hibernicorum de Kynallewan; eighteen other persons to whom similar ordinances were
Eth. Offyn, Duci Hibernicorum de Turtery; issued. It seems to respect the infantry alone, for it is entitled, De peditibus ad recussum Castri de Strypelin a Scotis
Admely Mac Anegus, Duci Hibernicorum de Onehagh;
Neel 0 Hanlan, Duci Hibernicorum de Erthere; obsessi, properare faciendis. This circumstance is also clear from the reasoning of the writ, which states : “ We have
Bien Mac Mahun, Duci Hibernicorum de Uriel ;
Lauercagh Mac Wyr, Duci Hibernicorum de Lougherin; understood that our Scottish enemies and rebels are endea
Gillys 0 Railly, Duci Hibernicorum de Bresfeny; vouring to collect as strong a force as possible of infantry, in
Geffrey O Fergy, Duci Hibernicorum de Montirag wil; strong and marshy grounds, where the approach of cavalry
Felyn 0 Honughur, Duci Hibernicorum de Connach; would be difficult, between us and the castle of Stirling."
Donethuth O Bien, Duci Hibernicorum de Tothmund; It then sets forth Mowbray's agreement to surrender the cas
Dermod Mac Arthy, Duci Hibernicorum de Dessemound; tle, if not relieved before St. John the Baptist's day, and the
Denenol Carbragh; king's determination, with divine grace, to raise the siege.
Maur. Kenenagh Mac Murgh; " Therefore," the summons further bears, “ to remove our
Murghugh O Bryn; said enemies and rebels from such places as above mentioned,
David O Tothvill; it is necessary for us to have a strong force of infantry fit for
Dermod O Tonoghur, Doffaly; arms." And accordingly the sheriff of York is commanded
Fyn 0 Dymsy; to equip and send forth a body of four thousand infantry, to
Souethuth Mac Gillephatrick ; to be assembled at Werk, upon the tenth day of June first,
Lyssagh O Morth; under pain of the royal displeasure, &c.
Gilbertus Ekelly, Duci Hibernicorum de Omany;
RYMER's Fædera, vol. iii., pp. 476, 477.
NOTE 3 N.
And Cambria, but of late subdued,
NOTE 3 P.
Their chief, Fitz-Louis.-P. 452. his Scottish wars, for which their habits, as mountaineers, particularly fitted them. But this policy was not without its Fitz-Louis, or Mac-Louis, otherwise called Fullarton, is a risks. Previous to the battle of Falkirk, the Welsh quarrel- family of ancient descent in the Isle of Arran. They are led with the English men-at-arms, and after bloodshed on said to be of French origin, as the name intimates. They atboth parts, separated themselves from his army, and the feud tached themselves to Bruce upon his first landing; and Fer. between them, at so dangerous and critical a juncture, was gus Mac-Louis, or Fullarton, received from the grateful mo
narch a charter, dated 26th November, in the second year of The only objection to the hypothesis above laid down, is, that his reign (1307), for the lands of Kilmichel, and others, which the left flank of Bruce's army was thereby exposed to a sally still remain in this very ancient and respectable family. from the garrison of Stirling. But, Ist, the garrison were
bound to neutrality by terms of Mowbray's treaty; and Barbour even seems to censure, as a breach of faith, some secret assistance which they rendered their countrymen upon the eve of battle, in placing temporary bridges of doors and spars over the pools of water in the carse, to enable them to ad
vance to the charge. 2dly, Had this not been the case, the NOTE 3 Q.
strength of the garrison was probably not sufficient to excite
apprehension. 3dly, The adverse hypothesis leaves the rear In battles four beneath their eye,
of the Scottish army as much exposed to the Stirling garrison, The forces of King Robert lie.-P. 452.
as the left flank would be in the case supposed.
It only remains to notice the nature of the ground in front The arrangements adopted by King Robert for the decisive of Bruce's line of battle. Being part of a park, or chase, it battle of Bannockburn, are given very distinctly by Barbour,
was considerably interrupted with trees; and an extensive and form an edifying lesson to tacticians. Yet, till com- marsh, still visible, in some places rendered it inaccessible, mented upon by Lord Hailes, this important passage of history and in all of difficult approach. More to the northward, has been generally and strangely misunderstood by historians. where the natural impediments were fewer, Bruce fortified I will here endeavour to detail it fully.
his position against cavalry, by digging a number of pits so Two days before the battle, Bruce selected the field of ac
close together, says Barbour, as to resemble the cells in a tion, and took post there with his army, consisting of about honey.comb. They were a foot in breadth, and between two 30,000 disciplined men, and about half the number of dis- and three feet deep, many rows of them being placed one beorderly attendants upon the camp. The ground was called hind the other. They were slightly covered with brushwood and the New Park of Stirling ; it was partly open, and partly green sods, so as not to be obvious to an impetuous enemy. broken by copses of wood and marshy ground. He divided
All the Scottish army were on foot, excepting a select body his regular forces into four divisions. Three of these occupied of cavalry stationed with Edward Bruce on the right wing, a front line, separated from each other, yet sufficiently near
under the immediate command of Sir Robert Keith, the Marfor the purpose of communication. The fourth division formed shal of Scotland, who were destined for the important ser
The line extended in a north-easterly direction vice of charging and dispersing the English archers. from the brook of Bannock, which was so rugged and broken
Thus judiciously posted, in a situation fortified both by art as to cover the right flank effectually, to the village of Saint and nature, Bruce awaited the attack of the English, Ninians, probably in the line of the present road from Stirling to Kilsyth. Edward Bruce commanded the right wing, which was strengthened by a strong body of cavalry under Keith, the Mareschal of Scotland, to whom was committed the important charge of attacking the English archers; Douglas, and the young Steward of Scotland, led the central wing; and
NOTE 3 R. Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, the left wing. The King himself commanded the fourth division, which lay in reserve
Beyond, the Southern host appears.-P. 452. behind the others. The royal standard was pitched, according to tradition, in a stone, having a round hole for its recep Upon the 230 June, 1314, the alarm reached the Scottish tion, and thence called the Bore-stone. It is still shown on
army of the approach of the enemy. Douglas and the Marthe top of a small eminence, called Brock's-brae, to the shal were sent to reconnoitre with a body of cavalry: south-west of Saint Ninians. His main body thus disposed, King Robert sent the followers of the camp, fifteen thousand
“And soon the great host have they seen, and upwards in number, to the eminence in rear of his
Where shields shining were so sheen, army, called from that circumstance the Gillies' (i. e. the ser
And basinets burnished bright, vants') Hill.
That gave against the sun great light. The military advantages of this position were obvious. The
They saw so fele 2 brawdyne 3 baners, Scottish left flank, protected by the brook of Bannock, could
Standards and pennons and spears, not be turned; or, if that attempt were made, a movement
And so fele knights upon steeds, by the reserve might have covered it. Again, the English
All flaming in their weeds, could not pass the Scottish army, and move towards Stirling,
And so fele bataills, and so broad, without exposing their flank to be attacked while in march.
And too so great room as they rode, If, on the other hand, the Scottish line had been drawn up
That the maist host, and the stoutest east and west, and facing to the southward, as affirmed by
Of Christendom, and the greatest, Buchanan, and adopted by Mr. Nimmo, the author of the
Should be abaysit for to see History of Stirlingshire, there appears nothing to have pre
Their foes into such quantity." vented the English approaching upon the carse, or level
The Bruce, vol. ii. p. 111. ground, from Falkirk, either from turning the Scottish left flank, or from passing their position, if they preferred it, The two Scottish commanders were cautious in the account without coming to an action, and moving on to the relief of which they brought back to their camp. To the king in priStirling. And the Gillies' Hill, if this less probable hypothe- rate they told the formidable state of the enemy; but in sis be adopted, would be situated, not in the rear, as allowed public reported that the English were indeed a numerous by all the historians, but upon the left flank of Bruce's army. host, but ill commanded, and worse disciplined.
1 An assistance which (by the way) could not have been rendered, had not the English approached from the south
east ; since, bad their march been due north, the whole Scottish army must have been between them and the garrison.
the evening of the 23d of June. Bruce was then riding upon Note 3 S.
a little palfrey, in front of his foremost line, putting his host With these the valiant of the Isles
in order. It was then that the personal encounter took place
betwixt him and Sir Henry de Bohun, a gallant English knight, Beneath their chieftains rank'd their files.-P. 452.
the issue of which had a great effect upon the spirits of both The men of Argyle, the islanders, and the Highlanders in armies. It is thus recorded by BARBOUR :general, were ranked in the rear. They must have been nu
“And quhen Glosyster and Herfurd war merous, for Bruce had reconciled himself with almost all
With thair bataill, approchand ner, their chieftains, excepting the obnoxious MacDougals of Lorn.
Befor thaim all thar come rydand, The following deed, containing the submission of the potent
With helm on heid, and sper in hand Earl of Ross to the King, was never before published. It is
Schyr Henry the Boune, the worthi, dated in the third year of Robert's reign, that is, 1309.
That wes a wycht knycht, and a hardy;
And to the Erle off Herfurd cusyne : " OBLIGACIO COMitis ROSSENSIS PER HOMAGIUM FIDELITA
Armyt in armys gud and fyne;
Come on a sted, a bow schote ner,
Befor all othyr that thar wer: “Universis christi fidelibus ad quorum noticiam presentes
And knew the King, for that he saw litere peruenerint Willielmus Comes de Ross salutem in do
Him swa rang his men on raw; mino sempiternam. Quia magnificus princeps Dominus Ro
And by the croune, that wes set bertus dei gracia Rex Scottorum Dominus meus ex innata
Alsua apon his bassynet. sibi bonitate, inspirataque clemencia, et gracia speciali remisit
And towart him he went in hy. michi pure rancorem animi sui, et relaxauit ac condonauit
And [quhen] the King sua apertly michi omnimodas transgressiones seu offensas contra ipsum et
Saw him cum, forouth all his feris, suos per me et meos vsque ad confeccionem literarum pre
In hy till him the hors he steris. sencium perpetratas : Et terras meas et tenementa mea omnia
And quhen Schyr Henry saw the King graciose concessit. Et me nichilominus de terra de Dingwal
Cum on, for owtyn abaysing, 3 et ferncroskry infra comitatum de Suthyrland de benigna li
Till him he raid in full gret hy beralitate sua heriditarie infeodare carauit. Ego tantam prin
He thoucht that he suld weill lychtly cipis beneuolenciam efficaciter attendens, et pro tot graciis
Wyn him, and haf him at his will, michi factis, vicem sibi gratitudinis meis pro viribus de cetero
Sen he him horsyt saw sa ill. digne vite cupiens exhibere, subicio
Sprent 4 thai samyn in till a ling 5 et obligo me et heredes meos et homines meos vniuersos dicto
Schyr Henry myssit the noble King. Domino meo Regi per omnia
And he, that in his sterapys stud, suam regiam dignitatem, quod erimus de cetero fideles sibi et
With the ax that wes hard and gud, heredibus suis et fidele sibi seruicium auxilium et concilium
With sa gret mayne 6 racht him a dynt, - contra omnes homines et feminas qui
That nothyr hat, na helm, mycht stynt vivere poterint aut mori, et super h --- Ego Willielmus pro
The hewy 7 dusche & that he him gave, me hominibus meis vniuersis dicto
That ner the heid till the harynys clave. domino meo Regi manibus homagium sponte
The hand ax schaft fruschit 9 in twa; feci et super dei ewangelia sacramentum prestiti -..
And he doune to the erd gan ga
All flatlynys, 10 for him saillyt mycht. et sigilla Hugonis filii et heredis et Johannis filii mei vna cum
This wes the fryst strak off the fycht." sigillis venerabilium patrum Dominorum Dauid et Thome Mo
Barbour's Bruce, Book viii., v. 684. raviensis et Rossensis dei gracia episcoporum presentibus literis sunt appensa. Acta scripta et data apud Aldern in Mo The Scottish leaders remonstrated with the King upon his rauia vltimo die mensis Octobris, Anno Regni dicti domini temerity. He only answered, "I have broken my good battlenostri Regis Roberti Tertio. Testibus vencrabilibus patribus axe."- The English vanguard retreated after witnessing this supradictis, Domino Bernardo Cancellario Regis, Dominis single combat. Probably their generals did not think it adWillielmo de Haya, Johanne de Striuelyn, Willielmo Wysman, visable to hazard an attack while its unfavourable issue reJohanne de Ffenton, Dauid de Berkeley, et Waltero de Berke- mained upon their minds. ley militibus, magistro Waltero Heroc, Decano ecclesie Morauie, magistro Willielmo de Creswel eiusdem ecclesie precentore et multis aliis nobilibus clericis et laicis dictis die et loco congregatis.” The copy of this curious document was supplied by my
NOTE 3 U. friend, Mr. Thomson, Deputy Register of Scotland, whose researches into our ancient records are daily throwing new and
What train of dust, with trumpet-sound, important light upon the history of the country.
And glimmering spears, is wheeling round
Our leftward flank ? – P. 454.
body attempted to relieve Stirling. Lord Hailes gives the NOTE 3 T.
following account of this manæuvre and the result, which is The Monarch rode along the ran.--P. 453.
accompanied by circumstances highly characteristic of the
chivalrous manners of the age, and displays that generosity The English vnnguard, commanded by the Earls of Glou- which reconciles us even to their ferocity upon other occacester and Hereford, came in sight of the Scottish army upon sions.
I Comrades.- Haste.-3 Without shrinking.--- Spurred. 6 Line.
6 Strength, or force.-7 Heavy.--8 Clash.- Broke.-10 Flat.
Bruce had enjoined Randolph, who commanded the left Bannockburn. The late Mr. Ritson, no granter of proposlwing of his army, to be vigilant in preventing any advanced tions, doubts whether the Scots had any martial music, quetes parties of the English from throwing succours into the castle Froissart's account of each soldier in the host bearing a little of Stirling.
horn, on which, at the onset, they would make such a horrible
NOTE 3 W.
Now onward, and in open ricw,
The countless ranks of England drew.-P. 455. he perceived that the English were falling into disorder, and that the perseverance of Randolph had prevailed over their
Upon the 24th of June, the English army advanced to the impetuous courage. “Halt,' cried Douglas, 'those brave men
attack. The narrowness of the Scottish front, and the nature have repulsed the enemy; let us not diminish their glory by of the ground, did not permit them to have the full advantage sharing it.'"--DALRYMPLE'S Annals of Scotland, 4to, Edin- of their numbers, nor is it very easy to find out what was their burgh, 1779, pp. 44, 45.
proposed order of battle. The vanguard, however, appeared Two large stones erected at the north end of the village of a distinct body, consisting of archers and spearmen on foot, Newhouse, about a quarter of a mile from the south part of and commanded, as already said, by the Earls of Gloucester Stirling, ascertain the place of this memorable skirmish. The and Hereford. Barbour, in one place, mentions that they circumstance tends, were confirmation necessary, to support formed nine BATTLES or divisions ; but from the following pasthe opinion of Lord Hailes, that the Scottish line had Stirling sage, it appears that there was no room or space for them to on its left flank. It will be remembered, that Randolph com extend themselves, so that, except the vanguard, the whole manded infantry, Daynecourt cavalry. Supposing, therefore, army appeared to form one solid and compact body :according to the vulgar hypothesis, that the Scottish line was drawn up, facing to the south, in the line of the brook of Ban
“ The English men, on either party, nock, and consequently that Randolph was stationed with
That as angels shone brightly, his left flank resting upon Milntown bog, it is morally impos
Were not array'd on such manner: sible that his infantry, moving from that position, with what
For all their battles samyn 9 were ever celerity, could cut off from Stirling a body of cavalry who
In a schiltrum.3 But whether it was already passed St. Ninians, or, in other words, were al
Through the great straitness of the place ready between them and the town. Whereas, supposing Ran
That they were in, to bide fighting; dolph's left to have approached St. Ninians, the short move
Or that it was for abaysing;4 ment to Newhouse could easily be executed, so as to intercept
I wete not. But in a schiltrum
It seemed they were all and some;
That folk ourtake a mekill feild
On breadth, where many a shining shield,
And many a burnished bright armour,
And many a man of great valour,
Might in that great schiltrum be seen:
And many a bright banner and sheen."
BARBOUR's Bruce, vol. ii. p. 137.
1 Barbour says expressly, they avoided the New Park (where was undoubtedly of a circular form, in order to resist the atBruce's army lay,) and held "well neath the Kirk," which can tacks of the English cavalry, on whatever quarter they might ons mean St. Ninians.
be charged. But it does not appear how, or why, the English, 2 Together.
advancing to the attack at Bannockburn, should have arrayed 3 Schillrum - This word has been variously limited or ex- themselves in a circular form. It seems more probable, that, tended in its signification. In general, it seems to imply a by Schiltrum in the present case, Barbour means to express arge body of men drawn up very closely together. But it has an irregular mass into which the English army was compressed heen limited to imply a round or circular body of men so by the unwieldiness of its numbers, and the carelessness or drawn up. I cannot understand it with this limitation in the ignorance of its leaders. present case. The schiltrum of the Scottish army at Falkirk * Frightening.