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city of Moscow in such abundance, that it is wonder to see it. You shall meet in a morning seven or eight hundred sleds coining from, or going thither, some carry corn, some fish. Some that fetch corn from thence dwell at the least one thousand miles off, and all their carriage is on sleds. Those which come so far, dwell in the north part of the duke's dominions, where the cold is so extreme it will suffer no corn to grow.”

The success of Chancelor infused new vigour into the proceedings of the association of merchant adventurers, who now assumed the title of the Muscovy Company, and Chancelor was again sent out, for the joint purposes of trade and discovery, in 1555. He was returning to England, with an ambassador from the emperor, and a cargo worth 20,0001., when his vessel was driven on shore, by a tempest, in Pitsligo Bay, near Kinnairds Head.

Using all carefulness for the safetie of the bodie of the said ambassadour and his trayne, taking the boate of the said ship, trusting to attaine the shore, and so to save and preserve the bodie, and seven of the companie or attendants of the same ambassadour; the same boate, by rigorous waves of the seas, was by dark night overwhelmed and drowned, wherein perished not only the bodie of the said grand pilot, with seven Russes, but also divers mariners of the said ship; the noble personage of the said ambassadour, with a fewe others (by God's preservation and special favour), only with much difficultie saved.” 16

The ambassador subsequently proceeded to London, where he was most sumptuously received by Philip and Mary, and where he remained for about three months. On the 3rd May he “ departed from London to Gravesend, accompanied with divers aldermen and merchants, who in good gard set him aboard the noble shippe the Primrose, admiral to the fleete, where leave was taken on both sides and parts, after many imbracements and divers farewels, not without expressing of teares.”

16 Hakluyt, v. i. p. 286.


Stephen Burrough sent out by the Muscovy Company

Frobisher's first Voyage-His supposed Discovery of Gold, and second Expedition-His Third Voyage to Colonize Meta Incognita, with its total Failure and Disappointment -Projected Fourth Voyage.

MEANWHILE, during Chancelor's absence on that voyage in which he subsequently lost his life, the Muscovy Company had fitted out a small vessel, called the Searchthrift, which, on the 29th April, 1556, sailed from Gravesend, under the command of Stephen Burrough, the master of Chancelor's ship in his first voyage. Previous to their sailing. the or

Right Worshipful Sebastian Cabot,” and a large party of ladies and gentlemen, paid a visit to the vessel, and examined all the preparations with great interest, and afterwards the “goode olde gentleman, Master Cabota," gave a banquet, at which, “ for very joy that he had to see the towardness of their discovery, he entered into the dance himselfe amongst the rest of the young and lusty company."

It was not until the middle of July that Burrough reached the Straits of Waigatz, where he was beset on all sides by “monstrous heaps of ice," and was constantly in danger of being annihilated by these enormous masses coming in collision with each other. They were likewise nearly capsized by an immense whale, which, however, they managed to affright by shouting. Burrough penetrated about




fifteen leagues beyond the mouth of the river Pechora, but all his efforts to proceed farther proved abortive, and he therefore returned, with the intention of again resuming the attempt.

In order to preserve a strict chronological order, we have now to turn our faces to the north-west. The name of Martin Frobisher is one of which this country may well be proud; and yet his connexion with the defeat of the “ Invincible Armada” is all that is remembered of him by many. Mr. Barrow truly says, in his “ Naval Worthies of Elizabeth's Reign"_“ He was one of those men, who by their zeal, energy, and talent, acquired and preserved for Queen Elizabeth the proud title of . Sovereign of the Seas ;'” but few, however, know that he earned his early honours in a northern clime : few know, that for fifteen long years he was continually pressing upon the minds of his friends, and the merchants of the city of London, the desirableness of renewing the attempt to find a passage by the north-west; the former proved lukewarm, and the latter, he soon perceived, were not wont to regard “venture without sure certaine and present gaines.” When, indeed, will the time come that a noble idea shall receive from the world the attention which is its due, uninfluenced by any sordid or narrow-minded motive.

At length, however, Frobisher found a friend at court in Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, by

1 “Let those who are disposed to faint under difficulties, in the prosecution of any great and worthy undertaking, remember that eighteen years elapsed after the time that Columbus conceived his enterprise before he was enabled to carry it into effect; that most of that time was passed in almost hopeless solicitation, amidst poverty, neglect, and taunting ridicule; that the prime of his life had wasted away in the struggle ; and that when his perseverance was finally crowned with success, he was about his fifty-sixth year. This example should encourage the enterprising never to despair.” (Washington Irving's “ Life of Columbus," v. i. p. 174.)

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whose assistance, in the year 1576, he was enabled to equip three vessels, respectively of the insignificant dimensions of thirty-five, thirty, and ten tons! which, however, experience has proved, were much better adapted for Arctic exploration, than ships of a larger measurement. On the 7th of June they weighed from Deptford, and dropped down to Greenwich, where Elizabeth then held her court.

Here salutes were fired, the queen waived her hand from the windows, and likewise sent a gentleman on-board, “ to make known her good likings of their doings,” and wishing them

happie successe.” On the 19th the fleet was off Yarmouth, and thence stood out to sea. Nothing of any moment occurred until they were off the Shetlands, when one of the ships sprung a leak.

On the 11th July land was discovered in 61°N., rising like “pinacles of steeples, and all covered with snow,” evidently the southern part of Greenland. Attempts were made to effect a landing but without success, and in a very severe storm which was experienced, the pinnace, with her crew of four hands, was lost, and the Gabriel, their other companion, “mistrusting the matter, privily conveyed themselves away,” and reached England in safety. Frobisher, however, bore up gallantly against these mischances, so ruinous to the hopes of an aspirant for naval fame :-he altered his course, and stood to the south-west for seventeen days, when he made land in 62° 2', shut up by an impenetrable barrier of ice, and no soundings with one hundred fathoms. This dreary coast is supposed to have been part of Labrador.

“On the 13th of July an incident occurred, which is not noticed in the printed accounts of the voyage, but which is too creditable to Frobisher to be suppressed. On the day above named, the

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