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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
In former numbers of the Scots Maga- the common form would have been compazine, we have in the course of the last tive ratively of less use ; by this means also years given some interesting details of the the building was to be guarded from acciCarr Rock, and the beacon erecting upon dent, by the too near approach of vessels. it; and we had at length the reasonable Upon the whole, there was something in prospect of a successful termination to that this undertaking which gave it a particular arduous undertaking. It is, therefore, interest with the curious, while it was calwith no small concern that we have to no- culated to render so much benefit to the tice the loss which the shipping of the mariner, that we cannot help again regretFirths of Forth and Tay have sustained by ting that it had not succeeded to the utthe fall of this Beacon. The building was most, as preparations were just making for visited by one of the shipmasters in the the construction of the machinery from a lighthouse service on the Toth November, model long since made. and was then found to be in perfect order. This building is understood to have cost But, on the evening of the 14th, a very about L. 3000, and bade fair to possess all heavy swell of sea came ashore, and, on the the advantages of a most excellent and 15th, the ground szeell still continued, with complete land-mark. When, therefore, foggy weather, and the rock could not be we appreciate its value, either by the in discerned till the afternoon of that day, conveniences which shipping must sustain when the sea was observed to break upon in consequence of its temporary removal, it with great violence, and it was then dis- or consider the boldness of the design, and covered that a great part of the building the energy and economy with which it has had been thrown down.
been pursued for no less than five successive The Carr Rock forms the extreme point seasms, we still hope that some means or of that dangerous reef of sunken rocks, ex- other will be devised for pointing out the tending about two miles from the shore at place and dangers of the Carr Rock. Fifeness, which has been the cause of many The loss of this improvement upon the shipwrecks, notwithstanding all the im- coast will be severely felt by the shipping provements adopted on this part of the interest, especially of the Firths of Forth coast ;- circumstance which has rendered and Tay ; but as we have just learned that the erection of a beacon upon it a work of several of the courses of the masonry are very considerable interest.
still quite entire on the rock, and these the T'he Beacon Rock is 72 feet in length, most expensive and difficult of erection, but its greatest breadth is only 23 feet. At having required more than three of the five high water of spring tides, the foundation seasons to complete them ; we may yet of the building is at least 16 feet under the hope that at least a solid and permanent level of the sea. The Beacon is circular, beacon of stone will be placed on this fatal measuring 18 feet in diameter at the base reef, which would doubtless prove highly -the height of the masonry was 36 feet, useful, though not possessed of all the ad. and from thence to the ball on the top of vantages of the proposed Tide-machine. the cupola, it measured five feet more, or Along with a solid beacon, the security of 41 feet in all.—The stones of this building the extensive shipping on this coast may were curiously indented into one another, be still further promoted, by means of and the several courses were connected by cross or leading lights upon the Island of joggels, while the beds of the stones were May, distant about six miles from the Carr let into each other in such a manner, that Rock ; so that the mariner, having these these indentations formed so many girths in view, may the better know his position or bands round the building. For greater under night, and so be enabled to make safety, and to avoid any weakness in the free with his course. This may in some walls, the beacon was so constructed, that degree be considered as stretching a cord or the entrance door was above the balcony, band of light across the Firth, from the being placed immediately under the cupo- Isle of May to the foul grounds at Fifela, the ascent to which was by means of a ness; and would be such a direction for trap-ladder. The interior of this tower the Carr Rock, under night, as is provided was designed for a Tide-machine, to be em- and found to answer at the Fern Isles, for ployed in constantly tolling the large bell, the Goldstone Rock, near Holy Island, on which was to form the cupola of the build- the coast of Northumberland. ing. By this contrivance the mariner was What may be the ultimate resolution of to be forewarned of his danger under night, the Lighthouse Board with regard to the and in foggy weather ; where a beacon of Carr Rock, whether it should be pointed out to the mariner by a beacon of stone or thus slightly scorched, capable of commu. iron, or by a large floating buoy at or near nicating to the water in which it is infused the place of danger, or by an additional a deep tan-brown colour, and a peculiar lighthouse upon the Island of May, in the flavour. form of a leading light, as has been pro- In the composition of the best genuine posed, we know not ; but we apprehend, porter, two parts of brown malt are rethat where the danger to shipping is so quired to three parts of pale malt. The imminent, its place should one way or price of the former is generally about seven. other be made as obvious as possible to eighths of the latter; but the proportion of the numerous class of shipping which fre- saccharine matter which it contains does quent this part of the coast.
not, according to the highest estimate, exWere any argument of ours necessary ceed one-half of that afforded by the pale to shew the utility of this measure beyond malt, and probably on an average scarcely the great exertions already made by the amounts to one-fifth. Taking, however, Lighthouse Board in the late works of the the proportion of sugar in brown malt even beacon, we might refer to the numerous at about one-half, it follows that the porter accidents occasioned by this rock, recorded brewers are paying for the colour and fiafrom time to time in the public prints of vour of their liquor one-fifth of the entire the day. We have, indeed, learned, that cost of their malt. The price of this latter very lately no fewer than fifty-six coasting article has of late years increased so enorvessels sailed close past the Carr Rock in mously, and the mutual competition of the the course of a single tide. This was in manufacturers has become so active, as to the day time, and in easy weather ; but a offer temptations, not easily resisted, either sudden gale, or approaching darkness, of supplying the flavour and colour of pormight have proved fatal to some of them. ter by the use of Spanish liquorice, burned
Service of Plate presented to Sir I. sugar, and other similar ingredients, which, Davy. – The proprietors of the collieries in however innocent in themselves, are prohithe counties of Northumberland and Dur- bited by the Legislature, or of diminishing ham have presented to Sir H. Davy a ser- the strength of the liquor : thus rendering vice of plate, valued, as it is said, at nearly it more liable to become sour or vapid by L. 2000. It is a tribute of respect to which keeping, and hence bringing on the neceshe is justly entitled, from the rare union of sity of using alkaline substances to correct profound scientific research with the direct the first, and deleterious narcotics, such as application of it to purposes of practical uti- cocculus indicus, to supply the deficiency lity, which characterize his inquiries into of alcohol. The result of all this is, that a the properties of the fire-damp, and the large quantity of ill-made noxious liquor methods by which the fatal accidents may is forced upon the public, that the dimibe prevented which have so frequently oc- nished strength of such as is made of alcurred from its explosion.
lowed ingredients drives multitudes of the Patent Malt. There are few patents lower classes to the use of gin and opium, that promise to be of such great national and that the scandalous frequency of frauds importance as one lately obtained by D. on this branch of the revenue has entirely Wheeler and Co. for a new and improved abolished all moral feeling on the subject, method of preparing brown malt.
and reduced it to a mere calculation of exThe essential difference between ale and pediency. porter is, that the latter liquor is of a much It appears that the patentees have discodeeper colour than the former, and has be- vered that, by exposing common malt to a sides a peculiar empyreumatic flavour, not temperature of about 130° Fahr. in close easily defined, though universally known. vessels, it acquires a dark chocolate-brown This colour and this flavour were originally colour, and is rendered so soluble in water, obtained by mixing with the pale malt come either hot or cold, that, when mixed with monly used for brewing ale a certain pro- pale malt in the proportion of one-eightieth, portion of malt dried at a somewhat higher it communicates to the liquor the perfect temperature, and, in consequence of being colour and flavour of porter.
From this it follows that the brewer, by
employing four parts of pale malt and one* Two other candidates, it would ap- twentieth of a part of paient malt, may obpear, have come forward to claim the merit tain a stronger liquor than from his usual of inventing similar lamps, viz. Mr Ste- proportions of three parts of pale and two phenson and Di Clannie ; the former of parts of brown malt. The saving thus ocwhom has been patronized by a number of casioned ought in cquity to be divided bethe coalmasters near Newcastle, who have tween the patentees, the brewer, and the lately held a meeting, and raised a sum by public. The revenue will be benefited by subscription for his remuneration. In an the increased consumption which will neearly number we hope to lay before our cessarily result from an improvement in the readers a view of the comparative merits of quality of the porter : and both the revenue the several candidates.
and public morals will derive advantage
from the greatly diminished temptation to this department have been placed under fraudulent practices.
his care and superintendence. He has par. Aerolite at Paris.-We are informed from ticularly directed his attention to the supthe French papers, that an aerolite of con- ply of all those deficiencies which have arisen siderable size fell at Paris, in the Rue de from the want of sufficient funds, and the Richlieu, on the morning of Nov. 3. It want of a permanent person, sufficiently descended with so much force as to displace versed in the actual manipulations of art, part of the pavement, and to sink to some to instruct and explain them, and bring depth into the earth. It was attended by them into a state of useful activity. a sulphureous smell, and seemed to have The construction and properties of Brabeen recently in a state of ignition or com- mah's Patent Lock, in which the confi. bustion.
dence of the public has so long reposed, Mr Hunter of Edinburgh has invented having become a subject of discussion at an instrument which is of great importance the meetings of the Royal Institution, Mr to the navigator. From two altitudes of Bramah attended, and exhibited a large mothe sun, and the interval of time between del, explanatory of he principles of his late the observations, he can determine, within father's lock, and his own improvements five minutes after the second observation, upon it, to the institution; when every one the latitude of the place, the hour from was satisfied with the almost utter impossinoon, and the variation of the compass. bility of opening locks upon his construcAccording to the common form of calcula- tion, their security depending upon the tion for double altitudes, the latitude by doctrine of combinations or multiplication account is supposed to be known, which in of numbers into each other, which is known the use of this instrument is not necessary. to increase in the most rapid proportion. It has been tried in several examples, and Thus a lock of five sliders ulmits of 3000 the results always found very near the truth. variations, while one of eight, which are If a vessel was driven from her course by commonly made, will have no less than storms or currents, if the reckoning was al. 1,935,360 changes, or, in other words, together lost, and the mariner could not that number of attempts at making a key, get a meridian observation, with this in- or at picking it, may be made, before it strument and a chronometer, he could, in can be opened. Such was the case in the a few minutes after the second observation, lifetime of its late ingenious inventor; but, ascertain his position on the ocean with ac. by the simple improvement of his sons, curacy.
An invention of so much utility the present manufacturers, this difficulty in navigation is worthy of encouragement may be increased an hundred fold, or in a from those concerned in the commerce of greater proportion, without at all adding to
the complication of the lock. The celebrated Moses of Michael An. Poonah, or Indian Painting - This is a gelo, a collossal figure of the most exqui. method of painting lately introduced from site proportions, and finished in a style India, by which (with Poonah guides) the that to this day is unrivalled, having, by ladies of London have been enabled to dethe Pope's permission, been withdrawn from corate their dresses, &c. so as to give the its niche, in St Pietro in Vinculo, in order appearance of real fruit or flowers. It is althat Mr Day, an English artist, might take so applied to painting landscapes, animals, a mould of it to bring to England ; it is &c. We are also informed, that it is not with pleasure, we inform the public, necessary the pupil should be previously acthat it has arrived safe, and is now setting quainted with drawing, and that it is done up in company with the Monte-Cavallo in less than half the usual time. Mr Midfigure, in that capacious room in the stable- dleton has commenced teaching the whole yard, which the Prince of Wales allotted of this elegant art in Edinburgh. to these exhibitions of collossal sculpture.
Some additions and corrections to It is to be followed by the Marcus Aure the valuable paper of Professor Jameson's lius of the Capitol. When these noble ob. at page 367 of our last number have been jects are got together, it will be, in the supplied by the same eminent naturalist, eyes of men of taste and talents, the finest which we request our rcaders to introduce. room in the world.
Under Quadrupeds and Birds, l. 11., for Mr Asbury has invented an instrument outside, read inside, and, after the next pafor puncturing the drum of the ear, in ragraph, insert the following: cases of deafness; and two instances are “ Eggs.--Collections of eggs of birds recorded in which he has operated success- form a very interesting and beautiful defully; the individuals were immediately partment of a museum. restored to hearing. Will the operation be should be blown, and carefully packed in permanently beneficial ?
cotton, or tow, or moss. Before blowing, John Millington, Esq. Lecturer on Me- it is advisable to make drawings of the chanical Subjects in the Royal Ivstitution eggs, as the abstraction of their contents for the three last seasons, has been appoint- frequently occasions a considerable change ed Professor of Mechanics, and the various in their colour, delineation of colour, and instruments and machines connected with lustre of the shell.
The fresh eggs
“ Nests. All the remarkable nests of of fine quality, and preferable to Scheele's the larger birds ought to be collected, and green. in every instance those of the smaller 4th, One of 500 francs, in 1818, for the species.”
discovery of the best method of grinding oil Under Molluscous Animals, add the ful- and water colours, to the degree of tenuity lowing paragraph :
required by artists. “ As many of the molluscous animals 5th, One of 2000 francs, in 1819, for rapidly change, even when put into spirits, the manufacture of animal charcoal preit is advisable to make models and drawings pared from other substances than bone, and of them before immersion."
without the employment of pot-ash ; and Under Crustaceous Animals, p. 368. 1. 7. which may be as good and cheap as charfor anus, read mouth.
coal prepared from bones. To Section 3. on Mincrals, p. 369. after 6th, One of 1200 francs, in 1819, for the
wrapping paper," add “ When the cry. manufacture of a new kind of economical stals are very delicate, then the specimen floor-cloth, composed of strong paper comust be glewed to the bottom of a box, vered with varnish. and fastened with strings."
7th, One of 2000 francs, in 1819, for the Under Section 7. after“ blow-pipe," l. 9. application of the steam-engine to printing. insert “ and bottle with muriatic acid.” presses.
8th, One of 2000 francs, in 1819, for the
discovery of a vegetable substance consistThe Society for the Encouragement of ing of natural or prepared leaves, fit to be the Arts at Paris, has proposed the follow- employed as a substitute for mulberry leaves ing prizes for the year 1818:
in feeding silk-worms. 1500 francs for a machine for making
9th, One of 3000 francs, in 1821, for a pack-thread ; 1000 francs for a machine for metal or alloy, which may be substituted cutting the fur from the skins used in hat. for iron and steel, in the construction of making ; 6000 francs for the manufacture machines for grinding vegetables. of steel-wire for needles ; 3000 francs for M. Teissier has lately been engaged in manufacturing articles of cast-iron ; 2000 researches on the period of gestation of the francs for a method of salting meat; 2000 females of several domestic animals. The francs for the manufacture of isinglass ; following is a summary of the results:2000 francs for manufacturing enamelled Out of 575 cows, 21 calved between the metal vases ; 1500 francs for the cultiva. 240th and 270th day : mean term 259,tion of the plants which supply pot-ash; 544 between the 270th and 299th : mean 1000 francs for making pipes without seams; term 282-10 between the 299th and 600 francs for the discovery of stones for 321st : mean term 303. Thus, between lithography ; and 1200 francs for their ar- the shortest and longest gestation, there is tificial composition.
a difference of 81 days, that is, more than The Society has deferred until 1819 the one-fourth of the mean duration. distribution of the following prizes :- 1200 Out of 277 mares, 23 foaled between the francs for the manufacture of artificial pre- 322d and 330th day: mean term 326– cious stones ; 3000 francs for the discovery 227 between the 330th and 359th : mean of a certain process for drying meat; and term 3441-28 between the 36 1st and 1000 francs for the cultivation of oleagin- 419th : mean term 390. Between the ous plants : the prize for the preservation shortest and longest gestation there was an of woollen cloth, which, in consideration of interval of 97 days; as before, more than its importance, has been raised to the sum one-fourth of the mean duration. of 3000 francs; and that of 1000 francs for Observations were made on two she-asses the construction of a mill for skinning dried only: one foaled on the 380th, and the vegetables, such as pease, beans, &c. will other on the 391st day. not be awarded till 1820.
Out of 912 ewes, 140 lambed between The Society has besides proposed nine the 146th and 150th day : mean term 148 others, viz.-Ist, One of 2000 francs, to -676 between the 150th and 154th : mean be given in 1819, to the person who shall term 152_96 between the 154th and 161st: raise, by the most certain and economical mean term 157. Here the extreme interprocesses, and with the least possible loss, val is only 15 days, to a mean duration of the greatest number of white Chinese silk- 152-that is, only one-tenth.
The mean term of seven female buffaloes 2d, One of 600 francs, in 1818, for the was 308 days, and the extreme difference invention an extremely economical, 27 days. agreeable, and wholesome fermented drink, The extreme gestations of 25 sows were which may be prepared by the poorest cul
109 and 143 days. tivators, and fit for the use of persons em- The extreme terms of gestation of 172 ployed in out-door labour.
rabbits, were 27 and 35 days; difference 8. 3d, One of 1200 francs, in 1818, for the In the duration of the incubation of do. Wanufacture of an unalterable green colour, mestic fowls, differences of from 5 to 16
days were observed. These cannot be as- voluminous mani
anuscripts, and is covered by cribed to accidental differences of tempera- Latin writing of a later period. We know ture ; for, according to the observations of from the unanimous testimony of the anM. Geoffroi de Saint Hilaire, the same dif- cient historians, that Ulphilas (who was ferences are found in the duration of the called the Moses of his time) translated the developement of the chickens hatched by whole Bible, except, perhaps, the two books the Egyptians in ovens.
of Kings. The whole of this work was lost, From the whole of his observations, M. till at length, in 1665, the Codex argintius Teissier infers, that the period of gestation of Upsal, containing a considerable part of is extremely variable in every species. Its the four Evangelists, was published by prolongation does not seem to depend either Francis Junius. The learned Francis Knitupon the age or more or less robust consti- tel, upon examining a Codex palimpsestus, tution of the female, or upon the diet, the in the library of Wolfenbuttel, found upon breed, the season, or the bulk of the fætus, eight of the pages several verses of the transand still less upon the phases of the moon. lation of the Epistle to the Romans, by
The grand work on Egypt, of which the Ulphilas. These fragments he published first two parts appeared under Napoleon in in 1762. The Mss. now discovered by M. Paris, will soon, it seems, be completed; Mai are much more extensive, and appear the French minister of the interior having Cth century. What is wanting of the Epis
to have been written between the 5th and exerted himself to that effect.
The Lactuca virosa is recommended by tles in one of the MSS. is contained in the Dr Mondat, of Paris, as a remedy for the other; eight of the Epistles are entire in dropsy. The Lactuca sylvestris was seve
both, so as to afford the advantage of comral years ago recommended for the same parison. The characters are large and handpurpose, by Dr Collin, of Vienna.
The titles of the Epistles are at the The Chevalier Millin, the celebrated an.
head of the MSS. and there are marginal tiquary, who has been for twenty-five years references in the same language. Of this past engaged in procuring drawings of all discovery, M. Mai designs to publish an such engraved stones as are of interest to extensive specimen, in a preliminary dishistory, literature, or the arts, is about to sertation. A gentleman of Milan, equally commence the publication of them, in distinguished by erudition and liberality, monthly numbers, under the title of Pierres has had a complete fount of Ulphilanian gravées inédites tirées des plus célèbres Ca. types, of different sizes, cast by an able binets de l'Europe. Each number will con- founder, both for the text and notes. Betain ten plates in 8vo, engraved in the line sides these two MSS. M. Mai has collected manner by the ablest artists, and accompa- twenty more pages in the Mæso-Gothic lannied with descriptive letter-press.
guage, extracted from several other Codices M. Engelmann has commenced printing, palimpsesti, in the same library. In these at his lithographic press, a series of plates pages are found those parts of the Gospels illustrative of the manners and customs of by Ulphilas, which are wanting in the mu. the Russians, from designs by Houbigant. tilated edition of the Codex argenteus, toThe work will form a folio volume, con
gether with great part of the homilies or taining 60 plates, which will be published commentaries, and, what is still more inte
resting, fragments of the books of Esdras M. Gail has published a second volume
and Nehemiah-a discovery of the more of his work, entitled Le Philologue, or His importance, as not the smallest portion of torical, Military, and Geographical Re- Ulphilas's version of the Old Testament was searches, more especially designed to illus- hitherto known to exist. To accompany trate Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xen- this considerable part of the labours of the ophon.
Gothic prelato, M. Mai is preparing a new Monsieur N. L. Lemercier, Professor of Mæso-Gothic Lexicon, which will prodithe Athenæum of Paris, has published the giously increase the number of words of first volume of a Cours Analytique de Li- that language, and prove a most valuable terature Generale. It will be succeeded by present to the philologists of all those na. three other volumes, which are to appear tions whose languages are of German origin. before the end of the present year.
M. Bettoni, printer, of Padua, has cir. culated the prospectus of a Collection of
Lives and Portraits of Illustrious Men, in The Abbate Angelo Mai, whose recent
4to. The list comprehends 79 names of discoveries among the Codices rescripti in distinguished persons, of all ages and counthe Ambrosian library at Milan, we have tries, excepting modern Italy. Among had formerly occasion to notice, has added
these are Alfred the Great, Bacon, Harvey, to the number the Mæso-Gothic translation Hume, Locke, Marlborough, Milton, New. of the thirteen proto-canonical Epistles of ton, Robertson, Shakespeare, and WashingSt Paul, made in the fourth century, by
Each life will be printed in Latin, Bishop Úlphilas, the loss of which has been Italian, English, French, and German. hitherto a subject of regret. It fills two
M. Benvenuti, of Florence, has invented
in ten parts.