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« " You are the murdering villain, Burley," said Bothwell, griping his sword firmly, and setting his teeth close—“ you escaped me once, but” (he swore an oath too tremendous to be written) thy head is worth its weight of silver, and it shall go home at my saddle-bow, or my saddle shall


home empty * “Yes, replied Burley," with stern and gloomy deliberation, “ I am that John Balfour who promised to lay thy head where thou should'st never lift it again ; and God do so to me, and more also, if I do not redeem 'mý word." düz il

• “ Then a bed of heather, or a thousand marks !" said Bothwell, striking at Barley with his full force.

““ The sword of the Lord and of Gideon!" answered Balfour as he parried and returned the blow,

• There have seldom met two combatants more equally matched in strength of body, skill in the management of their weapons and horses, determined courage, and unrelenting, hostility. After exchanging many desperate blows, each receiving and inflicting several wounds, though of no great consequence, they grappled together as if with the desperate impatience of mortal hate, and Bothwell, seizing his enemy by the shoulder-belt, while the grasp of Balfour upon his own collar, they came headlong to the ground. The companions of Burley hastened to his assistance, but were repelled by the dragoons, and the battle became again general. But nothing could withdraw the attention of the combatants from each other, or induce them to unclose the deadly clasp in which they rolled together on the ground, tearing, struggling, and foaming, with the inveteracy of thorough-bred bull-dogs. Several horses passed over them in the

melee without their quitting hold of each other, until the sword-arm of Bothwell was broken by a kick of a charger. He then relinquished his grasp with a deep and suppressed groan, and both combatants started to their feet. Both well's right hand dropped helpless by his side, but his left griped to the place where his dagger hung; it had escaped from the sheath in the struggle, -and, with a look of mingled rage and despair, he stood totally defenceless, as Balfour, with a laugh of savage joy, flourished his sword aloft, and then passed it through his adversary's body. Both well received the thrust without falling—it had only grazed on his ribs. He attempted no further defence, but, looking at Burley with a grin of deadly hatred, exclaimed, — Base peasant churl, thou hast spilt the blood of a line of kings !

6“ Die, wretch !- die,” said Balfour, redoubling the thrust, with beiter aim; and setting his foot on Bothwell's body as he fell, 'he a third time transfixed him with his sword.—“ Die, blood-thirsty dog! die, as thou hast lived !-die, like the beasts that perish_hoping nothing—believing nothing

eni "" And FEARING ’nothing!" said Bothwell, collecting the last jeffort of respiration to utter these desperate words, and expiring as soon as they were spoken.'-vol. iii. pp. 61-64.

At length Claverhouse and his party are totally routed and driven from the field.

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This is a lively, but exaggerated account of a remarkable skirmish, the only one in which Claverhouse was ever worsted. The relation betwixt him and the Cornet Grahame who was slain is quite imaginars. The accounts given by Creighton, and by Guild, (author of a Latin poem, called Bellum Bothuellianum,) state that the body of this officer was brutally mangled after death, by the conquerors, from a belief that it was that of his commander Claverhouse. A curious detail of the action which we should be tempted to transcribe had we space, from the manuscript of James Russell, one of the murderers of Archbishop Sharpe, and who was himself present, ascribes the mangling of the corpse of Cornet Grahame, to some indiscreet language which he was reported to have held on the morning of the fight. Both parties, no doubt, made a point of believing their own side of the story, which is always a matter of conscience in such cases.

Morton, set at liberty by the victorious Covenanters, is induced to join their cause and accept of a command in their levy; as well by the arguments of Burley and a deep sense of the injustice with which the insurgents have been treated by government, as by natural indignation at the unworthy and cruel treatment which he had himself experienced. But, although he adopts this decisive step, yet it is without participating the narrow minded fanaticism and bitter rancour with which most of the persecuted party regarded the prelatists, and not without an express stipulation, that, as he joined a cause supported by men in open war, so he expected it was to be carried on, according to the laws of civilized nations. If we look to the history of these times, we shall tind reason to believe, that the Covenanters had not learned mercy in the school of persecution. It was perhaps not to be expected, from a people proseribed and persecuted, having their spirits embittered by the most severe personal sufferings. But that the temper of the victors of Drumclog was cruel and sanguinary, is too evident from the report of their historian, Mr. Howie, of Lochgoin; a' character scarcely less interesting or peculiar, thau Old Mortality, and who, not many years since, collected, with great assiduity, both from manuscripts and traditions, all tliat could be recovered concerning the champions of the Covenant. In his History of the rising at Bothwell-bridge and the preceding skirmish of Drumclog, he records the opinions of Mr. Robert Hamilton, who commanded the Whigs upon the latter occasion, concerning the propriety and legality of giving quarter to a vanquished enemy. v. * Mr. Hamilton discovered a great deal of bravery and valour, both in the conflict with and pursuit of the enemy; but when he and some others were pursuing the enemy, others flew too greedily upon the spoil, small as it was, instead of pursuing the victory; and some, without Mr.




Hamilton's knowledge, and directly contrary to his express command, gare five of these bloody enemies quarters, and then let them go ; this greatly grieved Mr. Hamilton, when he saw some of Babel's brats spared, after the Lord had delivered them to their hands, that they might dash them against the stones. Psal. 137-9.--In his own account of this he reckons the sparing of these enemies and the letting them go, to be among their first stepping aside ; for which he feared that the Lord would not honour them to do much more for him; and he says, that he was neither for taking tavours from, nor giving favours to, the Lord's enemies.'Battle of Bothwell Bridge, p. 9.*

The author therefore las acted in strict conformity with historical truth (whether with propriety we shall hereafter inquire) in representing the covenanters or rather the ultra-covepanters, for those who gained the skirmish fell chiefly under this description, as a fierce and sanguinary set of men, whose zeal and impatience under persecution had destroyed the moral feeling and principle which ought to attend and qualify all acts of retaliation. The large body

of Presbyterians, both clergy and people, were far from joining in these extravagances, and when they took


, to unite them * The same honest but bigoted and prejudiced historian of the Scottisti worthies has, in the Life of John Nesbit, of Hardhill, another champion of the covenanted cause, canvassed this delicate point still nore closely. It would appear that Jantes Nesbit, at the time of his execution, had testified, among other steps of defection and causes of wrath, against the lenity shewn to the five captive dragoons.

• He was by some thought too severe in his design of killing the prisoners at Drum. clog. But in this he was not altogether to blame; for the enensy's word was, -No quarters,--and the sufferers were the same; and we find it grieved Mr. Hamilton very much, when he beheld some of them spared, after the Lord had delivered them into their hand. Happy shall he be thut rewardeth thee as thou hast served us. Psal. 137– 8.—Yea, Hardhill himself seems to have bad clear grounds and motives for this, in one of the above-mentioned steps of defection, with which we shall conclude this narrative.

• 15thly. As there has been rash, envious and carnal executing of justice on his and the church's enemies, so he has also been provoked to reject, cast off, and take the power out of his people's band, for being so sparing of them, when he brought forth and gave a commission to execute on them that vengeance due unto them, as it is Psal. 149—9. For as justice ought to be executed in such and such a way and manner as aforesaid, so it ought to be fully executed without sparing, as is clear from Joshua, 7, 24, &c. For sparing the life of the enemy, and fleeing upon the spoil, 1 Sam. 15, 18, Saul is sharply rebuked, and though he excused himself

, yet for that very thing he is rejected from being king. Let the practice of Drumclog be remembered and mourned for. If there was not a deep ignorance, reason might teach this; for what master hav. ing servants and putting them to do his work, would take such a slight at his servants' hands, as to do a part of his work, and come and say to the master, that it is not necessary to do the rest, when the not doing of it would be dishonourable to the master, and hurtful to the whele family? Therefore was the wrath of the Lord against his people, insomuch that he abhorred his inheritance, and hiding his face from his people, making them afraid at the shaking of a leaf, and to flee when none pursueth, being a scorn and hissing to enenies, and fear to some who desire to befriend his cause. And, O! lay to heart and mourn for what has been done to provoke hiny to anger, ia not seeking the truth to execute judgment, and therefore he has not pardoned. Behold ! for your iniquities have you sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away. Isa. 50, 1, &c.—Scottish Worthies, p. 439.

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selves to the insurgents, were received with great jealousy and suspicion by the high-flyers of whom we have spoken. The clergy who had been contented to exercise their ministry by the favour of the government, under what was called the Indulgence, were stigmatized by their opponents as Erastians and will-worshippers, while they, with more appearance of reason, recriminated upon their adversaries that they meant, under pretence of establishing the liberty and independence of the kirk, altogether to disown allegiance to the

government. The author of Old Mortality has drawn a lively sketch of their distracted councils and growing divisions, and has introduced several characters of their clergy, on each of whom religious enthusiasm is represented as producing an effect in proportion to its quality, and the capacity upon which it is wrought. It is sincere but formal in the indulged Presbyterian clergyman Poundtext, who is honest, well-meaning, and faithful, but somewhat timorous and attached to his own ease and comfort. The zeal of Kettledrummle is more boisterous, and he is bold, clamorous, and intractable. In a youth called Mac Briar, of a more elevated and warm imagination, enthusiasm is wild, exalted, eloquent, and impressive; and in Habbakuk Mucklewrath it soars into absolute

acklewrath it soars into absolute to 'We have been at some pains to ascertain that there were such dissensions as are alluded to in the novels, and we think it is but fair to quote the words of those who lived at the period. James Rus. sell'has left distinct testimony on this subject.

. On the Sabbath the army convened at Rutherglen with all the ministers, where they controverted about preaching; for these officers that the Lord had honoured to bring the work that length, opposed any that would not be faithful and declare against all the defections of the time, but ministers taking on them to agree there, they preached at

three several places; the une party preached against all the defections and encroachments upon the prerogatives of Jesus Christ; Mr. Welch and his party preached up the subjects' allegiance to the magistrate. These things gave great offence on all hands, for such as adhered to the former testimonies found that a step of defection if they should join with it; and those which favoured the king's interest and indulgence were likewise displeased; and that day Mr. Hall, Rathillet, Carmichael, Mr. Smith, was commanded out to Campsie, the militia being rendeze yousing there, to scatter them, whether designedly or not we cannot tell; for they were all honest and strangers; however, there began strife and debate through all the army, the one party pleading the Lord's interest, and the other the king's and their own, and cried out against the honest party as factious and seditious.'

Howie of Lochgoin, with whom we have already made the reader acquainted, informs us that there was great harmony and wity among the victors of Drumclog, until their spirits were over


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clouded by the ill news that Mr. Welch, a favourer of the Indulgence, was approaching to join them with a powerful reinforcement. This would have been joyful tidings to any others in a similar situation. But this most extraordinary body of warriors, to whom a triAling polemical difference was of more consequence than the swords of some hundred assistants, were filled with consternation at the news.

* Hitherto they were of one accord, and of one mind, in what concerned the cause and testimony of Jesus Christ, that they were appearing for, in this there was great harmony amongst them; but now, alas! their sweet and pleasing union, concord, and harmony was near an end : for this day in the evening, a sad company of Achans came into the camp, which grievously troubled the Lord's host, viz. Mr. John Welch, who brought with him about 140 horsemen from Carrick, and young Blachan upon their head, about 300 footmen, some corrupt ministers of his own stamp, and Thomas Weir of Greenridge, and a troop of horsemen under him ; though justly rejected by the council of war the Tuesday before this. All these were enemies to the true state of the cause that that army was appearing for; and, as faithful Rathillet observes, that now they had one among them, viz. Greenridge, that was guilty of shedding the blood of the saints, and some who were possessing the esta tes of the godly sufferers, who had not come that length of repentance that Judas came, when he brought back the price of blood and gave it again. Now came on the honest men's sorrow and vexation ; for, from the time that Mr. Welch came among them, till they were broken by the enemy, they were vexed with debates, strifes, contentions, prejudices, divisions, confusions, and disorders, and at last the utter overthrow of that once pleasant army; for ever after that there were two parties in that army struggling with each other; the one for truth, the other for defection; like Jacob and Esa u' struggling in Rebekah’s womb. Gen. xxv. 22. There was Mr. Hamilton and the Honest party with him, and Mr. Welch with the new incomers, with others who came in afterward; and such as were drawn from the right state of the testimony to their corrupt ways, which made up a new and very corrupt party.'-Howie's Account of the Battle of Bothwell Bridge.

To return to the novelist, of whom we had well nigh lost sight in examining the authenticity of bis historical representations. We have to notice, that he engages the insurgent presbyterians in the siege of his imaginary castle of Tillietudlem, defended against them by old Major Bellenden, to whom Lady Margaret Bellenden commits that charge by the solemn symbol of delivering into his hands her father's gold-headed staff, ' with full power,' as she ext? presses it,' to kill, slay, and damage all those who should assail the same, as freely as she could have done herself. The garrison is strengthened by the arrival of Lord Evandale, and by a party of dragoons left there by Claverhouse in his retreat from Drumclog. Thus prepared, they resolved to stand a siege ; the incidents of

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