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it was notified to the duke, by a letter under her own hand, 1711. < That her intention was to resume all the employments she < had intrusted him with ; complaining, at the same time, 6 of the treatment she had met with. This appears from the duke's answer, which he sent by the countess of Sunderland, one of his daughters :


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I am very sensible of the honour your majesty does me,, in dismissing me from your service by a letter of your own "hand; though I find by it, that my enemies have been

able to prevail with your majesty to do it in the manner « • that is most injurious to me. And, if their malice and

inveteracy against me had not been more powerful with

them, than the consideration of your majesty's honour and • had taken upon himself to • pounds above-mentioned, for • tranfact the difpofition of his • the contingencies of the army • two and a half per cent. with and, if so, the whole remained • the duke of Marlborough, the (to be accounted for; which, • commissioners were of opinion, on a computation, made from • that he ought to have trans- " the whole sum of eleven mil. « mitted constant accounts of it • lions, two hundred ninety-four • to Mr. Bridges, whose agent • thousand, six hundred and fifty • he only was; and not to have • nine pounds, four shillings, • negotiated fo large fums of ' and a penny halfpenny, paid public money in fo clandestine by Great-Britain, to, and for

That, by the war- • all the foreign forces, fince the • rant, this deduction was re- • 23d day of December, 1701, * served for the defraying extra- « amounted two hundred

ordinary contingent expences eighty-two thousand three hun• of the troops, from whom it • dred' fixty-fix pounds, nine

was stopped; and, if the whole shillings, and seven pence. And

had been employed in secret on a computation made from • correspondence and intelli- " the sum of seven millions, one

gence, there must have been • hundred and seven thousard, • some neglect of the other fer- eight hundred seventy-three • vices, for which it was origi- pounds, eighteen fhillings, and • nally designed ; and such a dif- eleven pence halfpenny, paid

position, being in no fort au- • to, and for the foreign forces, • thorized by the warrant, was a

• fince the time aforesaid (ex• mifapplication of it. Besides, clufive of Italy, Spain, and • the commissioners apprehend- Portugal) amounted to one

a manner.


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ed, that the article for secret • hundred and seventy - seven

service, to which this deduc- • thousand, fix hundred ninety• tion was pretended to have • five pounds, seventeen hillings, * been applied, was always in

• and three farthings.' * cluded in the ten thousand

& the

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justice, they would not have influenced you to impute the s occasion of my dismiffion to a false and malicious insinua<tion contrived by themselves, and made public, when there

was no opportunity for me to give in my answer; which, " they must needs bé conscious, would fully detect the fal- food and malice of their aspersions, and not leave them ' that handle for bringing your majesty to such extremities

against me.
But I am much more concerned at an expression in your

- majesty's letter, which seems to complain of the treatment

you had met with. I know not how to understand that ( word, nor what construction to make of it. I know I

have always endeavoured to serve your majesty faithfully

and zealously through a great many undeserved mortifica6 tions. But if your majesty does intend by that expreffion,

to find fault with my not coming to the cabinet council, I 6 am very free to acknowledge, that my duty to your ma

jesty and my country would not give me leave to join in • the counsel of a man, who, in my opinion, puts your ma

jesty upon all manner of extremities. And it is not my opinion only, but the opinion of all mankind, that the friendship of France must needs be destructive to your ma

jesty, there being in that court a root of enmity irrericoncileable to your majesty's government, and the reli

gion of these kingdoms. I wish your majeity may never « And the want of so faithful a servant, as I have always endeavoured to approve myself to you.

I am, with the greatest duty and submission,

Your majesty's most dutiful,
and obedient subject,


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The removal of the duke of Marlborough was thought very extraordinary, after such long and eminent services ; and was so little expected, that those, who looked for precedents, could find none since the disgrace of Belisarius in Juftinian's time. The only thing pretended to excuse it was, his being considered as the head of those, who opposed the peace, on which the court seemed to set their

hearts. A resolution The duke of Somerset continuing to oppose the schemes

of the new ministers, it was also resolved, in a consultation the duke of Somerset,

about the middle of December, to remove him. But the great friendthip between the queen and hiş duchess (who


to remove

put off,

was groom of the stole, and first lady of the bed-chamber) 1711. prevented that resolution from being then put in practice (c).


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(c) However to shew their re- • ministry, and brought in Mr. sentment to the duke for

oppo- Harley, Mr. St. John, Sir fing their measures, a pamphlet • Simon Harcourt, and some (faid to be penned by lord-keeper • others, the first of these being Harcourt, and called, “ Advice made an earl and lord-treasu• to the October club)' was rer, he was soon after blamed published, wherein he and his • by his friends, for not making duchess are both abused and in

a general sweep of all the
sulted. It is there faid, It whigs, as the latter did of
• would have been a master-piece their adversaries upon her ma-
• of prudence, in this case, to jesty's death, when they came
« have made a friend of an ene- • into power. At that time a

my: but, whether it were great number of parliament-
ever-attempted, is now too

men, amounting to above two
• late to inquire. All accom- • hundred, grew so warm upon
<modation was rendered defpe- o the flowness of the treasurer in

rate, by an unlucky proceed. . this part, that they formed

ing some months ago at Wind- • themselves into a body, under « for, which was a declaration the name of the October club, i of war too frank and gene- and had many meetings, to

rous, for that situation of af. (consult upon fome methods,
« fairs, and, I am told, was not • that might spur on those in

approved by a certain great ? power, so that they might
minister *. It was obvious to • make a quicker dispatch, in * The lord-

suppose, that in a particular, removing all the whig leaven treasurer.
6 where the honour and interest from the employments they † The duke
• of a + husband were so closely • ftill possessed. *To prevent the and duchess
• united with those of a wife, • ill consequences of this dscon- of Somerset,
• he might be sure of her utmost tent among so many worthy
• endeavours for his protection, • members, the rest of the mi-

though she never loved nor nistry joined with the trea-
• esteemed him. The danger of furer, partly to pacify, and

lofing power, favour, profit, partly to divide those, who
s and a shelter from domeftic ty.. were in greater hafte than mo-

ranny, were strong incitements derate men thought convenient.
to ftir up a working brain, • It was well known, that the
early practifed in all the arts of ' supposed author I met a confi- | Harcourt,
• intriguing.'

oderable number of this club in This pamphlet is lately re- a public house, where he conprinted in Vol. VII. of Swift's

« vinced them very plainly of
Miscellanies, to which is prefixed • the treasurer's fincerity, with
a preface, setting forth: That many of those very reasons,
• about the year, when her late • which are urged in the follow-

majesty, of blessed memory, ' ing discourse, besides fome
thought proper to change her • others, which were not so


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1711. The duke was not removed till the 26th of January, and,

though endeavours were used to the contrary, his duchess
was by the queen continued in her places, which she offered
to refign.

The duke of Marlborough's disgrace was attended with
other removes, and made way for several promotions.
The duke of Ormond, with the first regiment of foot-guards,
was appointed commander in chief of all the forces in
Great-Britain, and soon after, upon the elector of Han-

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proper to appear at that time

· discourse was very seasonably in print. The treasurer alledg- · published with great success, « ed in his defence, that such a Thewing the difficulties, that « treatment would not confift • the earl of Oxford lay under, ' with prudence, because there " and his real desire, that all

were many employments to be persons in employment should
« bellowed, which required skill • be true loyal churchmen, zea-
• and practice : that several gen- lous for her majesty's honour
• tlemen, who possessed them, • and safety, as well as for the

had been long versed, very < succession in the house of Han-
loyal to her majesty, had over, if the queen should hap-

never been violent party-men, pen to die without issue.'
" and were ready to fall into all The principal members of the
• honest measures for the service October club, who met at the
• of their queen and country. Bell-Tavern in Westminster, were
• But however, as offices be- these :

came vacant, he would hum

bly recommend to her majesty John Aislaby,
• such gentlemen, whose prin- Francis Annesley,

ciples, with regard both to William Bromley,
church and state, his friends Robert Byerley,
• would approve of, and he Henry Campion,
• would be ready to accept their Charles Cæsar,

recommendations. Thus, the Sir Robert Davers,
• earl proceeded in procuring Charles Eversfield,

employments for those, who Ralph Freeman,
« deferved them by their honef- Sir Thomas Hanmer,

ty, and abilities to execute John Hungerford,
<them. However, the gentle- Sir Juftinian Ilham,


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men of this club ftill continued George Lockhart, • uneasy, that no quicker pro- Sir Roger Mostyn,

gress was made in removals, Sir John Packington, .and till those, who were least Francis Scobel, • violent, began to soften a little, William Shippen, or, by dividing them, the Sir Thomas Thorold, • whole affair dropped. During John Trevanion, * this difficulty, we have been Sir William Whitlockę, afiured, that the following Sir William Windham.


over's refusal to command the queen's forces in Flanders, 1711. captain-general of all her forces at home and abroad. The earl Rivers was made master-general of the ordnance, and colonel of the royal regiment of horse-guards. The duke of Beaufort was appointed captain of the band of pensioners, and brigadier Hill lieutenant of the Tower, in the room of lieutenant-general Cadogan. The countess of Sunderland and the lady Rialton, two of the duke of Marlborough's daughters, resigned their places of ladies of the bedchamber.

The ministers, finding the majority of the house of lords Twelve new could not be brought to favour ther designs, resolved to peers made.

Burnet, make an experiment, which none of our princes had ventured on in former times. A resolution was taken up very suddenly of making twelve peers all at once, which was accordingly done on the last day of December, by calling up by writ to the house of lords James lord Compton, eldest son to the earl of Northampton, and Charles lord Bruce, eldest son to the earl of Ailesbury; and creating by patent ten new peers of Great-Britain ; George Hay, or lord Duplin, of the kingdom of Scotland, the lord-treafurer's son-in-law, baron Hay of Bedwarden in the county of Hereford; the lord viscount Windsor of Ireland, baron Montjoy, of the isle of Wight, in the county of Southampton ; Henry Paget, son to the lord Paget, baron Burton, of Burton, in the county of Stafford; Sir Thomas Mansel, baron Mansel, of Margam, in the county of Glamorgan; Sir Thomas Willoughby, baron Middleton, of Middleton, in the county of Warwick; Sir Thomas Trevor, baron Trevor, of Bromham, in the county of Bedford ; George Granville, baron Lansdowne, of Biddeford, in the county of Devon ; Samuel Marham, baron Maíham, of Oates, in the county of EtTex ; Thomas Foley, baron Foley, of Kidderminster, in the county of Worcester; and Allen Bathurst, baron Bathurst, of Battlesden, in the county of Bedford. Sir Miles Wharton had been offered a peerage ; but he thought it looked like the serving a turn, and that, whereas peers used to be made for services, which they had done, he should be made for services to be done by him; and therefore excused himself from accepting it; and the favourite's husband, Mr. Masham, was put in his room. And whereas formerly Jefferies had the vanity to be made a peer, while he was chief justice, which had not been practised for some ages ; yet the precedent set by him was followed, and Trevor, chief-justice of the common pleas, was now ad


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