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Could never be the effect of blind chance. The old and new teftament confirm each other: the prophetic parts of the former support the gofpel, and the miracles and prophecies and fuccess of Christ and his apostles support the old teftament.

2. Christ knew the hearts of men, as he fhewed upon all occafions; a knowledge which almighty God reprefents in fcripture as fo peculiar to himself, that he cannot be fuppofed to fuffer those to partake of it who are not sent by him.

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3. He was a prophet: he foretold not only things remote and lying beyond human fagacity, but things improbable and miraculous, which have been accomplished.

4. He wrought miracles numerous and various, worthy of himself, and beneficial to men and many of these miracles were also prophecies at the fame time, and indications of future events and fo were most of his parables.

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5. He never erred or failed in any point, as teacher, prophet, meffias, or worker of miracles. All his promises were accomplished, particularly his remarkable promise that he would fupport and comfort all those who should be called to fuffer and to die for his fake, which hath been illuftriously fulfilled in ancient and in modern martyrs.

6. He conferred miraculous and prophetic gifts on his difciples, and they on theirs.

7. His religion was pure and popular, yet plain and holy, and tending to make men wifer and better; and it produced a multitude of good effects in the world.

8. When it was first preached, it could never have made its way without the affistance of miracles.

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9. He lived and died an example of all that he taught, of all active and fuffering virtues.

10. He had no rival or antagonist, to make his authority appear doubtful, by oppofing prophecies to his prophecies, and miracles to his miracles, from the time that he began his miniftry to this day. It cannot be fuppofed that there should be any deceit in this complicated evidence, and that falfhood fhould boaft of all the imaginble characters of truth.'

He now proceeds to fay fomewhat concerning the postapoftolical miracles; and obferves, concerning them, that, as they fall fhort in many inftances of the diftinguishing characters belonging to the works of Chrift and his apoftles, fo they must fail of giving us the fame full perfuafion and fatisfaction. He further obferves, that they were not foreVOL. VI.



told by the prophets; that they were not wrought by prophets; that they contained in them no prophetic indicatiors of future events; and that no man ever laid down his life, or even fuffered distress and perfecution in attestation of them.

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The christian miracles, fays he, may be referred to four periods. The first period contains those which are recorded in the new teftament, and reaches to about À. D. 70. Of these there can be no doubt among chriftians. The next period may be of thirty-feven years, and ends about A. D. 107. There is reason to think it probable that fome miracles were then performed. by those who preached and planted the gofpel in Pagan countries. The third reaches from thence to Conftantine. For fome of the miracles in these ages, in the second and third centuries, fo much may be alledged as should restrain us from determining too pofitively against them, and denying them all. The laft period is from Conftantine to where you please, and abounds with miracles; the defence of which fhall be left to those who are inclined to undertake it, at the hazard of mifapplying their pains. One sort of miracles seems to have been much wanted, and that was, to caft the romantic devil out of the chriftians of those times; but this kind goeth not out fo eafily, and ftands in awe of no exorcisms.

Some few miracles indeed are faid to have been wrought in the days of Conftantine, and in remote regions where the gospel was then firft propagated, which, though for certain reasons one cannot rely upon them, yet may require a fufpenfe of judgment.--. If it be ask'd, when miraculous powers ceased in the church? The proper anfwer feems to be, that these miracles cease to us, when we cease to find fatisfactory evidence for them. Some of the post-apoftolical miracles fhall be confidered in the course of this work; and what may be fairly urged in their favour, fhall not be omitted: but it may not be amifs to declare once for all, that I would not engage for the truth of any of them, after A. D. 107; and that I defire to be ranked, as to this point, not amongst the denyers and rejectors, but amongst the doul ters.

In the remaining part of this work the reader will find many judicious remarks on the apologifts for chriftianity and their writings; a large account of the Manichean heresy; the characters of Tertullian, Adrian, Cyprian, Juftin Martyr, Origen, &c. but we fhall finish our account of it with acquainting

acquainting our readers, that mr. Jortin has carried his remarks down to the age of Conftantine, and that he intends. to confider the completion of the prophecies, in the establishment of christianity, and in the deftruction of the perfecuting princes, in another volume.

ART. XLIX. Principles of polity: being the grounds and reafons of civil empire. In three parts. By Thomas Pownal, fq; 4to. 4s. ferved. E. Owen.


HE ingenious and judicious author of this piece having, in a former fmall performance, (fee our Review for February 1750) pointed out the defects and inconfiftencies attending the doctrine of an original contract, proceeds now to fhew, that the grounds and reafons of civil empire arise from nature, and not from pofitive inftitution. He makes it appear, that the social state is the real state of man's nature; that the BALANCE OF PROPERTY can be the only firft, natural, real and permanent ground of thofe connexions and fubordinations which form an empire; that this balance is indeed to be rectified and regulated by the hands of the legislature or minifter, but that it has its foundation in nature, in the SCITE and circumstances of the country and people; and that all governments that have been able to fubfift and maintain themselves have been formed upon it.

Our author applies his principles to the real exercise and adminiftring of government, and fhews, that they are confiftent throughout with that true policy which is founded in liberty. It appears from the whole of his performance, that he is a thorough mafter of his fubject, and well acquainted both with ancient and modern hiftory: his ftile indeed is, in fome places, fomewhat intricate and perplexed; but his reafonings, as far as we are able to judge, are folid and convincing, and his reflections juft. As he has thought proper to treat his fubject in the way of dialogue, our readers cannot expect that we should give large extracts from his work; we must therefore leave them to judge of his manner of writing by the following fpecimen, which will likewife enable them to form fome idea of his manner of reasoning.

I fuppofe we fhall be agreed, fays he, let us found government on what principles foever, that it is that actuating power by which a people is directed in its actions upon Ff2


thofe objects which it ftands related to as a community; that is, in regard to its interest as a community. Now, this intereft of the community we have found to be the whole communion of all the powers and capacities of the feveral individual conftituents, confpiring by a confociation of fuch powers into one organized whole. Which, as it hath to itself a distinct principle of individuality, hath likewife an intereft of this individuality, diftinct from that of the particular conftituents, confidered as separate and independent: and which, as it fubfifts by a kind of organization from the confpiring powers of the united conftituents, would be deftroyed by any felfifh, partial, or unequal direction of those powers in the individual. That is, those reflections under which this common intereft exifts, and by which it fubfifts, are different from, and inconsistent with those, by which the intereft of the individual exists, refpecting only its partial individuality. Now, as the whole of thofe relations of things under which any being exists, is called its nature; fo that power in man, which perceives thofe relations, is called reason. And, as you fee there are relations confiftent and inconfiftent with the true nature, so there is a right reafon and a wrong. And, as those actions which regard the true whole of the nature of that being they are exerted upon, are the actions of right reason; fo thofe which regard only fome partial felfifh portion, unequal to, and inconfiftent with the whole, and difproportionate to the true nature of that whole, (however in regard to that portion, they are at that time right) may be called affection, and, in contradiction to reafon, will. Ast in man that uniform tenor of the reasoning power, that at all times extends to the whole of his nature, is called right reafon; fo those partial and unequal fallies of it, which by fits and farts, confine its view to any selfish portion of this nature, are called affection and will. Hence the common intereft, as above defcribed, could neither be formed or adminiftred by will, becaufe will, by the very nature of it, is unequal to itself, unequal and difproportionate to the whole of the nature of this intereft, and many times, as 'fhall happen, absolutely inconfiftent with it. The right intereft of the whole community, as above defcribed, can never be limitted to the reafon of any partial actuating power of such community; because the reafon of fuch, however right it may be, in refpect of its partial individuality, is, in regard to the reason which fhould guide the whole, what will or affection is, in regard to man's right reafon.


The reafon then of that actuating power only, whofe in tereft extends to, and circumfcribes the interest of th whole, can be the right reafon of the whole. Where the" the balance of property or this intereft is, there will be the right reafon of the whole; and, where this interest is, there will be the power; not an abfolute irrefiftible power, but a power to controul the will of the whole; because, by its connexion with this intereft, it fubfifts by it, and because, tho' will may not in every particular inftance fee this its right intereft, yet the reafoning part has fuch influence, by means of all the inciting objects, that can affect will, being in its hands, that it does in every inftance lead it. Having therefore fhewn, that the power, reason, and will of the whole community are naturally connected, and connected under the intereft of the whole, and refide where is found the balance of the property in the community; which balance is determined by the scites and circumftances of a country and its people: we will venture to say in the words of mr. Harrington, that all government is interest, and the predominant (interest) gives the matter or foundation of government.'

ART. L. De Homine. Poema Alexandri Popii quatuor epiftolis confcriptum, a Johanne Sayer, A. M. Latine redditum. Oxonii, &c. 4to. 2s. 6d. Rivington, &h.


HE public is here presented with the third epiftle of mr. Pope's effay on man, tranflated into Latin verfe. Our readers will be able to judge of the merit of mr. Sayer's performance by the following specimen.

See him from nature rifing flow to art!
To copy inftinet then was reafon's part;
Thus then to man the voice of nature spake, &c.

E Tune Roure urgebat Preffo veftigia greflu

N! ut naturâ quàm lentè exfurgit ad artem!


INSTINCTUS; ità tunc homini NATURA locuta eft--
Vade!, Docende feris, elementa exquirito pafsim:
Ex avibus quos, difce, cibos dumeta miniftrant;
Ex pecubus difcas agri medicamina scitus;
Difce tuas apibus condendi callidus artes;
Findere talpa folum doceat, contexere vermis;
NAUTILUS exiguus monftret dare lintea, remos



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