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73. · Brauma' himself, having compared a Sudra, CHAP. • who performs the duties of the twice-born, with a

twice-born man, who does the acts of a Súdra, said : “ Those two are neither equal nor unequal,” that is, they are neither equal in rank, nor unequal in bad conduct.


74. LET such Bráhmens as are intent on the means • of attaining the supreme godhead, and firm in their

own duties, completely perform, in order, the six following acts :

75. - Reading the Vedas, and teaching others to ' read them, sacrificing, and assisting others to sa' crifice, giving to the poor, if themselves have enough, ' and accepting gifts from the virtuous if themselves

are poor, are the six prescribed acts of the first-
born class;
But, among those six acts of a

of a Bráhmen, • three are his means of subsistence; assisting to sa'crifice, teaching the Vedas, and receiving gifts from ' a pure-handed giver.

77. · Three acts of duty cease with the Bráhmen, • and belong not to the Cshatriya; teaching the Védas,

officiating at a sacrifice, and, thirdly, receiving presents :


78. · Those three are also (by the fixed rule of law) forbidden to the Vaisya ; , since Menu, the lord of ' all men, prescribed not those acts to the two classes, military and commercial,

79. "The




80. .

79. "The

of subsistence, peculiar to the Cshatriya, are bearing arms, either beld for striking or missile, to the Vaisya, merchandize, attending on

cattle, and agriculture : but, with a view to the next life, the duties of both are almsgiving, reading, sacrificing

Among the several occupations for gaining a livelihood the most commendable respectively for ' the sacerdotal, military, and mercantile classes, are

teaching the Veda, defending the people, and com-
merce or keeping herds and flocks.
81. ' Yet a Bráhmen, unable to subsist by his duties
just mentioned, may live by the duty of a soldier
for that is the next in rank.


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82. ' If it be asked, how he must live, should he · be unable to get a subsistence by either of those

employments; the answer is, he may subsist as • mercantile man, applying himself in person to tillage " and attendance on cattle :

83. · But a Bráhmen and a Cshatriya, obliged to • subsist by the acts of a Vaisya, must avoid with

care, if they can live by keeping herds, the business of tillage, which gives great pain to sentient creatures, and is dependant on the labour of others, . as bulls and so forth. 84. • Some are of opinion, that agriculture is excellent; but it is a mode of subsistence which the · benevolent greatly blame; for the iron-mouthed

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pieces of wood not only wound the earth, but the CHAP. creatures dwelling in it.

85. ' If, through want of a virtuous livelihood, they • cannot follow laudable occupations, they may then

gain a competence of wealth by selling commodities

usually sold by merchants, avoiding what ought to « be avoided :

86. '. They must avoid selling liquids of all sorts, • dressed grain, seeds of tila, stones, salt, cattle, and human creatures;

87. “ All woven cloth dyed red, cloth made of sana, • of cshumá-bark, and of wool, even though not red; fruit, roots, and medicinal plants; 88. ' Water, iron, poison, Alesh-meat, the moonplant, and perfumes of any sort; milk, honey, butter

milk, clarified butter, oil of tila, wax, sugar, and · blades of cus'a-grass;

89. “ All beasts of the forest, as deer and the like; ravenous beasts, birds, and fish; spirituous liquors, ' nili, or indigo, and lácshá, or lac; and all beasts " with uncloven hoofs.

90. · But the Bráhmen-husbandman may at pleasure

tila-seeds for the purpose of holy rites, if he keep them not long with a hope of more gain, ' and shall have produced them by his own culture :

91. “ If he apply seeds of tila to any purpose but food, anointing, and sacred oblations, he shall be

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plunged, in the shape of a worm, together with his
parents, into the ordure of dogs.
92. “ By selling flesh-meat, lácshá, or salt, a Bráh-

immediately sinks low ; by selling milk three days, he falls to a level with a Súdra ;

93. · And by. selling the other forbidden commodities with his own free will, he assumes in this

world, after seven nights, the nature of a

94. • Fluid things may, however, be bartered for í other fluids, but not salt for any thing liquid; so

may dressed grain for grain undressed, and tila-seeds · for grain in the husk, equal weights or being given and taken. 95. ' A MILITARY man, in distress, may subsist by all these means, but at no time must he have recourse to the highest, or sacerdotal, function.

96. " A man of the lowest class, who, through ' covetousness, lives by the acts of the highest, let (the king strip of all his wealth and instantly banish:

97. “ His own office, though defectively performed, . is preferable to that of another, though performed

completely; for he, who without necessity discharges the duties of another class, immediately forfeits his



98. ' A MERCANTILE man, unable to subsist by his own duties, may descend even to the servile acts



may sub

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' of a Súdra, taking care never to do what ought CHAP.

never to be done ; but, when he has gained a competence, let him depart from service. 99. ' A Man of the fourth class, not finding employment by waiting on the twice-born, while his ' wife and son are tormented with hunger, • sist by handicrafts :

100. Let him principally follow those mechanical occupations, as joinery and masonry, or those various

practical arts, as painting and writing, by following ' which, he may serve the twice-born. 101. SHOULD a Bráhmen, afflicted and

afflicted and pining • through want of food, choose rather to remain • fixed in the path of his own duty, than to adopt ' the practice of Vaisyas, let him act in this manner :

102. · The Bráhmen, having fallen into distress, may receive gifts from any person whatever ; for by no sacred rule can it be shown, that absolute purity can be sullied.

103. · From interpreting the Véda, from officiating • at sacrifices, or from taking presents, though in · modes generally disapproved, no sin is committed

by priests in distress; for they are as pure as fire or water

104. ' He, who receives food, when his life could • not otherwise be sustained, from any man whatever, • is no more tainted by sin, than the subtil ether by

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