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his cares, he gave much of his time to the improvement of his mind. At thirty, so great was the respect he had gained amongst his fellow-citizens, that he was appointed clerk to the House of Assembly for the province, and next year he became deputy-postmaster. At the same time, he did not forget that, with such abilities as he possessed, he owed a certain duty to his fellow-creatures. He set up a philosophical society for cultivating science and letters; he established a superior academy for the education of youth ; and he was the means of establishing a company for insurance against loss by fire. Indeed, almost all the public affairs of the province were more or less directed by Benjamin Franklin.

Afterwards, he engaged in scientific investigations. In the year 1752, by means of a kite, he drew down electricity from thunder-clouds, by which he was the first to show that lightning and the electric fluid are the same thing. This discovery made the name of the Philadelphia printer famous throughout Europe. When he had arrived at a mature period of life, the American provinces and the mother country engaged in a war, which ended in the former becoming independent of the latter. In this contest Franklin took a leading part. He for some years acted as ambassador from his native country to the king of France -which


him occasion to remember a passage of Scripture which his father would sometimes repeat, “Seest thou a mnan diligent in his business ? he shall stand before kings”-the full sense of which we can only feel, when it is known that in the east, long ago, as well as now, to stand before a king was a high mark of honour, while to sit is the greatest honour with us. Thus Benjamin Franklin concluded his life in wealth and honour far above that of most men, though he had originally entered life a very poor boy:

When one man has done well in the world, it is natural for the rest to wish know by what means he prospered. If we make this inquiry respecting Franklin, we shall find satisfactory answers in the writings he has left to us.

He says, “ The way to wealth, if you desire it, is as plain as the way to market. It depends chiefly on two words-industry and frugality; that is, waste neither time nor money, but


make the best use of both. Without industry and frugality, nothing will do ; and with them every thing. After industry and frugality, nothing contributes more to the raising of a young man in the world, than punctuality and justice in all his dealings. Diligence,” he adds, “is the mother of good luck. God gives all things to industry. Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-morrow. If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle ? If, then, you are your own master, be ashamed to catch yourself idle.”

SAYINGS OF POOR RICHARD. It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their time to be employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us much more: sloth, by bringing on disease, absolutely shortens life. “Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears, while the used key is always bright," as Poor Richard says. But, “ dost thou love life, then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of,” as Poor Richard says. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting that “the sleeping fox catches no poultry,” and that “there will be sleeping enough in the grave," as Poor Richard says.

“ If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be," as Poor Richard says, “ the greatest prodigality;" since, as he elsewhere tells


Lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough. Let us, then, up and be doing, and be doing to the purpose, so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy: and he that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night;" while “ laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," as Poor Richard says.

So what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better if we bestir ourselves. “ Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hope will



go fasting. There are no gains without pains; then help, hands, for I have no lands, or if I have, they are smartly taxed. He that hath a trade hath an estate; and he that hath a calling, hath an office of profit and honour," as Poor Richard says; but, then, the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or neither the estate nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. If we are industrious, we shall never starve; for “at the working-man's house, hunger looks in, but dares not enter; for Industry pays debts, while Despair increaseth them.” What! though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy, Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then, " plough deep, while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep. Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-morrow," as Poor Richard says;

and further, “never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day.” “ Handle your tools without mittens ; remember that the cat in gloves catches n mice," as Poor Richard says. It is true there is much to be done, and, perhaps, you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects ; for constant dropping wears away stones," and “by diligence and patience the mouse ate in two the cable ;” and “ little strokes fell great oaks.” Methinks I hear some of you say,

“ Must a man afford himself no leisure ?" I will tell you, my friend, what Poor Richard says" Employ thy time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure; and since you are not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour.”-Franklin.


A gentleman was under close confinement in the Bastile for seven years, during which time he amused himself in scattering a few small pins about his chamber, gathering them up again, and placing them in different figures on the arm of a great chair. He often told his friends afterwards, that, unless he had found out this mode of employing himself, he verily believed he should have lost his senses.

MARQUIS SPINOLA. “ Pray, of what did your brother die ?" said this celebrated general one day to Sir Horace Vere.

“ He died,” replied Vere, “ of having nothing to do.” “ Alas! sir," said Spinola, “ that is enough to kill any general of us all.”

Go to the ant, thou sluggard ; consider her ways, and be wire: which, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest.-Proverbs, vi. 6, 7, 8.

Seest thou a man diligent in his business ? he shall stand before kings; he shall not stand before mean men.- -Proverbs, xxii. 29.

Neither did we (says St Paul) eat any man's lread for nought; but wrought with labour and travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you : not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample unto you to follow us : For eren when we were with you, this we commanded you, that if any would not work, neither should he eat.-2 Thessalonians, iii. 8, 9, 10.

How doth the little busy bee

Improve each shining hour,
And gather honey all the day

From every opening flower !
In works of labour and of skill,

I would be busy too;
For Satan finds some mischief still

For idle hands to do.
In books, or work, or healthful play,

May my first years be pass'd,
That I may give for every

day A good account at last.- WATTS. When we read the lives of distinguished men, in any department, we find them almost always celebrated for the amount of labour they could perform. Demosthenes, Julius Cæsar, Henry IV. of France, Lord Bacon, Sir Isaac Newton, Franklin, Washington, Napoleon Bonaparte-different as



they were in their intellectual and moral qualities were all renowned as hard workers. We read how many days they could support the fatigue of a march ; how early they rose; how late they watched; how many hours they spent in the field, in the cabinet, in the court; how many secretaries they employed ;-in short, how hard they worked.—Hanwell Extracts.


Ir appears to have been designed by creative providence, that every human being should chiefly depend on the means within himself, for his own subsistence and advancement in the world. We have not been designed to depend on each other for food, clothing, or any other things we desire : we are called on to labour that we may obtain these things for ourselves. The support and comfort of each person is thus made much surer than it could have been by any other plan.

It is of importance, therefore, for young persons, that they should accustom themselves from their earliest years to trust as little as possible to others for what they want. They should learn to put on their own clothes, to wash their own faces, to take their food with their own hands, and not to expect that their mothers or servants are always to do these things for them. They should learn to read, to write, to cast accounts, and should fill their minds with knowledge, that they may be able, as soon as possible, to go into the world and earn their own bread. At the proper time, they should be prepared, if necessary, to commence learning some art, trade, or profession, by which they may live for the rest of their days. The more they can serve themselves, and the more they can live by their own exertions, they will be the more liked and respected by others. It is justly considered shameful for any one who has hands to labour, and a mind to think, to remain in idleness while others are working, and to look to those who work for enjoyments which he might, by a little activity, obtain for himself.

Whatever we trust to others to do, is scarcely ever so

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