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for money, provoke Bráhmens to anger by taking ' their property ; for they, once enraged, could imme

diately by sacrifices and imprecations destroy him with
his troops, elephants, horses and cars.
314. · Who, without perishing, could provoke those
holy men, by whom, that is, by whose ancestors,

under BRAHMA', the all-devouring fire was created,
• the sea with waters not drinkable, and the moon
with its wane and increase ?
315. " What prince could gain wealth by oppress--
ing those, who, if angry, could frame other worlds
' and regents of worlds, could give being to new gods
" and mortals ?

316. What man, desirous of life, would injure ' those, by the aid of whom, that is, by whose obla' tions, worlds and gods perpetually subsist; those, • who are rich in the learning of the Véda ?

317. ^ A Bráhmen, whether learned or ignorant, is
a powerful divinity; even as fire is a powerful di-
vinity, whether consecrated or popular.
318. · Even in places for burning the dead, the

bright fire is undefiled; and, when presented with • clarified butter at subsequent sacrifices, blazes again · with extreme splendour:

319. · Thus, although Bráhmens employ themselves in • all sorts of mean occupation, they must invariably • be honoured; for they are something transcendently <divine.

320. Of


320. · Of a military man, who raises his arm vio- CHAP. lently on all occasions against the priestly class, the

priest himself shall be the chastiser; since the • soldier originally proceeded from the Bráhmen.

321. · From the waters arose fire; from the priest, • the soldier; from stone, iron : their all-penetrating · force is ineffectual in the place, whence they respectively sprang. 322. · The military class cannot prosper without the sacerdotal, nor can the sacerdotal be raised without the military : both classes, by cordial union, are exalted in this world and in the next.



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323. • Should the king be near his end through some incurable disease, he must bestow on the priests • all his riches accumulated from legal fines; and, having duly committed his kingdom to his son, let

him seek death in battle, or, if there be no war, ' by abstaining from food.

324. • Thus conducting himself, and ever firm in discharging his royal duties, let the king employ all • his ministers in acts beneficial to his people.

325." These rules for the conduct of a military man having been propounded, let mankind next hear the rules for the commercial and servile classes in I due order.

326. ' Let the Vaisya, having been girt with his proper sacrificial thread, and having married an 2 x




equal wife, be always attentive to his business of agriculture and trade, and to that of keeping cattle;

327. • Since the Lord of created beings, having ' formed herds, and flocks, intrusted them to the care ' of the Vaisya, while he intrusted the whole human species to the Bráhmen and the Cshatriya : 328. • Never must a Vaisya be disposed to say, “ I keep no cattle ;” nor, he being willing to keep

them, must they by any means be kept by men of ( another class.

329. • Of gems, pearls, and coral, of iron, of woven cloth, of perfumes and of liquids, let him well • know the prices both high and low :


330. " Let him be skilled likewise in the time and manner of sowing seeds, and in the bad or good qualities of land ; let him also perfectly know the correct modes of measuring and weighing,

331. • The excellence or defects of commodities, .' the advantages and disadvantages of different re

gions, the probable gain or loss on vendible goods,

and the means of breeding cattle with large aug(mentation :

332. - Let him know the just wages of servants, « the various dialects of men, the best way of keep

ing goods, and whatever else belongs to purchase
and sale.
333. • Let him apply the most vigilant care to


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augment his wealth by performing his duty; and, CHAP. ' with great solicitude, let him give nourishment to • all sentient creatures.

334. · SERVILE attendance on Bráhmens learned in ' the Véda, chiefly on such as keep house and are ' famed for virtue, is of itself the highest duty of

a Súdra, and leads him to future beatitude.

335. • Pure in body and mind, humbly serving the • three higher classes, mild in speech, never arrogant,

ever seeking refuge in Bráhmens principally, he may attain the most eminent class in another transmigra


6 tion.

336. ' This clear system of duties has been promulgated for the four classes, when they are not in distress for subsistence; now learn in order their several duties in times of necessity.'

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On the mixed Classes ; and on Times of Distress.



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1. - Let the three twice-born classes, remaining firm ' in their several duties, carefully read the Véda; but

a Bráhmen must explain it to them, not a man of the other two classes : this is an established rule.

2. ^ The Bráhmen must know the means of sub• sistence ordained by law for all the classes, and

must declare them to the rest : let himself likewise
act in conformity to law.
3. · From priority of birth, from superiority of ori-
gin, from a more exact knowledge of scripture, and
from a distinction in the sacrificial thread, the Bráh-
men is the lord of all classes.

4. · The three twice-born classes are the sacerdotal,
' the military, and the commercial; but the fourth, or
' servile, is once-born, that is, has no second birth
from the gayatrí, and wears no thread: nor is there
a fifth pure class.
5. ' In all classes they, and they only, who are
born, in a direct order, of wives equal in class and
virgins at the time of marriage, are to be considered
as the same in class with their fathers :
6. • Sons, begotten by twice-born men, on women

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