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men, was to the last degree perilous. After one shipwreck, (of which a lively description is given and a worthless print) many dangers, and many deaths among the ill-fated passengers, Ali Bey was set on shore at Gadikyahia, a fine port, six leagues from Tor, that he might perform the rest of the way by land, even the desert being less formidable than the Red Sea. Here he witnessed a whimsical but convenient regulation among a set of men, who, in all countries, stand much in need of regulation—the carriers.
• The Arab camel drivers were about to dispute concerning the dividing of the burdens of the camels, because it is generally agreed upon between thern, that at the moment of disembarkation, each loads his camel with what he can lay his hand on; so long they keep silence ; but being arrived at this spot, they are at liberty to dispute until they come to a group of palm trees, which is well known, and there the dispute must cease. Every thing is then settled, and each must content hinself with that which chance or the result of the altercation bas assigned to him.
I had remarked from the beginning of the journey, that some of the camel drivers murmured among themselves, and had asked the cause of it. I was told in answer that they were to finish the dispute in the town of Tor.
On arriving at this place they make every one alight, and commence the most bitter dispute among themselves. I wished to tranquillize them, and to appease the quarrel. I got for answer that such wus their constitution. I let them therefore continue their discussion. They huddled themselves together in a circle upon the ground, then rose in dispute, and seated themselves again in the same position, until at length they called in an old man to settle their dispute. The old man arrived, and decided ; some were content with his decision, but others called in another old man, and the same scene re-commenced. They unloaded some camels to load others, and the dispute continued in the same man. ner, and with the same cries as before. At length we all re-mounted and set out, but the dispute still continued: some of the drivers held the camels, and prevented them from proceeding, whilst others ran on to arrive at the places where the contest was to cease. Soinetimes they stopt the whole caravan by stooping down together in a circle in the middle of the path, where they re-commenced the discussion, got angry with each other, some insisting and others refusing to exchange burdens, and seizing each other by the collar, and coming almost to blows. At length, on arriving at the group of palm trees, they exclaimed with one accord, Hhalas, Hhalas, “It is enough, it is
They then remained motionless as stocks, after which they continued their route very quietly. I could hardly forbear to laugh at seeing this grotesque mode of discussion ; but they constantly answered me that it was the constitution.'-vol. ii. p. 180.
The journey was painful and dangerous. There were forty poor mendicant foot pilgrims in the caravan, who had exhausted all their water, and whom none of their companions could assist without
exposing themselves to the same sufferings. Ali Bey gave water to a few of them, but was obliged at last to shut his eyes and stop his ears to protect his servant and himself from becoming the victims of their compassion. The pilgrims in all probability perished! As the want of water was so likely to occur, and so certainly fatal if it occurred, why did not the caravan keep near the shore, where water to support life may always be procured by digging pits* in the sand; or was the fact itself forgotten by our philosopher, for it appears that this dreadful scene took place within an hour's march of the sea side ?
Ali Bey believes that the level of the Red Sea was formerly, as has been asserted, higher than that of the Mediterranean, but that it is not so now, or is perhaps not so elevated; his reasons for this supposition are reserved for the scientific part of his travels. There occurs, however, in this part of his work an interesting passage of natural history, which may direct the researches of future travellers.
- If on the one hand nature has been scanty in her vegetation upon the shores of the Red Sea which I have visited, she has been extremely prolific of fossils.
From the great abundance of molluscæ polyssis and zoophytes is produced the matter of the calcareous concretions, and the little depth of this sea, added to the elevated temperature of the atmosphere, contributes to accelerate these operations of nature in such a manner, that the observer who wishes to study, and to know the phenomena of petrifactions, cannot, I am persuaded, find a better cabinet than the shores of the Red Sea.
* Although circumstances prevented me from making continued investigations, yet nature works here in so visible a manner, that I thought I had sometimes observed ber in the act. I have picked up shells at the moment when they were going to conglutinate themselves with the stony matter that surrounded them ; I have collected others half petrified. But what is more particularly interesting, is a bank of calcareous stone, which actually forms itself on the eastern part of the. island of Omelmelek. It is there that I was enabled to remark all the stages of petrifaction, from the sand, or pulverulent detritus of the shells, to the rock already rendered solid ; and what I found still more admirable on this scale of petrifaction was, that the powder of the shells already amalgamated, and become concrete, though still friable, and
*Dig a pit upon the sea-shore somewhat above the high-water mark, and sink it as deep as the low-water mark, and as the tide cometh in, it will fill with water, fresh and potable. This is commonly practised upon the coast of Barbary, where other fresh water is wanting. And Cæsar knew this well when he was besieged-in Alexa andria; for by digging of pits in the sea-shore, he did frustrate the laborious works of the enemies which had túrned the sea-water upon the wells of Alexandria; and so saved his army, being then in desperation.'-Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum. We transcribe this as one of those facts by which human sufferings might sometimes be alleviated, and life itself perhaps preserved, if it were popularly as well as philosopbically knowo.
easy to be broken, is impregnated with a sort of volatile oil, which greased the fingers when touched with it. But this oil volatilized and disappeared in a short time. In the space even of a few feet, may be found all the gradations of petrifactions; that is to say, sand which does not cohere, sand in an incipient state of conglutination, sand resembling a sort of soft paste, paste beginning to harden, friable stone, soft stone, and bard stone. This gradation is even perceptible on the sea-shore. Í collected specimens of all these curiosities; but bow much did it cost me to tear myself away from this interesting spot, without being able to make a multitude of observations, which might have contributed to the advancement of science. I recommend the study of thiş bank to travellers who may visit this country.'-vol. ii. pp. 189, 190.
From Suez the traveller returned to Caire, and from Cairo he travelled to Jerusalem. His feelings upon entering a rich and culLivated country after living so long in the desert, are too remarkable to be given in any other than his own words.
How. strange did this manper of travelling appear to me! Accus. tomed as I had been for so long a time to traverse the desert with large caravans, the sensations I felt this day were inexpressible ; attended only by three servants, a slave, three camels, two mules, my horse, and a single Turkish soldier who served as escort, I at length found myself in a cultivated country. I passed at intervals through villages, and inbabited hamlets ; my eyes could now repose with delight upon varied plantations; and I now met at every moment human beings, on foot and on horseback; almost all of them were well dressed : I felt as if I were in Europe ; but, great God! what bitterness did some ideas mix with these agreeable sensations; I will own it, because I felt it. Upon entering those countries circumscribed by individual property, the heart of man is contracted and oppressed. I cannot turn my eyes, or move a step, without being stopped by a hedge, which seems to say to me, “ Halt there, do not pass these bounds.” Doubtless, society is a great good ; doubtless the greatest blessing of man is to live under a wellorganized government, which by the wise employment of the public -strength ensures to each individual the peaceable enjoyment of his property ; but it appears to me that all we gain in safety and tranquillity, we lose in energy.'-vol. ii. pp. 208, 209.
We have frequently had a little of Voltaire in these travels, and here we have something of Jean Jacques. Wherever the Spaniard may have acquired his science, he has gone for his moral philosophy to a miserable school.
When Dr. Clarke was at Jerusalem, that active and enterprising traveller endeavoured to obtain access to the great mosque erected by the Caliph Omar upon the site of Solomon's Temple; for this purpose he used all his interest with the Governor, by means of Djezzar Pasha's own interpreter;. but the Governor entreated him not to urge the request, 'saying,' says Dr. Clarke, his own life would certainly be required as the price of our admission : we were there
fore,' he continues, compelled to rest satisfied with the interesting view of it afforded from his windows, which regarded the area of the temple. The sight was so grand, that we did not hesitate in pronouncing it the most magnificent piece of architecture in the Turkish empire; and considered externally, superior to the mosque of Saint Sophia in Constantinople.' The Mussulman religion, according to Ali Bey, acknowledges but two temples, that of Mecca and that of Jerusalem. "God, says an Arabian writer, has regarded the sanctuary of Jerusalem with the eye of his beauty, and the sanctuary of Mecca with the eye of his majesty, -Jerusalem having the fairest and most magnificent mosque in the world, Mecca the most majestic and the most venerable:' both are named El Haram, an Arabic word which strictly signifies a temple or place consecrated by the peculiar presence of the Divinity. Is this, indeed, the strict signification of the word? or may a critic who pretends to no knowledge of Arabic venture to ask if it be not the same word which is commonly written Harem, designating a place which strangers indeed are forbidden toenter, but not implying any notion of sanctity ?' Other mosques are named El Djammaa, -the place of assembly,---or, in more familiar phraseology, meeting, houses; they are sacred places, but not consecrated by the especial presence of the Deity; unbelievers are prevented from entering them, merely by the popular feeling, not by any canonical precept; and access may be obtained by an order from a public authority. • But no Mussulman governor dare permit an infidel to pass into the territory of Mecca, or into the temple of Jerusalem. A permission of this kind would be looked upon as a horrid sacrilege; it would not be respected by the people, and the infidel would become the victim of his imprudent boldness.'
Ali Bey has given a plan of the Jerusalem mosque, and sections of it, six feet in length-a general view of the building would have been more interesting and much more satisfactory ;-but with all his accomplishments he is but a wretched draftsman. It is not precisely one mosque, but a group of mosques. To the Christian and the genuine philosopher, there is not assuredly a more interesting spot upon the whole earth than that where the temple of Solo. mon stood. The superstitions of the Mahommedans have attached to it more fables than to Mecca; it is guarded by 70,000 angels, who are relieved every day; all prophets since the creation of the world have performed their prayers there, and even now the spirits of the prophets frequent it to enjoy the same devotional exercise. Here it was that Mahommed while yet in the flesh joined them in their prayers; Elias and Khisr or Chederles (the Santiago or St. George of the Mussulmen) come annually here to keep the fast of Ramadan. El Borak, the mare of the Archangel Gabriel, which has the
head and neck of a beautiful woman, wings, and a crown;--and moreover, according to some grave authorities, a peacock's tail, brought the prophet here on his way to heaven, in that wonderful journey which is the greatest miracle recorded of Mahommed--and the most impudent lie that ever an audacious blasphemer imposed upon the credulity of his disciples. Here he had sight of the Houris. The rock upon which he stood received the print of his sacred foot, and pilgrims are now permitted to touch-not to see the sacred impression, and sanctify themselves by passing the hand which has touched it over their face and beard. A piece of fine green marble on the pavement is shown as the Door of Paradise. Strait is the door as well as the way-being but fifteen inches square-and it is fastened down by four or five gilt nails; there were more formerly, but the devil attempting to get in by this door, pulled them out; these he was unable to extract ;-perhaps they were clenched on the other side. Here also is the invisible balance in which souls are weighed; and the invisible bridge which is sharper than the blade of a sword, which extends over the abyss of Hell, and over which lies the only road to Paradise. And here is the rock Sakhra---a marvellous rock, under which, according to the author of the Messiral-Ghoram, all the waters of the earth have their source: nor is this the only thing for which the rock Sakhra is marvellous—for, according to the same author as quoted by Medjired-din, it is well known that the rock is suspended between the earth and heaven. It is true that this miracle is no longer visible, a vault having been built over the rock since a woman, who had gone under it in devotion, unluckily miscarried there for fear it should fall upon her. Before this accident pilgrims used to stand under it and see the palpable miracle; the author of the MessiralGhoram had himself seen it, and who shall dispute his authority, or that of the Judge Medjired-din Ebil-yemen Abdor-rahmen ElAlemi, who quotes him? The rock Sakhra is in the middle of the world, and it is upon this rock that the Angel Israfil will stand when he blows the trumpet which is to summon all men to their final judgment. If a stone were to be dropped from the New Jerusalem it would fall upon the rock Sakhra. The Kaaba on the day of judgment is to come to the rock Sakhra. Ali Bey found some columns within the forbidden ground which he supposes to be the remains of Solomon's Temple. Dr. Clarke, who had not only the perseverance and activity requisite for seeing whatever was within his reach, but had also the comfortable faculty of discovering whateyer he wished to find, saw from the governor's windows some of that reticulated stucco among these buildings, ' which is commonly considered as an evidence of Roman work. Whitaker of Man chester, whose whole historical works are formed by a series of