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sers, in proportion, than anong the the category of where, or Diana. And other nations. The English word to sensation by touch is felt in a form, as lie, seems to have some reference to colour, bounded by straight lines or situation ; for lying is giving a false crooked, and touch belongs to the representation of the position of par- category of how, or Apollo. ticular being ; but true report is that The categories of Mars, Minerva, which represents the real position of and Mercury, relate to reasoning. To circumstances.
reason is a voluntary exertion of the To this category, which comprehends mind's power, and therefore belongs situation, and attitude or gesture, may to the category of Foly, to do. To inbe referred the Arst notion of the dra- fer is to carry something into other ma, which should not be considered as circumstances, and belongs to arrangea poetical fiction, but rather as a volun- ment, or the category of Minerva. In tary shewing of the situations or atti- reasoning the mind must comprehend tudes, in which human nature may be and keep the notion which is inferred, placed. In the ancient drama, the in- and therefore reasoning belongs to vention of new fables was not sought the category of exes to have, or Merafter, but rather avoided, and the cury. beauty of the drama was made to de- The categories of Neptune, Vesta, pend on arrangement, fine composi- and Ceres, relate to internal feeling, or tion, and the shewing of situations. intellect, stedfastness, and the feeling The chief question was always, “In of quality, in relation to the ideal. wbat circumstances is the hero now placed ?” Prometheus was seen bound
CHAPTER XII. to the rock, and suffering for having conferred forbidden gifts on mankind.
The Category of ixty to have,
Mercury. And Edipus was seen gradually accused by circumstances, and at last found The category of ixeiv, to have, is to in the predicament of horrible crimes; contain, or hold the particular within and the ancient drama was accompa- other limits besides its own, as money nied by music, which is also an art of in a purse. The figure of the money arrangement, and closely connected is its own limit, and belongs to the with gestures.
category of Vulcan, but the purse is The feeling of tendency is from the another limitation, including the first. laying out of parts in a certain order Comprehension may be called the cateor disposition, stretching more to-gory of Mercury, who was reported to wards this or that. It therefore be- preside over merchandize, and the delongs to the category of arrangement. sire to possess. The same Arcadian Aristotle, in speaking of xão far, to be region which contained Cyllene, the situated, only gives instances of it, as birth-place of Mercury, was also the fa. to be sitting or standing.
vourite resort of the goat-footed Pan. The whole of the categories may be The form of the reeds, in Pan's musical arranged into four parts, as follows:- instrument, expresses comprehension;
The categories of Jupiter, Juno, and for, the air blown into them cannot esVenus, or position, separateness, and cape through, but, being confined on passive affection, relate to sentiment all sides, fills them, and returns again felt towards the particular.
in sounds. But the most perfect ex. The categories of Apollo, Diana, emplification of the category of Merand Vulcan, relate to touch. Sensa- cury, is a thief in prison. For attion by touch comes from resisting or tempting to have what is not his, a stopping, and belongs to the category house, which is not his, has him.' of when, or Vulcan. Sensation by touch is felt on surface, and belongs to
[In illustration of the above, we give the following extract from Mr Howison's new publication, of an Essay on the Sentiments, &c., with the Thesis of the Twelve Deities, and Europe's Likeness. We might have quoted other parts from the same volume, but have chosen the following, as having reference to the subject of the preceding Essay:
A KEY TO THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS.
“The polytheism of the ancients, strokes of light; and Apollo was also with all its variety of fables, will more the god of the sun, whose motion easily be understood if an inquiry be marks the progress of days and years. made into the attributes of the twelve He was likewise the god of inborn gedivinities, who composed that council nius, and intuitive knowledge, which of which Jupiter was the head ; for are the native light of the mind, or the each of these gods represented a men- inspiration which it has in itself. But tal power. But the other deities, such archery was attributed to Apollo, as as Eros, Bacchus, Pan, or Pluto, who master of the darts of light, and vibra-, were extraneous to this assembly, pre- tion was recognized in the twanging of sided over regions of nature, or over the bow. The most abstract idea of external affections, and circumstances. Apollo is motion, in reference to someThe names of the deities, who entered thing else, which is at rest. This is into council with Jupiter, have been found in vibration, and also in irradiapreserved in two verses of Ennius; tion. but they are not mentioned by him in Diana, the sister of Apollo, was their proper succession. The right or- the representative of the power der is, Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, bound, which is in the leg, and she Vulcan, Neptune, Vesta, Mars, Ve- was the goddess of the moon, which nus, Ceres, Minerva, Mercury. The sends back reflected light.
also the goddess of hunting, or swiftJuno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Ve
ness of pursuit. She was represented
with her robe tucked up to her knees. nus, Mars, Mercurius, Jovi, Neptunus, Vulcanus, The bow might be attributed to her, Apollo.
as expressing the power of elasticity.
But the most abstract idea of Diana is " Their reference to the mental reflection or return. Diana, expresspowers is as follows. Jupiter repre- ing rebound from touch, remained alsented the head as wisdom, and was ways a virgin.
" Jupiter prudent in his “ Vulcan represented the foot. He counsels,” not the external affection of was the god of terminated figure, and love, as Eros, who, according to He- of mechanical re-action. He presided Siod, was a much elder deity. But, over artificers, because the fabrication Jupiter, although considered, by the of metals into shape is by the applicaancient poets, as a finite being himself, tion of contrary power, and because was supposed, as the head, to have most the meeting of the hammer with the relation to infinitude, and hence, the anvil is like the stamping of the feet eagle was attributed to him as his mes upon the ground. senger.
Neptune, who presided over the " The goddess Juno, who was the sea, was considered, by the ancients, sister of Jupiter, represented the love as the god of intellect. He represented of variety, and presided over show and the chest, or the love of the ideal; as magnificence, and over separateness; the motion of the sea represents the for splendour comes from difference, measuring of fixed form, by moveable not from uniformity. The peacock being. His Greek name, Poseidon, was said to be sacred to her, from the may signify the drinking of form, from brightness of its plumage, and Iris, ποσης and ειδος. But his Latin name or the rainbow, was called her messen- has been supposed by some to be deger, either as proceeding from the wa- rived á nando, from swimming; and tery vapours of the atmosphere form- he may represent the power of buoying into separate drops, and descend- ancy in general. The diverging form ing as rain, or, as shewing the separa- of the two outer prongs of the trident tion of the different colours.
expresses the tendency towards inApollo, the god of harmony, represented the vibrating power of the “ Vesta, the goddess of the earth, thigh, or, more abstractedly, motion, represented the heart, or the fixedness as the measure of duration. Another of being, and its reference to seat or kind of music is produced by the place. She was also said to be the VOL. XI.
goddess of fire, by which was probably “ Ceres represented the belly, or meant heat; for the ancients did not the powers of nutrition, and therefore understand the true distinction be- presided over agriculture. tween heat and light, but often spoke “ Minerva represented the part of of them together as one element. Vesta the arm between the elbow and hand, was drawn in a car by lions; which Like Mars, she was a warlike deity, may signify that she presided over but she was also the goddess of reason, quadrupeds, because they are peculiar that is, not of intellect, like Neptune, to the earth, and the lion is the chief but of the active power of inferring of them.
and judging, and of the knowledge of “ Mars, the god of war, represented tendency, or whitherwards. She likethe upper part of the arm, which is wise presided over weaving and spinthe part from whence proceeds the ef- ning. The owl was sacred to her, fort of throwing a spear, or slinging a
because she was the goddess of specustone, or striking. This deity, most lative vision, or what the Greeks called abstractly, represented the beginning oqaris, the knowledge of boundary, but of violent motion, from whence colli- without sensation. sion.
“ Mercury represented the hand, “ Venus represented the capacity and was the god of thieves. He prefor generation, and presided over in- sided over traffic, which is giving and crease. She was the goddess of beau- receiving; and one of his attributes ty, because all continuous beauty in was the purse. He was the god of outlines is from the unequal increase wrestlers, from grasping. His statue of quantities, or the unequal diminu- was placed at the meeting of roads, tion of quantities on the opposite side, from pointing. He was called the inwhich is the same negatively. Hesiod ventor of the lyre, because it was playsays she was accompanied by Eros, ed upon by the hand; and therefore, and followed by Himeros, or Desire; although Apollo was the god of harwhich last was her offspring.
mony, Mercury presided over practical
skill in music. He was the god of Τη δ"Eρος ωμάρτηςε, και "Ιμερος έσπετο καλός
eloquence, probably from gesture in Γεινομένη τα πρώτα. .
arguing and persuading. And, as the But, according to the same authority,
hand is the most moveable part, he the first appearance of Eros, or love, who presided over ingenuity, clever
was considered in general as the deity was immediately after the birth of Earth from Chaos.
ness, and rapidity of apprehension."
COCHELET'S SHIPWRECK.* The art of bookmaking flourishes The work, however, is not without on both sides of the Channel. The interest; it is written in an easy flownarrative of the wreck of a French ing style, and if it communicates nomerchant ship on the coast of Africa, thing new, it at least gives a lively pic-the captivity of part of the crew who ture of that small portion of Africa yielded to the empressemens of some through which our author and his of the wandering Arabs, who are ale companions passed, and of the manways on the watch for sea mercies, and ners of the Moors and wandering Arabs who, after kindly inviting them to of the desert. land, seized their persons, and plunder- Mais commencer avec le commenceed their ship-and their subsequent ad- ment,—the book is the production of ventures till ransomed by the Consul M. Charles Cochelet, a passenger in at Magadore, is dilated into two good- the brig Sophie, going out
former ly Svo volumes, adorned with lithogra- un etablissement agricole," or in other *phic engravings, and accompanied with words, to settle in Brazil. an appendix of pieces justificatifs. The Sophie sailed from Nantes. on
Naufrage du Brick Français La Sophie, perdu le 30th Mai, 1819, sur la Cote occidentale d'Afrique, et Captivité d'une partie des Naufragés, avec de nouveaux renseignmens sur la ville de Timectou, par Charles Cochelet, ancien payeur en Catalogne, l'un des Naufragés, 2 Tom. 8vo. Par. 1821.
the 14th of May, 1819, and on the than you do where we are. I can see no13th of the same month, was wrecked thing.' In the mean time, the ship, im. about twenty leagues to the north of pelled by the force of the wind, was driven
the shoal, experiencing, every Cape Bojodore. The ship, it seems, was carried out of her course by the time stie struck, a shock
A thick fog surrounded us currents, which, as is well known, set and obscured our view of the land; a feeble to the eastward along the African twilight shewed it indistinctly ; and from coast, and which M. Cochelet thinks, the configuration of the clouds, we inaagin. it is high time were put an end to; ed ourselves in a gulph, surrounded on all
ne doit on pas esperer que les auto- sides by immense rocks. At length the rités maritimes 'prendront enfin des ship became completely fixed, and expemesures propres a prevenir ces acci- rienced no other motion than that produdens.” We fear it will not be easy
ced by the sea beating upon her. In an prevent such accidents in ships ma-, instant the sails were furled, and we suc. naged like the Meduse frigate, or the ceeded, by unheard-of efforts, in getting brig Sophic.
the long boat into the sea. An anchor was
carried out to the north-west, but all our The Captain wished first to make Madeira, and then the Canary Islands, attempts
to heave the ship
off were in vain ;
our misfortune was irreparable, and as the for the purpose of correcting his lon- day dawned, the horrors of our situation gitude, but missed them both; when were revealed to us. It was not in the midst abreast of the latter islands, how- of islands, as we believed, that cruel destiever, he had a good observation for ny had thrown us, A flat sandy beach, the latitude, and as no land was in without bounds, presented itself to our sight, he ought in common prudence view—it was on the main land-on Africa to have stood to the westward. On the --on that inhospitable and barren coast, 29th, they were, by observation, in lat.
that has always been the terror of mariners. 27o. 4; and on the evening of the same
6. It would be impossible to paint the day, land was seen about eight leagues What fate awaited us on this detested re
grief that took possession of each of us. to the east; but still, with inconceiva
gion.” ble infatuation, the course was not altered. M. Cochelet very properly re
The conduct of the officers under marks, " il eut eté prudent a mon
these circumstances, was not less exavisde virer de bord;” but this opinion traordinary. We are not told that any he kept to himself, “ retenu par un
attempt was made to lighten the ship; sentiment d'amour propre qui m'em- they suffered themselves to fall into pecha de' temoigner une frayeur a la- the power of the natives, although the quelle d'autres pouvaient bien n'etre weather continued moderate, and their pas accessibles.” At length about half boat was riding safely by a hauser in past three in the morning of the 30th, the lee of the vessel; the whole crew the ship struck. The coolness and dis- only consisted of thirteen, and they cipline of the crew are thus narrated: knew that the Canary islands could
not be more than twenty or thirty “The moon set about 40 minutes past leagues distant. three in the morning, and in less than an hour, the sun would have shewn us our si- times between the ship and the shore,
After passing to and fro several which till then had been the natives got possession of the offismooth, and often calm, began to be agitated by a strong breeze from the north; cers, passengers, and one sailor, in all, all at once a violent shock was felt. The six persons. The sailors, with greater ship struck at the heel, and beat upon the prudence, kept on board, and, after a rocks, avec un fracus epouvantable. M. feeble attempt to rescue their superiPlexia exclaimed, “We are lost.' I sprung ors, set sail, and, in two days, made from my cabin. We threw ourselves into the island Fortaventura. M. Cochelet each other's arms, and each endeavoured to and his friends took care to land their inspire the other with resignation ; but how trunks and luggage, intending, no difficult the task to possess it in so dread. doubt, to proceed by the diligence, ful a situation, when numbers at the same instant behold' their end approaching, and
but the natives very unceremoniously expressed by the signs of despair, the
took possession of their goods and chatabandonment of every earthly affection! I tels, and obliged them to assist in unwent upon deck, and in the midst of con
loading their ship, which they did Sternation and tumult, heard nothing but very leisurely, and then burnt her. cries of take in sail – hoist out the The savages into whose hands they boat.' I asked the terrified captain, what he had thus fallen, are represented as the thought of this frightful event.
• What most hideous monsters that exist in can I think ?' he replied ; ' I know no more human shape, and as the last link in
tuation; the sea,
the chain that connects man with the to them, for they appeared to take a pleabrute creation.
sure in it, which they expressed by shouts On their landing, their chief, na- of laughter, of the coarsest and most in. med Fairry, gave them a most gracia sulting nature that can be imagined.” ous reception, holding out one hand, The most unreasonable of all their in token of friendship, and with the demands, however, was in sending other pointing to heaven, and repeat, them aloft to unbend the top-sails. ing “ Allah akbar,” “ God is great." The only expedient that occurred to He then led them to a sand hill, kindly them, to enable them to obey this offering to carry their arms, and shewed command, was to cut away the masts. them the desert, with the purpose, no doubt, of letting them know how en
“ During more than two hours, we aptirely they were in his power.
plied the axe with redoubled force. They
gave way at last, but with such a crash, “ If this was his object, he accomplish- that I was struck with the effect produced ed it completely ; for it was impossible for by the noise of their fall, reiterated as it me to observe without dism.ay this sea of was, for a long time, among the hillocks of sand, the horizon of which mingled itself sand, by echoes, of which perhaps, till with a sky of fire ; and the calm and silent then, they were unconscious. For the first immobility of which was a thousand times time, without doubt, the silence of many more striking than the agitation of the ocean ages had been disturbed. So violent and during a tempest.”
transient a commotion, rendered more
dreadful still the calm by which it was The politeness of the natives was
succeeded, and with which this frightful soon changed for the most capricious desert was reinvested, perhaps for ever.” tyranny and contempt. By the women, in particular, they were obliged For about ten days they were emto perform the most abject offices- ployed in plunder. The natives shew. prepare their food, of which they did ed the most astonishing want of disnot deign to give them a share, or dig crimination in their selection of the in the sand for a scanty pittance of booty. Money and provisions were brakish water.
the great objects of their avidityOur author was sent off to the ship buttons were more valued than diato assist in searching for argeono, or monds--the finest laces lay neglected money. It was in vain to intimate on the beach, or were used to tie the that he could not swim-prompt obe- mouths of sacks—but, above all, to a dience was necessary, and he contri- literary man, the dispersion of so many ved, with some difficulty, to get on works ot' merit, was most afflicting. board. He found the Africans engaged in a
“ How many copies of works of merit
will be for ever deprived of readers! I furious attack on two pigs, these un- have seen thousands of volumes, containing clean animals being the abhorrence of the most opposite sentiments, borne equal all true Musselmen. Having no pro- ly by the wind into the interior of the de visions but what the ships afforded, sert. and being withal but indifferent judges of salt meat, before eating any part of
Letters and newspapers were equalit they constantly called on our Frencha ly scattered; the touching rememmen to distinguish the beef from the brance called up by one of the latter, pork, by lowing like cows, or grunt
we shall not attempt to translate. ing like hogs.
“ L'autre rendait compte de la belle reWhen the ship beat so high that presentation d’Athalie, que recemment en the ladies could go off, they were ob- venait de donner avec tant de pompe à l' liged to act as stepping-stones, to as
opera. Je me rappelai avec douleur, qu'un sist them in ascending the ship's sides. mois s'etait a peine ecoulé depuis que moi
meme j'avais assisté a ce spectacle, dont “ They placed themselves, without cere- j'avois admiré la magnificence. Que de mony, upon us, and afterwards made use reflexions vinrent alors m'assailir ! Je jetai of their hands to finish their clambering. tristement ces feuilles a mes pieds, elles If you consider that they were the most me causaient trop de regrets, par les sourepulsive creatures in the world, and al. venirs qu'elles me retracoient." most destitute of clothing, you will have little difficulty in believing that it was a
In the midst of these melancholy very singular task for us to supply the reflexions the captain came up with a place of stepping-stones to these women. face of satisfaction, announcing the It seemed, without doubt, very diverting apparition of two “jolies Parisiennes,"