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formity, in the year 1662; to which is prefixed a Historical and Biographical Preface. 8vo. 1ls.

Family Prayers: composed principally in Expressions taken from the Holy Scriptures, and from the Established Services of the Church of England. By the Rev. Thomas Cotterill, A. M. Perpetual Curate of Lane End, Staffordshire ; and late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 7s.

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Travels of Ali Bey, in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, between the years 1805 and 1807. Written by Himself. 2 vols. 4to. 61. 6s.

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Travels in Europe and Africa. By Colonel Keatinge; comprising a Journey through France, Spain, and Portugal, to Morocco, with a Particular Account of that Empire. Ålso a Second Tour through France in 1814; in which a Comparison is drawn between the present and former State of that Country, illustrated by numerous Plates. Royal 4to. 2 vols. 41. 4s.

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JULY 1816.

ÁRT. I. Travels of Ali Bey in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus,

Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, belween the Years 1803 and

1807. Written by himself. 2 Vols. 4to. London. 1816. THIS book appears before the world under the double disadvan

tage of lofty pretensions and a questionable shape; and the editor of the French edition has excited a natural prejudice against it by most injudiciously exaggerating its pretensions, and attempting to deceive the public with respect to the real character of the author. According to him, Ali Bey the Abbassi is the son of Othman Bey, a prince of the family of the Abbassides, and this fiction is supported throughout the preface as well as the work. The English publishers have acted more discreetly: they acknowledge that the traveller has assumed a fictitious character; but that he actually has travelled in that character they prove by the most undoubted testimony. In reality, whatever his motives for continuing this disguise may be, his real history is so well known that any attempt to conceal it becomes ridiculous. The person who calls himself Ali Bey is a Spaniard, who, with the knowledge and under the sanction of his government, was qualified to travel as a Mahommedan, by submitting to the initiatory rite of that religion. It would indeed be curious if this Spaniard was one of Moorish race, whose family, amid the idolatrous superstition to which they had been compelled to conform, had retained in their hearts an attachment to the creed of Islamism and the Arabian false Prophet; and perhaps, if the traveller were to trust himself within reach of the Inquisition, now that its claws are grown again, he might be exposed to some unpleasant interrogations upon the subject. But Ali Bey, however he affećts to support the part of a Mussulman, has attended with no more sincerity at mosque than

Ali Bey, says his French editor and friend, s'est vu forcé de se laisser quelquefois entrainer par le torrent des préjugés ; un musulman doit toujours écrire comme musulman. Mais, malgré ce léger désavantage, l'on apperçoit souvent au milieu des circonstances les pluis délicates, des traits et des coups de pinceau qui laissent entrevoir la véritable phisionomie du musulman philosophe. The reader need not be told what the word philosophe implies in modern French. Let not this be understood as insinuating an uncharitable and intolerant condemnation of the individual : it is one fatal effect of the Romish superstition wherever it is dominant, that no alternative is left between gross credulity and utter unbelief ; and the man is to be pitied rather than blamed who, turning with indignation from the worship of the Wafer, of St. Dominic, and the whole rabble of saints-errant, loses sight of the great and awful truths with which so many audacious falsehoods have been incorporated.


at mass.

Our Spanish adventurer, well provided with credentials and money, sailed from Tarifa in June, 1803, and landed at Tangiers, where he was received with all the respect due to his assumed rank. Ali Bey had learnt the Turkish ritual and was equipped in the Turkish fashion,-it was necessary to change both ;-his head was shaved, as he tells us, with an unmerciful hand, and only a small tuft of hair, in the Morocco cut, left at the crown; his stockings and light Turkish slippers were laidaside-he went bare legged in huge heavy slippers, and wrapt himself in the Moorish Hhaïk. No suspicion was entertained of his story, the point of his circum cision having been ascertained by frequent inquiry from his servants and himself;--without this mark he conceives it impossible that any Christian can travel safely as a Mahommedan in Mahommedan countries. A house was assigned him, which was whitewashed for his reception, and all the floors covered with a bed of plaster two or three inches thick; he took possession of it before the plaster was dry, thanked them for the pains they had thus taken in embellishing it, and says he could not help admiring the rare simplicity of manners of a people who content themselves with such humble dwellings. The houses seldom exceed eight feet in height; a man of ordinary stature may reach the top as he stands in the street; the roofs are all flat and covered with plaster;--some of the houses have a few windows not above a foot square, others have loop-holes an inch or two wide and a foot high-others receive their light and air from the door of a gallery. Seen from the sea-side the city presents an imposing appearance, but as soon as we approach the inside the illusion ceases, and we find ourselves surrounded with every thing that characterizes the most disgusting wretchedness. Thus the traveller expresses himself; a Spaniard in Barbary feeling like an Englishman in Spain.

Neither a Portuguese nor an Englishman can look back with complacency upon the history of Tangiers. It was the second city which the Portuguese attacked in Africa ;--while they lay before the walls they were themselves besieged in their camp by a far $uPerior force, and the army only obtained leave to embark by en-s gaging to deliver up Ceuta, their former conquest, and leaving the Infante Dom Fernando, the King's brother, as an hostage for the performance of these disgraceful terms. The terms were not ful. filled, and Fernando died at Fez after six years of miserable captivity. His body was hung by the heels over the walls for a spectacle to the Moors, and afterwards, suspended in a coffin in the same place. This disastrous expedition was in 1437. In 1464, a second Fernando, brother in like manner to the reigning monarch, attempted to take the city by surprise in a night-attack, and many of the bravest fidalgos perished in this rash enterprise. There was a proud spirit; like that of the old Romans, in the Portuguese of that age ;--that which might have dismayed another nation, or cooled, at least, the ardour of conquest, served only to exasperate them. Affonso V. prepared a greater effort,

-he crossed the sea ágain, took Arzilla by storm, and concluded a truce for twenty years with a sheik by name Muley, who commanded in those provinces. This truce secured the Portuguese in their former conquests, and left them at liberty to attack Tangiers, which was not within Muley's government. The Tangerines, deprived of. his support, felt their own weakness, and they dreaded the vengeance of a people who were not less vindictive than themselves, They abandoned the city, and Affonso entered it without opposition on the 28th August, 1471. His vengeance had been disappointed by the timely flight of the inhabitants, but the honour and the piety of the nation were satisfied by obtaining the bones of Fernando in exchange for some royal prisoners taken at Arzilla. The remains thus rescued from captivity and sanctified by popular feeling were deposited with those of his brethren in the church of Batalha ; one of those brethren was that prince Henry, so generally known as the great promoter of maritime discovery,-- another was the Infante Dom Pedro, to whom equal merit at least is due upon the same account, and far greater upon every other ;-- the third is less known in the history of his age, but stands deservedly conspicuous in the annals of his country. The tombs of these four brethren were, both in design and execution, worthy of the beautiful church in which they were placed. What they were may be seen in Mr. Murphy's views of that magnificent structure; and they were in perfect preservation, fresh as when the chisel had left them, till the French under Massena destroyed them, took out the bodies, and strewed the bones about the floor!

Affonso assumed or admitted the name of Africano, for these victories ;-he resembled Scipio in nothing else:—but there was a time when the conquests of the Portuguese in North Africa seemed to justify the appellation, and to afford a fair hope that European civilization would be extended to these barbarous coun

Y 2

tries. The greater part of the present empire of Morocco paid tribute to Emanuel,--and that city itself sometimes trembled when it was announced that the Portuguese horsemen were in sight. A considerable revenue was derived from these conquests; but in the succeeding reign it became apparent that the projects of this enterprising people were beyond their strength, and that their population could not at the same time support a dominion in India and in Africa ; Joam III. naturally preferred his oriental to his Barbary possessions, but the preference was unfortunate. No European power would have contested that country with him,-it was at his own doors, serving at once as a school of war, and a wide field where the Portuguese might have gone on for generations conquering and to conquer. India, on the other hand, was already contested; Castille was intruding; France perpetually threatening to intrude, and pirating against the homeward bound fleets : it inight also have been foreseen, that the strongest maritime power in Europe must eventually command the coasts of India, and that Portugal could not continue to be that power. Tangiers was among the few places which were retained; and, unlike Ceuta, Tangiers followed the revolution which restored the Braganza family to their rights. The Conde da Ericeyra, Don Fernando de Menezes, had been governor for some years, and had well supported the honour of his country and of his race in his wars against Gąj. lan, when by a secret arrangement between the courts of Lisbon and London, it was determined that this city should be ceded to England as a part of the Infanta Catherina's dowry on her marriage with Charles II. When the Count received secret orders to deliver up the city in conformity to the agreement, he wrote to the Queen Regent entreating her to spare him the grief which he must feel at seeing a nation which, though in alliance with Portugal, was nevertheless of a different religion, take possession of a city in which the Catholic faith had flourished for two centuries, and of which the Menezes of his family had been the first conquerors and the constant defenders. 'The Queen offered him a marquisate if he would perform the service which she required, and intimated her displeasure if he persisted in his wish to resiga the government ;-but, with a feeling to which every Englishman will do justice, Menezes re-solicited and obtained his recall. He beguiled the hours of his leisure,-perhaps of his disgrace--in writing a history of the city. The Spaniards of Ceuta, he says, persuaded the Portuguese not to abandon to heretics a place which they had so long and so bravely defended as a bulwark of the faith the English, they said, would not be able to maintain it, and would sell it to the Moors if they could make a good bargain; the Spanish governor even offered to take possession of it in the Pope's

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