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assure himself, throw open the use of his property to any dealers who might choose to scramble for it. He could exercise no control over the style, the shape, or the accuracy of his American editions; could have no trustworthy information as to the number of copies the various editions contained; and if he were tenacious as to the collection of the royalties to which he was entitled, he would be able in many cases to enforce his claims only through innumerable lawsuits, and he would find the expenses of the collection exceed the receipts.
The benefit to the public would be no more apparent. Any gain in the .cheapness of the editions produced would be more than offset by their unsatisfactoriness; they would, in the majority of cases, be untrustworthy as to accuracy or completeness, and be hastily and Himsily manufactured. A great many enterprises, also, desirable in themselves, and that would be of service to the public, no publisher could, under such an arrangement, afford to undertake at all, as, if they proved successful, unscrupulous neighbors would, through rival editions, reap the benefit of his judgment and his advertising. In fact, the business of reprinting would fall largely into the hands of irresponsible parties, from whom no copyright could be collected.
The arguments against a measure of this kind are, in short, the arguments in favor of international copyright. A very conclusive statement of the case against the equity or desirability from any point of view of such an arrangement in regard to home copyright was made before the British Commission, in 1877, by Herbert Spencer. His testimony is given in full in the Popular Science Monthly for January and February, 1879.
The recommendation had been made that, for the sake of securing cheap books for the people, the law should give to all dealers the privilege of printing an author's books, and should fix a copyright to be paid to the author that should secure him a "fair profit for his work." Mr. Spencer objected that—
First. This would be a direct interference with the laws of trade, under which the author had the right to make his own bargains. Second. No legislature was competent to determine what was " a fair rate of profit" for an authdr. Third. No average royalty could be determined which could give a fair recompense for the different amounts and kinds of labor given to the production of different classes of books. Fourth. If the legislature has the right to fix the profits of the author, it has an equal right to determine that of his associate in the publication, the publisher; and if of the publisher, then also of the printer, binder, and paper-maker, who all have an interest in the undertaking. Such a right of control would apply with equal force to manufacturers of other articles of importance to the community, and would not be in accordance with the present theories of the proper functions of government. Fifth. If books are to be cheapened by such a measure, it must be at the expense of some portion of the profits now going to the authors and publishers; the assumption is that book producers and distributers do not understand their business, but require to be instructed by the state how to carry it on, and that the publishing business alone needs to have its returns regulated by law. Sixth. The prices of the best books would in many cases, instead of being lessened, be higher
than at present, because the publishers would require some insurance against the risk of rival editions, and because they would make their first editions smaller, and the first cost would have to be divided among a less number of copies. Such reductions of prices as would be made would be on the flimsier and more popular literature, and even on this could not be lasting. Seventh. For the enterprises of the most lasting importance to the public, requiring considerable investment of time and capital, the publishers require to be assured of returns from the largest market possible, and without such security enterprises of this character could not be undertaken at all. Eighth. Open competition of this kind would, in the end, result in crushing out the smaller publishers, and in concentrating the business in the hands of a few houses whose purses had been long enough to carry them through the long and unprofitable contests that would certainly be the first effect of such legislation.
All the considerations adduced by Mr. Spencer have, of course, equal force with reference to open international publishing, while they may also be included among the arguments in behalf of international copyright.
With these views of a veteran writer of books may very properly be associated the opinions of the experienced publisher, Mr. Wm. H. Appleton, who, in a letter to the New York Times in 1872, says:
"The first demand of property is for securitv. . . . To publish a book in any real sense—that is, not merely to print it, but to make it well and widely known—requires much effort and large expenditure, and these will not be invested in a property which is liable to be destroyed at any moment. Legal protection would thus put an end to evil practices, make property secure, business more legitimate, and give a new vigor to enterprise. Nor can a policy which is unjust to the author, and works viciously in the trade.be the best for the public. The publisher can neither afford to make the book so thoroughly known nor can he put it at so low a price as if he could count upon permanent and undisturbed possession of it. Many valuable books are not reprinted at all, ana therefore are only to be had at English prices, for the same reason that publishers are cautious about risking their capital in unprotected property."
The copy-book motto, " Honesty is the best policy," fails often enough to come true(at least as to material results) in the case of the individual, simply because his life is not always long enough to give an opportunity for all the results of his actions to be arrived at. The community, however, in its longer life, is subject to the full influence of the certain though sometimes slow-working relations of cause to effect, relations which, among other things, bring out the essential connection between economics and ethics, and which show in the long-run the just method to be the wise method. An enlightened self-interest finds out the advantage of equity. If the teaching of history makes anything evident, it is that, in the transactions of a nation, honesty -pays, even in the narrowest and most selfish sense of the term, and nothing but honesty can ever pay. Anion,; the many classes of interests to which this applies international copyright certainly belongs.
THE METHODIST BOOK CONCERN.
The new style of the Methodist Book Concern, New York, will be Phillips & Hunt, John M. Phillips, associate agent with the late Dr. Nelson for seven years, becoming the senior by the Methodist principle of promotion, Dr. Sanford Hunt being the new junior agent.
In electing the agents, the Committee of the Book Concern acts with the Bishops as one body, each member of the committee and each bishop casting one ballot. The meeting was held Monday, March 3d, Bishops Scott, Simpson, Harris, Peck, Andrews, and Merrill being present, besides seventeen out of the eighteen members of the general committee. The Rev. Dr. Morris D. C. Crawford, presiding elder of the New York district, was a prominent candidate, and the Rev. Dr. J. B. Graw was suggested for the vacant place. Of the twentythree votes cast the Rev. Dr. Hunt received, it is said, twelve, the Rev. Dr.Crawford nine votes, and the remaining two were for other candidates. At a subsequent meeting of the Board of Bishops, Mr. Phillips was elected treasurer 01 ihe Methodist Missionary Society, in place of the Rev. Dr. Nelson.
The new agent, the Rev. Dr. Sanford Hunt, slates the Tribune, was born in 1825, in Erie County, N. Y., at a place near Buffalo, and is now in his fifty-fourth year. He was graduated from Alleghany College in 1847, and in the same year he joined the Genesee Conference. When that conference was merged in 1872 into the Western New York Conference, he became 1 prominent member of that, as he had been of the former conference. Since his joining the ministry in 1847 he has been engaged in pastoral work within the limits of the Genesee and Western Conferences. He has spent three terms at Buffalo, and for nine years has occupied the position of presiding elder of that district. For eight years he has served as secretary of the conference, and in 1876 was a deleRate from it to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He received his doctor's degree from his alma mater in 1871. He is the author of a "Hand-book for Trustees;" but is known better by a later work, issued in the spring of 1876, on "Religious Corporations," which was published with an additional article, by the Hon. E. L. Fancher, on the laws affecting religious corporations in the State of New York. In this work, which treats of religious corporations in every phase, many laws before scarcely known were brought 10 light. To his services in authorship and ministerial labors is due, it is said, his present promotion to a wider sphere.
THE LATE EBERHARD FABER, AND THE FABER HOUSE.
Mr. Eberhard Faber, the head of the American portion of the Faber pencil business, died in New York on Sunday last, at the age of 57. Mr. Faber was known to a large circle in the irade as a genial and cultivated gentleman, knowing his calling. His history is so thoroughly associated with that of the house that we quote from the Evening Post the following sketch entire:
"The first maker of 'Faber's pencils' was Caspar Faber, who began the business at the "illage of Stein, near NUrnberg, in Bavaria, in
the year 1761. As far back as 1726 some of the inhabitants of this village had been engaged in pencil-making, the graphite used being obtained from Bohemia. Before its introduction into Germany lead-pencil making had been confined to England, where it was begun in 1565, the year following the discovery of the black-lead mines of Borrowdale, in Cumberland. By the original process the lead was simply cut into strips just as it came from the mines, and then glued into the wood. These primitive pencils were very costly, as the supply of graphite was limited and the mines were worked only six weeks in the year. Metallic leads were used in Europe for drawing and writing at a much earlier period, but were discarded after the discovery of graphite.
"When Caspar Faber started in business his entire estate consisted of a small cottage, with a little garden-plot, and his manufacture was carried on only by himself and members of his family. The weekly product of their labors was carried to NUrnberg or Fiirth in a handbasket, and there sold. He was an excellent workman, and all his pencils were so well made that he obtained the highest prices in the market. In 1784 he was succeeded by his son, Anthony William Faber, under whose name the business has been?conducted to the present day. A judicial inventory in 1786, which has been carefully preserved jby his descendants, shows that the entire personal property of the latter's family in that year was valued at only 'fifty-nine florins, or about;[twenty-five dollars in gold.
"In 1810 the business was inherited by the son of A. W. Faber, George Leonard, who gathered trained workmen around him and made many improvements in the processes of manufacture. Before this, in 1795, a very important discovery had been made in France, which is the foundation of the present system of pencil-making. Still earlier the crude process of using the graphite just as it came from the mine, with all its impurities, had been replaced by methods of purifying the material, reducing it to powder, and compressing it into cakes which could be cut like the native ore. It was found, however, that the lead then lacked strength and cohesiveness, a defect which was remedied in 1795 by the mixture of clay with the purified graphite.
"The business of George Leonard Faber became extensive, but the disturbed condition of Europe in his day caused it to fall off after it had reached its greatest development, and at his death in 1839 the annual sales of his factory amounted only to twelve thousand florins, and his workmen numbered only twenty. His eldest son, J. Lothair Faber, the present head of the house, then took entire charge of the business, being at the time only twenty-two years of age. The latter has increased the manufacture to enormous proportions, and his services to the interests of his native state have been recognized by his government. He is now the Baron Lothair von Faber, having received a patent of nobility from King Max of Bavaria. His brother John assists him in the management of the factory at Stein.
"Eberhard Faber was the third son of George Leonard Faber, and was born on the 6th of December, 1822. He was intended for the profession of the law, and studied jurisprudence at NUrnberg, Erlangen, Heidelberg, Berlin, and Munich. He preferred, bowerer, to pursue the family business, and in 1849 be came to this city for the purpose of opening a branch house in this country, and especially to procure supplies of red cedar, by far the most desirable wood for pencils, which is obtained In perfection only in Florida. In 1851 be established at No. 133 William Street an agency for I tie parent house, and also founded here a depot for red cedar, which he shipped to Germany. In 1861, in consequence of the high rate of duty on pencils imported from Europe, ho built the first regular lead-pencil factory in this country, at the foot of East Forty-second Street. This factory was burned in May, 1872, and Mr. Fabcr built another in Greenpoint, which lias since been in operation. At a later date he established a cedar-yard and sawmill nt Cedar Keys, Florida. As business increased, lie enlarged its original designs, and manufactured not only pencils of every variety, but pen-holders, india-rubber goods, gold pens, and almost everything connected with the stationery trade except paper and blank-books. At present the business absorbs the entire product of an india-rubber factory in New Jersey. In 1877 his business in this city was removed from William Street to more extensive <|unrtcrs in Broadway.
"The manufactures of A. W. Faber are now conducted at Stein, at Geroldsgrlln in Bavaria, and In this country. There arc branch houses In London, Paris, Vienna, and Berlin. The. wliolo product of the Alibert graphite mines in Siberia is used in the manufacture of their penells, and the number of persons directly employed by the house in various parts of the world is not less than two thousand, of whom rive hundred or more are in this country."
NOTES AND QUERIES.
"Is there a handy list of the best standard books published? You spoke in the Pub1 istiKRs Wkkki.y of getting up one,[but you may Ik- able to send me one, not very extensive, yet a good one."
[We know of no such catalogue at present. Mr. Leypoldt hopes to publish soch a list within the year.]
Coirumts, O.—A. H. Smythe having purchased the book and stationery business of E. O. Randall & Co., will continue it under the old firm-name. He was connected with the linn for many years, and is authorized to settle all business matters pertaining to the late Ann.
Hartford. Ct.—The office of F. J. Huntington & Co. has been moved from SS White Street, New York, to Hartford, Ct,
Nrw York Cm\—The failure of Ward &
IVloubet, law-book publishers, at No. So Nassau Street, is announced, and they have assigned their property to Horatio G. Craig. Tbev suooeedevd Diossy & Co. three years a*ro. and claimed a capital of #75,000 in the bus
Protomskv. R. I.—The Tilljngnas? & Mason Sews Company wi".; be toown hereafter by its the Rhode Isjasd News Company.
LITERARY AND TRADE NOTES.
J. W. Burke & Co, Macon, Ga., have just issued a second edition of the " Lectures and Sermons of Dr. Munsey." The volume contains an engraved portrait of the Doctor and an illustration of his church in New Orleans.
A Story of Colonial times, called "The Puritan and the Quaker," by Rebecca G. Beach, and "Neurological Contributions," by Dr. William A. Hammond, are new announcements of G. P. Putnam's Sons.
The Bampton Lectures for 1878 will be published by E. P. Dutton & Co. this month. The volume is a large octavo of 688 pages, entitled "Zechariah and his Prophecies," and is by the Rev. C. H. H. Wright, of Belfast, Ireland.
A Correspondent of the Evening Post, Henri Grasse, in a letter printed in its issue of Feb. at, makes an argument against obtaining international copyright by the substitution of "person" for "citizen" in our laws, on the ground that we should then have no permanent assurance of British reciprocity.
"Saying the Catechism Seventy-five Years Ago, and the Historical Results," is an address delivered before the N. E. Historic-Genealogicai Society a few months ago by Dorus Clarke, D.D., and is nearly ready for publication by Lee & Shepard. It is curiously interesting as history, and as indicating the striking changes of custom since the beginning of this century.
"voices from Babylon ; or, The Record of Daniel the Prophet," by Joseph A. Seiss, D.D., author of " A Miracle in Stone," which was published on the 20th tilt, by Porter & Coates, has already reached the second edition. "A Miracle in Stone" and Mrs. Ward's " Sensible Etiquette" continue to have a large sale, eight editions of the latter work having been called for.
The publishers and booksellers of Chicago have been somewhat interested in a movement among the stationers to form a Board of Trade. The book trade had an organization of the kind, it will be remembered, a year or two ago. but they are not wholly discouraged by its untimely fate, and will do all they can to make the proposed organization a success and of benefit to all. Gen. McClurg and George Sherwood will represent the publishers in the charter membership of the Board.
Hoighton, Osgood X Co. will very shortly issue the first five volumes in new issues of the Illustrated Library editi.!-nj of Dickens'' Works and the Waverley Novels, The former will have all the illustrations of the standard edition (seme 550 in the 29 volatnesV will be bound only in dark preen doth, and will be sold at $1.50 a volume, instead of f£ as heretofore. The latter will have two steel plates in each volume (of the 25 in all v. will be bound in brown doth, and will be scOd at $1 a volume, instead of $1.50 as heretofore.
D. Lothrop & Co. have mst ready a unifonr; edition in 12 volumes iat $i each) of the writing* of the late Dr. Nebezc-jh Adams, inducing" The Friends 01'Chriss." "•Ctrss: a Friend." •■ TbeCommacion Sabbaih,"" ■'Acnes: or. The Little Kev." "Catherine." - ruder the Maze n Mast." "At EraiTiDc" ''Broadcast." •• Endless Punishment,*'" Berrka and her Barrism," and in a month or so' " Walks to Emmans," a new volume. The ocbers have been published before, some of them twenty years and more, and have gained the rank of sacred classics in evangelical esteem. Lothrop has just issued "Johnny's Vacations," by Mary E N. Hathaway, a book of good stories on The Squirrel Trap, The Little Gun, Grandma's Company, Indian Spring, The Dolls' Party, The Wild Goose, Biddy and the Chickens, The Disobedient Lamb, Pansy's Visit, and other stories that boys and girls are sure to like; and next week will publish "Six Little Rebels," (a taking title,) by Kate Tannat Woods, with 25 illustrations by " Boz."
Afghan literature is now the rage in England. Mr. H. M. Bellew, Sanitary Commissioner of the Punjaub, has in press a work entitled "Afghanistan and the Afghans," being a brief review of the history of the country and account of its people with special reference to the present crisis. Col. Knollys, of the 93d Highlanders, is writing a history of the present war.
The "Technological Dictionary," in three languages, formerly published at Wiesbaden by C. W. Kreidel, is now being brought out in a third edition, improved and considerably enlarged, by J. F. Bergmann, of the same city, whose American agents are B. Westermann& Co., 524 Broadway. The first volume, German-EnglishFrench, is a large octavo of 744 pages, clearly printed and surprisingly accurate. Compound words are made separate articles, for greater ease of reference. Nautical and meteorological terms have received full recognition in the new edition.
Sampson Low & Co. are about to issue an important "international" work entitled "The Hundred Greatest Men," being the lives and portraits of the one hundred greatest men of history, divided into eight classes, each class to form a monthly quarto volume. The introductions to the volumes are to be written by recognized authorities on the different subjects, the English contributors being Mr. Matthew Arnold, Mr. Froude, and Prof. Max Mttller; those in Germany, Profs. Helmholtz and Curtius; in France, MM. Taine and Renan ; and in America, Mr. Emerson. The portraits are to be reproductions from fine and rare steel engravings.
An interesting volume of personal ana is promised from England in a volume by Mr. Francis H. Grundy, entitled, "Pictures of the Past: Memories of Men I have met and Sights I have seen." Born with the birth of railways and articled into the school of the Stephensons, the author has followed his profession in most parts of the world. His book will contain an original account of George Stephenson's home life; of the early days of the railway system and of the railway mania; of the construction of railways in Yorkshire; and of the writer's acquaintance with the Bronte family. Mr. Grundy was an intimate friend of Patrick Bronte", and interesting letters from the latter will be given, as also personal recollections of Leigh Hunt and his family, Lewes, and other celebrities.
HARPER & BROTHERS'
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