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he should be surfeited with either. I often see him at our club in good humour, and yet sometimes too with an air of care in his looks : but in his country retreat he is always unbent, and such a companion as I could defire ; and therefore I seldom fail to make one with him when he is pleased to invite me.
The other day, as soon as we were got into his chariot, two or three beggars on each side hung upon the doors, and solicited our charity with the usual rhetoric of a sick wife or husband at home, three or four helpless little children, all starving with cold and hunger. We were forced to part with some money to get rid of their importunity ; and then we proceeded on our journey with the blessings and acclamations of these people.
“ Well then,” says fir ANDREW,"we go off with the “ prayers and good wishes of the beggars, and perhaps
too our healths will be drunk at the next alehouse : “ so all we shall be able to value ourselves upon, is, “ that we have promoted the trade of the victualler and “ the excises of the government. But how few ounces “ of wool do we lee on the backs of these poor
creatures ? And when they shall next fall in our way,
they will hardly be better dressed; they must always “ live in rags to look like objects of compassion. If “ their families too are such as they are represented, it “ is certain they cannot be better clothed, and must be
a great deal worfe fed: one would think potatoes “ should be all their bread, and their drink the pure “ element ; and then what goodly customers are the “ farmers like to have for their wool; corn, and cattle? “ such customers, and such a consumption, cannot “ choose but advance the landed interest, and hold up " tue rents of the gentlemen.
“ But of all men living, we merchants, who live by buying and selling, ought never to encourage beg
gars. The goods which we export are indeed the pro“ duct of the lands, but much the greatest part of their “ value is the labour of the people : but how much of
tiese people's labour shall we export whilft we hire “ them to sit still ? The very alins they receive from
us, are the wages of idleness. I have often thought " that no man should be permitted to take relief from
“ the parish, or to ask it in the street, until he has first
purchased as much as possible of his own livelihood by “ the labour of his own hands; and then the public
ought only to be taxed to make good the deficiency. “ If this rule was strictly observed, we should see every “ where such a multitude of new labourers, as would “ in all probability reduce the prices of all our manu“ factures. It is the very life of merchandize to buy “ cheap and fell dear. The merchant ought to make “ his out-set as cheap as possible, that he may find the
greater profit upon his returns ; and nothing will “ enable him to do this like the reduction of the price “ of labour upon all our manufactures. This too would “ be the ready way to increase the number of our foreign “ markets: the abatement of the price of the manu“ facture would pay for the carriage of it to more “ distant countries; and this consequence would be
equally beneficial both to the landed and trading in“ terests. As so great an addition of labouring hands “ would produce this happy consequence both to the “ merchant and the gentleman ; our liberality to com
mon beggars, and every other obstruction to the in“crease of labourers, must be equally perniciousto both."
Sir ANDREW then went on to affirm, that the reduction of the prices of our manufactures by the addition of so many new hands, would be no inconvenience to any man: but observing I was something startled at the affertion, he made a short pause, and then resumed the discourse. “ It may seem,” says he,“ a paradox, that the
price of labour should be reduced without an abatement of
be abated without any inconvenience to the labourer, and yet nothing “ is more certain than that both these things may happen. " The wages of the labourers make the greates part " of the price of every thing that is useful ; and if in
proportion with the wages the prices of all other things should be abated, every labourer with leis
wages would ftill be able to purchase as many, necef“ faries of life ; where then would be the inconveni
? But the price of labour may be reduced by the " addition of more hands to a manufacture, and yet
wages of persons remain as high as ever. The
wages, or that
“ admirable fir William Petty has given examples of - “ this in some of his writings : one of them, as I re“ member, is that of a watch, which I shall endeavour “ to explain fo as fhall suit my present purpose. It is
certain that a single watch could not be made fo
cheap in proportion by one only man, as a hundred “ watches by a hundred; for as there is a vaft variety in “ the work, no one person could equally fuit himself to “ all the parts of it ; the manufacture would be tedious, “ and at last but clumsily performed ; but if an hundred " watches were to be made by an hundred men, the cases may
be assigned to one, the dials to another, the wheels to another, the springs to another, and every other
part to a proper artist; as there would be no need of “ perplexing any one person with too much variety,
every one would be able to perform bis single part “ with greater skill and expedition ; and the hundred “ watches would be finished in one-fourth part of the “ time of the first one, and every one of them at one“ fourth part of the coft, though the wages of every
man were equal. The reduction of the price of the “ manufacture would encrease the demand of it, all the “ fame hands would be still employed and as well paid. “ The fame rule will hold in the cloathing, the ship
ping, and all other trades whatsoever. And thus an " addition of hands to our manufactures will only re“ duce the price of them; the labourer will still have as “ much wages, and will consequently be enabled to
purchase more conveniencies of life ; so that every “ intereit in the nation would receive a benefit from the “ increase of our working people.
Besides, I see no occasion for this charity to common beggars, since every beggar is an inhabitant of
a farish, and every parish is taxed to the maintenance “ of their own poor. For my own part, I cannot be
mightily pleased with the laws which have done this, “ which have provided better to feed than employ the
poor. We have a tradition from our forefathers, that “ after the first of those laws was made, they were in“ sulted with that famous song ;
Hang sorrow, and cast away care,
“ And if we will be so good-natured as to maintain “ them without work, they can do no less in return than “ fing us The Merry Beggars.
“ What then? am I against all acts of charity? God “ forbid ! I know of no virtue in the gospel that is in more pathetic expressions recommended to our prac
I was hungry and ye gave me no meat, thirsty " and ye gave me no drink, naked and
clothed me not, a stranger and ye took me not in, fick and in prison and ye visited me not.' Our blessed Saviour treats the exercise or neglect of charity towards a poor
man, as the performance or breach of this duty to“ wards himself. I shall endeavour to obey the will of
Lord and Master : and therefore if an industrious man shall submit to the hardest labour and coarseft
fare, rather than endure the shame of taking relief “ from the parish, or asking it in the street, this is the
hungry, the thirsty, the naked ; and I ought to be“ lieve, if
any man is come hither for shelter against persecution or oppression, this is the stranger, and I
ought to take him in. If any countryman of our own “ is fallen into the hands of infidels, and lives in a state " of miserable captivity, this is the man in prison, and “ I should contribute to his ransom. I ought to give to
an hospital of invalids, to recover as many useful subjects as I can; but I shall bestow none of
bounties upon an alms-house of idle people ; and for the same “ reason I should not think it a reproach to me if I had “ withheld my charity from those common beggars. “ But we prescribe better rules than we are able to practice
; we are ashamed not to give into the mistaken “ customs of our country ; but at the same time, I can
not but think it a reproach worse than that of com
mon swearing, that the idle and the abandoned are: “ suffered in the name of Heaven and all that is sacred,
to extort from christian and tender minds a supply to
a profligate way of life, that is always to be supported, " but never relieved.”
Tuesday, November 27.
Tanquam hæc fint nostri medicina furoris, Aut deus ille malis hominum mitescere discat.
Virg, Ecl. 10. ver. 60. As if by these my sufferings I could ease,
Or by my pains the god of love appease. DryDEN. I SHALL, in this paper, discharge myself of the promise I have made to the public, by obliging them with a translation of the little Greek manuscript, which is said to have been a piece of those records that were preserved in the temple of Apollo, upon the promontory of Leucate: it is a short history of the Lover's Leap, and is inscribed, “ An account of persons, male and female, who offered
up their vows in the temple of the Pythian Apollo, “ in the forty-sixth Olympiad, and leaped from the pro
montory of Leucate into the Ionian sea, in order to cure themselves of the passion of love.”
This account is very dry in many parts, as only mentioning the name of the lover who leaped, the person he leaped for, and relating, in short, that he was either cured or killed, or mained by the fall. It indeed gives the names of fo
many who died by it, that it would have looked like a bill of mortality, had I translated it at full length ; I have therefore made an abridgment of it, and only extracted such particular passages as have fomething extraordinary, either in the cale, or in the cure, or in the fate of the person who is mentioned in it. After this short preface take the account as follows.
Battus, the son of Menalcas the Sicilian, leaped for Bombyca the musician : got rid of his passion with the loss of his right leg and arm, which were broken in the fall.
Melissa, in love with Daphnis, very much bruised, but escaped with life.
Cynisca, the wife of Æschines, being in love with Lycus ; and Æschines her husband being in love with Eurilla ; (which had made this married couple