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' in this life, would enjoy all the virtuous gratifica- CHAP.

tions, that his fancy could suggest.


6. · The roots of law are the whole Véda, the or• dinances and moral practices of such as perfectly

understand it, the immemorial customs of good men, and, in cases quite indifferent, self-satisfaction. 7. - Whatever law has been ordained for any person by Menu, that law is fully declared in the · Véda : for He was perfect in divine knowledge :


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8. ' A man of true learning, who has viewed this complete system with the eye of sacred wisdom,

cannot fail to perform all those duties, which are ' ordained on the authority of the Veda.

9. ' No doubt, that man who shall follow the rules prescribed in the Sruti and in the Smriti, will acquire fame in this life, and, in the next, inexpressible happiness :

10. · By Sruti, or what was heard from above, is ' meant the Veda ; and by Smriti, or what was remem' bered from the beginning, the body of law: those two

must not be oppugned by heterodox arguments ; • since from those two, proceeds the whole system of


11. " Whatever man of the three highest classes, having addicted himself to heretical books, shall treat with contempt those two roots of law, he must

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CHAP. • be driven, as an Atheist and a scorner of revelation,

' from the company of the virtuous.

12. “ The scripture, the codes of law, approved usage, and, in all indifferent cases, self-satisfaction, • the wise have openly declared to be the quadruple description of the juridical system.

13. · A knowledge of right is a sufficient incentive ' for men unattached to wealth or to sensuality ; and

to those who seek a knowledge of right,
preme authority is divine revelation ;

14. But, when there are two sacred texts, appa' rently inconsistent, both are held to be law ; for both

are pronounced by the wise to be valid and reconcilable ;

the su


15. " Thus in the Veda are these texts: 66 let the " sacrifice be when the sun has arisen,” and, “ before it “ has risen,” and, “ when neither sun nor stars can “ be seen :" the sacrifice, therefore, may be performed

at any or all of those times.

16. · He, whose life is regulated by holy texts, from ' his conception even to his funeral pile, has a decided right to study this code; but no other man what



17. · BETWEEN the two divine rivers Saraswati and Drishadwali, lies the tract of land, which the sages · have named Brahmóverta, because it was frequented by Gods:

18. "The

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18. ' The custom preserved by immemorial tradition CHAP. ' in that country, among the four pure classes, and

among those which are mixed, is called approved usage.

19. Curucshétra, Matsya, Panchála, or Cányacubja, ' and Súraséna, or Mať hurà, form the region called

Brahmarshi, distinguished from Brahmáverta :


20. - From a Bráhmen who was born in that country, let all men on earth learn their several usages.

21. That country which lies between Himawat and

Vindhya, to the east of Vinasana, and to the west ' of Prayága, is celebrated by the title of Medhya

désa, or the central region.

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22. As far as the eastern, and as far as the west-
ern oceans, between the two mountains just men-
tioned, lies the tract which the wise have named
Aryáverta, or inhabited by respectable men.
23. ' That land, on which the black antelope natu-
rally grazes, is held fit for the performance of sa.
crifices; but the land of Mléch'has or those who speak
barbarously, differs widely from it.

24. • Let the three first classes invariably dwell in ' those before-mentioned countries; but a Súdra, dis' tressed for subsistence, may sojourn wherever he ( chuses. 25. “ Thus has the origin of law been succinctly

• declared




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declared to you, together with the formation of this universe: now learn the laws of the several classes. 26.' With auspicious acts prescribed by the Veda, must ceremonies on conception, and so forth, be

duly performed, which purify the bodies of the three ' classes in this life, and qualify them for the next.

27. ' By oblations to fire during the mother's pregnancy, by holy rites on the birth of the child, by the

tonsure of his head with a lock of hair left on it, · by the ligation of the sacrificial cord, are the se

minal and uterine taints of the three classes wholly
removed :
28. ' By
By studying the Véda, by

by religious observ.
ances, by oblations to fire, by the ceremony of
Traividya, by offering to the Gods and Manes, by
the procreation of children, by the five great sacra-
ments, and by solemn sacrifices, this human body is
rendered fit for a divine state.
29. · Before the section of the navel string a cere-
mony is ordained on the birth of a male : he must
be made, while sacred texts are pronounced, to taste

little honey and clarified butter from a . golden spoon.

30. “ Let the father perform or, if absent, cause to • be performed, on the tenth or twelfth day after the · birth, the ceremony of giving a name; or on some ' fortunate day of the moon, at a lucky hour, and under the influence of a star with good qualities.

31. The





31. • The first part of a Bráhmen's compound name CHAP. • should indicate holiness; of a Cshatriya's, power ; of ' a Vaisya's, wealth; and of a Súdra's, contempt

32. ' Let the second part of the priest's name imply prosperity; of the soldier's, preservation; of the 6 merchant's, nourishment; of the servant's, humble



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33. · The names of women should be agreeable, soft, clear, captivating the fancy, auspicious, ending in long - vowels, resembling words of benediction.

34. In the fourth month the child should be car6 ried out of the house to see the sun : in the sixth • month, he should be fed with rice; or that may

be done, which, by the custom of the family, is thought ' most propitious.

35. By the command of the Věda, the ceremony of tonsure should be legally performed by the three first classes in the first or third year after birth.



36. - In the eighth year from the conception of a Bráhmen, in the eleventh from that of a Cshatriya,

and in the twelfth from that of a Vaisya, let the • father invest the child with the mark of his class :

37. · Should a Bráhmen, or his father for him, be • desirous of his advancement in sacred knowledge ;

a Cshatriya, of extending his power ; or a Vaisya of engaging in mercantile business; the investiture



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