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goes out in a carriage or on horseback, when he CHAP.

lies down to rest, when he sits, when he takes food, ' when he bathes, anoints his body with odorous es

and puts on all his habiliments. 221. ' After eating, let him divert himself with his

women in the recesses of his palace; and, having - idled a reasonable time, let him again think of pub

lick affairs :
222. " When he has dressed himself completely, let
him once more review his armed men, with all their
elephants, horses, and cars, their accoutrements, and

223. · At sunset, having performed his religious duty, • let him privately, but well armed, in his interior • apartment, hear what has been done by his reporters ' and emissaries :

224. " Then, having dismissed those informers, and * returning to another secret chamber, let him go,

attended by women, to the inmost recess of his mansion for the sake of his evening meal ;

225. • There, having a second time eaten a little, ' and having been recreated with musical strains, let • him take rest early, and rise refreshed from his labour.

226. “ This perfect system of rules let a king, free ' from illness, observe; but, when really afflicted with

disease, he may intrust all these affairs to his of



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On Judicature ; and on Law, Private and Criminal.


1. ' A KING, desirous of inspecting judicial proceedings, must enter his court of justice, composed and ' sedate in his demeanour, together with Bráhmens ' and counsellors, who know how to give him advice :

2. “ There, either sitting or standing, holding forth ' his right arm, without ostentation in his dress and • ornaments, let him examine the affairs of litigant



3. · Each day let him decide causes, one after another, under the eighteen principal titles of law, by arguments and rules drawn from local usages, and from written codes :

4. ' Of those titles, the first is debt, on loans for consumption; the second, deposits, and loans for use; the third, sale without ownership; the fourth, concerns

among partners; the fifth, subtraction of what has
been given ;
5. · The sixth, non-payment of wages or hire; the
seventh, non-performance of agreements; the eighth,

rescission of sale and purchase; the ninth, disputes " between master and servant ;

6. · The tenth, contests on boundaries; the eleventh



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and twelfth, assault and slander; the thirteenth, lar- CHAP.

ceny; the fourteenth, robbery and other violence; the fifteenth, adultery;

7. The sixteenth, altercation between and wife, and their several duties; the seventeenth, the

law of inheritance; the eighteenth, gaming with dice ' and with living creatures : these eighteen titles of law

are settled as the ground-work of all judicial procedure in this world.

8. . Among men, who contend for the most part on • the titles just mentioned, and on a few miscellaneous heads not comprised under them, let the king decide causes justly, observing primeval law; 9. · But, when he cannot inspect such affairs in person, let him appoint, for the inspection of them, a · Bráhmen of eminent learning:

10. • Let that chief judge, accompanied by three assessors, fully consider all causes brought before the king; and, having entered the court-room, let • him sit or stand, but not move backwards and forwards.

11. ' In whatever country three Bráhmens, particularly • skilled in the three several Vedas, sit together with the

very learned Bráhmen appointed by the king, the ' wise call that assembly the court of Brahma' wit four faces. 12. · When justice, having been wounded by iniquity, v approaches the court, and the judges extract not the dart, they also shall be wounded by it.

13. " Either


13. · Either the court must not be entered by judges, parties, and witnesses, or law and truth must be openly . declared : that man is criminal, who either says nothing, or says what is false or unjust.

14. Where justice is destroyed by iniquity, and • truth by false evidence, the judges, who basely look on without giving redress, shall also be destroyed.

15. - Justice being destroyed, will destroy; being c

preserved, will preserve: it must never, therefore,
be violated. “ Beware, O judge, lest justice, being
overturned, overturn both us and thyself.”
16. " The divine form of justice is represented as

Vrisha, or a bull, and the gods consider him, who ' violates justice, as a Vrăshala, or one who slays a • bull: let the king, therefore, and his judges beware • of violating justice.

17. · The only firin friend, who follows men even ' after death, is justice : all others are extinct with the body. 18. · Of injustice in decisions, one quarter falls on the party in the cause; one quarter, on his witnesses ;

one quarter, on all the judges; and one quarter on - the king;

19. · But where he, who deserves condemnation, shall • be condemned, the king is guiltless, and the judges « free from blaine: an evil deed shall recoil on him, who committed it.

20. " A Bráh


20. 'A Bráhmen supported only by his class, and CHAP. one barely reputed a Bráhmen, but without performing any sacerdotal acts, may, at the king's plea

sure, interpret the law to him: so may the two mid(dle classes ; but a Súdra, in no case whatever.

21. ' Of that king, who stupidly looks on, while a Súdra decides causes, the kingdom itself shall be embarrassed, like a cow in deep mire.

22. ' The whole territory, which is inhabited by a number of Súdras, overwhelmed with atheists, and • deprived of Bráhmens, must speedily perish afflicted " with dearth and disease.

23. ' Let the king or his judge, having seated him' self on the bench, his body properly clothed and ' his mind attentively fixed, begin with doing reve

rence to the deities, who guard the world; and then let him enter on the trial of causes : 24. · Understanding what is expedient or inexpedient, but considering only what is law or not law, ' let him examine all disputes between parties, in the order of their several classes. 25. · By external signs let him see through the thoughts of men; by their voice, colour, countenance, · limbs, eyes, and action :

26. · From the limbs, the look, the motion of the body, the gesticulation, the speech, the changes of the eye and the face, are discovered the internal workings of the mind.

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27. The

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