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though he may even have been a cobbler, to transform him, presto, into a judge,' and dispatch him in that capacity to Venice.
* By the laws of Austria, no landlord can turn his tenants away from his estate, except by a three years' notice to quit ; though those tenants may be in arrears to him for rent; and are known to be in the practice of embezzling the produce, to the injury, and even utter ruin of the proprietor. The government, however, enforces immediate 'payment from the landlord, by selling his effects for about a third of their real value, though, by law, they ought not to be disposed of under two-thirds."
So much for “Life” in Venice. We now come to "LIFE" in 'Naples :
• Ferdinand of Naples, on his marriage with the Archduchess Caroline of Austria, scarcely knew how to write his own name; and the princess was actually the first to teach him so to read and write as to make himself understood.
"Leaving the ladies in the carriage, we proceeded to the flesh-market; and, sure enough, there stood his present majesty, the King of Naples, dressed in a white nightcap, with an apron round his waist, selling fish to the best bidder, surrounded in all his glory by the Lazzaroni, giggling, and eating bread and onions out of their filthy hands; and carrying on with him a conversation not a jot less vulgar nor more civilized than
“ His Majesty used to indulge in numerous other amusements, equally singular and peculiar to himself. He would sometimes walk on the beautiful beach of the Chiaga, and, taking up one of those Sansculottes, would throw him with the greatest violence into the water, and then jump after him, and bring him safe to shore.
"On the last night of the Carnival, Ferdinand would go to the beautiful theatre San Carlo; and, ordering a dish of Maccaroni to be brought him, scalding hot, and mixed up with oil, cheese, beef gravy, and what not, from one of the upper boxes, when the pit was crowded with spectators, all attentive to the opera or ballet, he would throw the greasy mess by handfuls on his loving subjects; and those who wished to be particularly noticed by the monarch would tumble over head, and scramble to pick up some of it to eat. All which the king would heartily enjoy, and laugh most immoderately at those who appeared concerned and vexed at beholding the unctuous marks of royal favor on their holiday suits.” :
Of Rome we are told“ The state of darkness in which it is the policy of the Roman government to keep its subjects, was resorted to on the principle that it was as well for the people to be kept ignorant of certain cardinal practices, which would become too manifest and glaring, 'if the streets were suffered to be lighted up. For the same reason, the holy conclave have a private door to all the theatres in Rome, through which they enter in masques, and every now-and-then, par hazard, stumble in the dark upon some pretty female or two; whom, out of pure Christian charity, of course, they take under the shelter of their sacred wings during Carnival time; the better to prepare the same pretty females for their Lent confessions.”
The following anecdote is characteristic and piquante :
“Cesarotti wrote an elaborate epic poem on the warlike achievements of the Archduke Charles : and when the Austrian army had been driven out of Italy by the French, only changed the name of Charles for that of Napoleon ; and presented the identical work to the French instead of the Austrian conqueror.”
Let the world rejoice in its prospects! What this enlightened age will arrive at under the auspices of the “Holy Alliance," it is not difficult to foresee.“ Visions of glory spare the aching sight!" Swift says, that, without a tincture of that " valuable vapour,” which the world unjustly calls madness, it would be deprived of its two greatest blessings-“conquests” and “ systems ;” and we cannot help thinking, that, if many of the continental sovereigns had happened to be born in a private station in England, they would have incurred manifest danger of phlebotomy and tonsure (though not monastic) in a private mad-house.
Under these circumstances, we think it will be a charity to the author to divest him, like Achilles, of his female garment, in which
he looks like Liston in Moll Flagon, and investigate the materials of which his more masculine work is composed. And here we are bound to admit, that there is much intelligence, on the present state of Italy, amply worthy of perusal. The centaur is, at least, half human.
The system of the Emperor Francis, as avowed in Italy, is never to end; and, to discourage those revolutionary symbols, the letters of the alphabet, Ferdinand of Naples' system has just been depicted : King Louis's “system” is a rechauffée of that imperial worthy, Heliogabalus, in which the stomach maintains its old pre-eminence over the other parts of the body. Alexander has had the condescension to bring, by means of a “University Curator," his "system” to the level of the meanest capacity; namely, that man is naturally stupid; and that “those fine things”(videlicet, letters), are “not wanted." Thus is the truly “royal road" to science at length discovered! Jubilate! Jubilate! How happy are we in having such royal philosophers, and to live in such a golden age! happy, indeed, as Virgil said, if we did but know our happiness, which, however, we greatly fear, like “ the ways of heaven,” is “ past finding out.”
“ Enough! if ignorance be bliss,
VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.
A Tour in Germany, and some of the Southern Provinces of the Austrian
Empire, in the Years 1820, 1821, 1822.-2 vols. 12mo. pp. 409-408. SINCE we commenced our critical labours, it has been our misfortune to be obliged to toil through certain trifling and disgusting volumes of Continental Tours, interesting only to the writer and his own family, and containing no other information than occasional scraps selected from the common itineraries and local guides. · For mortification like this, we are, however, amply recompensed by such volumes as the present. We have here two elegantly-printed duodecimos, of which every page is entertaining and rich in intelligence which every reader, in a less or greater degree, must be desirous of collecting. During the three years spent in Germany and the Austrian provinces, the author traverses the principal states, and, with a master-hand, selects the most important objects hitherto little known, and so exhibits them as to fully communicate the views of the writer. The state of learning in the different principalities, and the political condition of the people, are the chief objects of consideration; and it gives us pleasure to learn, that, in Prussia and some other states, although the external forms of administration are not improved, there is a decided attention paid to the interests and wishes of the body of the people, and a gradual amelioration of their condition.
We have here much curious information respecting the manners of the Burschen, or youth at the German universities, which would furnish materials for an interesting novel. Whilst they submit to be ruled one hour in the day by a Professor, they rule him and everybody else during the rest of the four-and-twenty. The duels of the day are generally fought in the morning; and the spare hours of the forenoon and afternoon are spent in fencing and renowning ; that is, in doing things to make people wonder at them, and in providing duels for the morrow. In the evening, the various clans assemble to besot themselves with beer and tobacco.
“A band of young men thus assembled at an alehouse in the evening, presents as strange a contrast as can well be imagined to all correct ideas, not only of studious academical tranquillity, but even of respectable conduct; yet, in refraining from these nightly observances, they would think themselves guilty of a less pardonable dereliction of their academic character, and a more direct treason against the independence of Germany, than if they subscribed to the Austrian Observer, or never attended, for a single hour, the lectures for which they pay. Step into the public room of that inn, on the opposite side of the market-place, (for it is the most respectable in the town.) On opening the door, you must use your ears, not your eyes ; for nothing is yet visible, except a dense mass of smoke, occupying space, concealing every thing in it and beyond it, illuminated with a dusky light, you know not how, and sending forth from its bowels all the varied sounds of mirth and revelry. As the eye gradually accommodates itself to the atmosphere, human visages are seen dimly dancing through the lurid cloud ; then pewter jugs begin to glimmer faintly on their neighbourhood; and as the smoke from the phial gradually shapes itself into the friendly Asmodeus, the man and his jug slowly assume a corporeal and a defined form. You can now totter on between the two long tables, which have sprung up as if by enchantment. By the time you have reached the huge stone at the farther end, you have before you the paradise of the German Burschen, destitute only of its Houris : every man with his bonnet on his head, a pot of beer in his hand, a pipe or segar in his mouth, and a song upon his lips ; never doubting but that he and his companions are training themselves to be the regenerators of Europe ; that they are the true representatives of the manliness and independence of the German character, and the only models of a free, generous, and high-minded youth. They lay their hands upon their jugs, and vow the liberation of Germany; they stop a second pipe, or light a second segar, and swear that the Holy Alliance is an unclean thing."
There is another peculiarity of the German students still more troublesome. There is a determined spirit of clanship amongst them, which gives birth to violence and insubordination, cherishes opposition to regular discipline, and constitutes a united body, to give that opposition effect.
Every student, when he joins the University, attaches himself to some secret society. Each society has its president, secretary, and counsellors. The heads of all the societies, meeting together, form the senior convent. These bodies are not only not recognized by the University, but every attempt is made to suppress them. Still they exist, and give not only the Professors, but even the Government, no little trouble. Whilst all are ready to join when their common privileges are attacked, the different societies carry on an interminable war with each other. The great object of ambition with each community is, to render itself the terror of all the others. For this
purpose, every means of annoyance is contrived. The societies have also á great emulation to excel in renowning, by the performance of exploits by which they will become the subjects of wonder and astonishment. Such associations occasionally taking a political bias, have excited the vigilant attention of the different governments; and since the murder of Kotzebue, Jena has fallen into such disrepute, that several states have forbidden their subjects to resort thither. Gottingen, on the other hand, has been distinguished by its abstinence from political discussions, and strict attention to the proper objects of a university; and the usual number of students is about 700. The main employment of the societies is duelling; and the whole system of provoking quarrels and insults, and deciding them by the sword, is regulated by a code of laws, called the Comment, which is held sacred by all the German students.
It affords us much pleasure to learn the details of the decided improvements which have taken place in Prussia. The ancient feudal obligations, which oppressed a portion of the proprietors and cultivators of the soil, are abolished. All classes are now rendered equally liable to taxation, and may become possessed of real property. By the encouragement of trade and manufactures, a powerful and intelligent middle class has been produced; and, by the natural course of events, an improved form of administration, adapted to the advanced state of society, must necessarily take place. In various other states of Germany, the condition of the inhabitants is ameliorated; but, we regret to find that Austria still wields her leaden sceptre, and delights in darkness. Every attempt to enlighten her subjects is repressed with the most watchful and anxious jealousy; and the police of Vienna penetrates into the most domestic associations of the citizens. Hence, on all matters of public interest the inhabitants are deplorably ignorant; and, confining their ambition to the production of singers and players on the pianoforte, they surrender themselves to the dominion of voluptuous enjoyments.
Our limits forbid our entering into a further account of this work; we therefore conclude our observations, by recommending it, as by far the best which, for many years past, has appeared in the form of a tour on the continent of Europe.
Six Months' Residence and Travels in Mexico; containing Remarks on
the present State of New Spain, its natural Productions, State of Society, Manufactures, Trade, Agriculture, and Antiquities, &c. : with Plates and Maps. By W. Bullock, F.L.s. Proprietor of the
late London Museum. 8vo. p.p. 532.-Murray. The importance which Mexico is daily acquiring in the eyes of the world-her new weight in the scale of nations—the rich and extensive field she is now, for the first time, opening to British enterprise and commerce, have conferred an additional value on this book, to what it possessed from its own intrinsic merit. Mr. Bullock has endeavoured to afford such information as may be of service to the merchant, the artist, and the adventurous emigrant, and, at the same time, engage the attention of the naturalist, while it cannot fail to delight the general reader. However, his object has been less to amuse than to interest; and we, having profited by his example, lay before our readers the following abstract of the contents of his work.
Accustomed as we are to hear nothing but the most virulent abuse of our West-Indian colonists, it was with no small pleasure that we read the account of their situation in Jamaica ; that they are so far from being reduced to a state from which humanity turns with disgust, that they are not deficient in comforts, and possess some of the luxuries of life. In this island he procured the smallest humming-bird known, which is considerably less than - some of the bees. The first object that arrested our traveller's attention, on his arrival at Vera Cruz, was the little Isle of Sacrificios, “ strewed with the bones of British subjects, who have perished in this unhealthy climate, and whose remains are not allowed to be buried in consecrated ground." • Vera Cruz contains about 7,000 inhabitants,” though it“ appears as large as many places that contain 20,000 people.” The whole town, as well as the castle, is built of coral (the Mandrepora Meandrities), and the lime that forms the cement is of the same material, and used for the roofs and foot-pavements: it is so hard, that, in some places, it receives from friction a polish like marble. After the complaints which our merchants' have so frequently made of the losses they have sustained from pirates, it may not be amiss to state, that the pier was partially paved with pigs of iron, each bearing the broad arrow of the king of England; which, I afterwards learnt, was part of the ballast of an English frigate, left in order to enable her to return with a greater quantity of specie, whilst the Havannah was a nest of pirates and slave traders." The fish with which this city is supplied, surpass in beauty, both of colour and form, what an European is able to conceive: the hospitality of the inhabitants is at a very low ebb; for of thirty letters, several to the first houses, both English and Spanish, not one procured Mr. Bullock even an invitation to dinner: “ those to whom I had presented them, after a few questions, generally left me with marks of surprise that a man in his senses could venture so far from home to such a place with such motives.” The conduct of the Republicans is liberal: one of their generals, named St. Anna, declaring that, “ contrary to the policy of Old Spain, they now wished Europe, and particularly England, to become better acquainted with Mexico.” In the immediate neighbourhood of Vera Cruz, which is extremely unhealthy; the travelling is bad, and the accommodations are “infernal;" but, on advancing into the interior, the country was found to improve, and the environs of Xalapa, or Jalapa, a city from which the well-known drug takes its name, and containing about 13,000 souls, resemble an extensive park in Europe. At Xalapa, “ both men and women are, in general, very ill informed with respect to the state of Europe. They believe the continent to be under the dominion of Spain; that England, France, &c. are only so many paltry states or provinces, to which the king of Spain appoints governors, who superintend the manufactories, &c., for the benefit of that country. I found it dangerous to contradict this flatly.” On the other hand, “ Europe has much to learn respecting America: even the very names of some of her finest cities of the Mexicans are unknown to her.” “ All articles of European manufac ture are dear in this city, being 3 or 400 per cent. above the cost price, and generally of the worst kind.” At the entertainments, “ there was generally a great want of knives, as only one was allowed to each table; and I was told this was common in Spanish America." The inbabitants are uniformly addicted to gaming, which is a prevalent vice of the common people of Mexico. The ladies in this country ride on the same horse with the gentlemen or servants, but ride, in front, sitting on the contrary side to that used in England, supported by the arm of the male companion. The picturesque appearance of Crit, Gaz. No. 3. vol. 1.