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638. Streight. Strait, difficulty.
659. Bleeding Heart. The Douglas clan, by metonymy.
678. Links of Forth. Its windings near Stirling. Cf. The Lord of the Isles, VI. xix.
"Old Stirling's towers arose in light,
And twined in links of silver bright
Her winding river lay."
690-691. Till again. Precise meaning of these lines?
692. There are who have. An ellipsis.
894. Beetled. Overhung. Cf. "a beetling brow."
702. Battled. Battlemented.
708. Astound. The contracted participle.
718. Explain the details of the sustained figure in this stanza. 718. Hectic. Unhealthfully excited.
781. Level. Aim.
732-737. 'Twas I . slanderous tongues. Note the pathos. 747. Nighted. Benighted.
757. Checkered shroud. His plaid.
778. Minion. (French, mignon.)
Originally a loved one
later, as here, a servile fawning favorite.
801. Pity 'twere. The Highlander's contempt for any approack to effeminacy.
805. Lackey. Verb.
809. Henchman. A sort of secretary, expected to be ready to give his life for his master. Therefore he used to stand behind his master's seat at drinking-bouts, to resent any offensive speech. 829. On the morn. Modifies" should circle. **
831. Fiery Cross. See next Canto
846. Point. Appoint or point out.
Canto L. ended with morning. This one ends with evening and moonlight. Is there any artistic reason?
GENERAL QUESTIONS ON CANTO SECOND
1. What element enters largely into Canto II. that appeared but little in Canto I. ?
2. What will be the difference in the tone of two cantos, one of which is full of nature, the other of human life and emotions?
3. Mention the human passions displayed in Canto II. and prove your list by quotations.
4. Which Canto has the more movement?
5. What is the effect of minute detail in description? Show this in "The return of Clan Alpine"; the description in Canto L. of the Lodge.
6. What is the spirit of the introduction to Canto IL. ?
7. Of each stanza of the boat song?
8. What impression have you now of Malcolm Graeme ?
9. Tell the story of Canto II. in from thirty-five to forty words; of Canto I.
LINE 8. Store. Adj., now obsolete. Cf. I. 548.
4. Happed. Chanced.
9-10. Connection between these two stanzas.
15. What time. Cf. II. 1. 307.
17. Gathering sound.
18. The Fiery Cross.
Sound to call the gathering.
Scott says: "When a chieftain designed summon his clan, upon any sudden or important emergency, he siew a goat, and, making a cross of any light wood, seared the
extremities in the fire, and extinguished them in the blood of the animal This was called the Fiery Cross, also Crean Tarigh, or the Cross of Shame, because disobedience to what the symbol implied, inferred infamy." This was carried by relays of swift messengers, and every able-bodied man, between sixteen years and sixty, on sight of it was obliged to hasten to the meeting-place. During the civil war of 1745-46, the Fiery Cross often made its circuit; and upon one occasion it passed through the district of Breadalbane, a tract of thirty-two miles, in three hours."
19-40. The Summer dawn's... love. Why is this peaceful picture introduced here ?
30. Chalice, Cup.
39. Cushat dove. Ring-dove.
40. In speaking of Scott's use of color, Ruskin quotes the above passage, which he says "has no form in it at all except in one word (chalice), but wholly composes its imagery either of color, or of that delicate half-believed life which we have seen to be so important an element in modern landscape." What does he mean by "half-believed life"?
46. Impatient blade. Transferred epithet. 47. Vassals. Dependents of a feudal lord.
51. Preface meet. Fitting preparation.
57. Sails. What is meant ? Cf. Deut. xxxii. 11.
62. Rowan. Mountain ash.
63. Shivers. Slivers.
69-70. His . . . bore. Explain.
74. Benharrow. Mountain at head of Loch Lomond.
76. Druid. See early British history.
81. Hallowed. Christian.
87. Strath. A broad river valley. Watch for its compounds.
91. This legend was borrowed by Scott from some old tales
Mediæval heroes were apt to have supernatural origins, as King Arthur and Sigurd.
104. Fieldfare. A small brownish thrush.
130. Hap. See note to II., 1. 35.
131. MS. "Till, driven to frenzy, he believed
The legend of his birth received."
138. Sable-lettered. Black-lettered, like all old English books. 142. Cabala. Mysteries.
162. Disembodied world. World bereft of human beings.
168. Ben-Shie. Cf. Irish Banshee. A domestic spirit whose wailings foreboded death.
188-189. Crosslet. cubit's. Little cross, in length the dis tance from the elbow to the tip of the forefinger.
191. Inch-Cailliach. "Isle of Nuns " in Loch Lomond.
199-281. Make a study of the different curses and responses, the means by which the weird effect is produced, the climax of each curse, and see which is the most terrible.
200. Sepulchral yew. Because common in graveyards.
212. Strook. Old past of strike. 213-217. And first . . . hoarse.
alliteration, carries out the sense.
See how the sound, including
220-221. Joyous, exulting. At the thought of prey.
255. Beala-nam-bo. Pass the other side of Benvenue from Goblin's Cave.
278. Grace. Forgiveness.
279. This sign. Sign of the cross.
286. Lanrick Mead. At northwestern end of Loch Vennachar.
288 et seq. Make especial study of Malise's run. It is one of the finest things in the poem. Note the various touches by which the feeling of breathless speed is produced.
300. Dun deer's hide. A sort of buskin or moccasın.
304. Steepy. Steep; poetic.
310. Scaur. Cliff. Same as scar. Cf. Scarborough, and Tennyson's Bugle Song, "O sweet and far, from cliff and scar."
322-347. Fast .. I loud. Note details.
332. Cheer. Look.
344. Bosky. Woody.
349. Duncraggan. Near Brigg of Turk.
369. Coronach. A funeral lamentation, mingled with praise of the dead. What is the effect of the amphibrachic movement?
"He is gone on | the mountain,
He is lost to the forest,
Like a summer-dried fountain
When our need was the sorǝst."
384. Flushing. With its full color and beauty.
Hollow frequented by game.
393. Study all comparisons in the above song.
394. Stumah. "Faithful," the dog.
403. Precipitate. Headlong.
425. Essays. Tries.
439. Hest. Command.
How do we know that Duncan was Roderick's right-hand man? What makes the pathos of this description, farther than that there was a death ?
453. Scott summarizes this imaginary passage of the Fiery