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But the other soldiers were already murmur-| family, the Sire des Armoises. Strange to ing at these long delays: "How now, priest,' say, it appears from a contemporary chronicle, said they to L’Advenu; 'do you mean to that Joan's two surviving brothers acknowmake us dine here ? At length their fierce ledged this woman as their sister. * Stranimpatience was indulged; the ill-fated wo. ger still, other records prove that she made man was bound to the stake, and upon her two visits to Orleans, one before and one head was placed a mitre with the following after her marriage, and on each occasion was words inscribed :
hailed as the heroine returned. The ReHeretique Relapse, Arostate, IDOLATRE. items of expenses incurred : 1st, for the re
ceiver-General's accounts in that city contain The Bishop of Beauvais drew nigh just after ception of the Maid and her brother in 1436 ; the pile was kindled; “It is you,' said she to 2dly, for wines and refreshments presented him, who have brought me to this death.'|'à Dame Jehanne des Armoises,' in July, To the very last, as L'Advenu states in his 1439; 3dly, for a gift of 210 livres, which deposition, she continued to protest and main- the Town Council made to the lady on the tain that her Voices were true and unfeign- 1st of August following, in requital of her ed, and that in obeying them she had obeyed great services during the siege. These docthe will of God. As the flames increased, uments appear of undoubted authenticity; she bid L’Advenu stand further from her yet we are wholly unable to explain them. side, but still hold the cross aloft, that her The brothers of Joan of Arc might possibly latest look on earth might fall on the Re- have hopes of profit by the fraud; but how deemer's blessed sign. And the last word the people of Orleans, who had seen her so which she was heard to speak ere she expir- closely, who had fought side by side with ed was Jesus. Several of the prelates and her in the siege, could be deceived as to the assessors had already withdrawn in horror person, we cannot understand, nor yet what from the sight, and others were melted to motive they could have in deceiving tears. But the Cardinal of Winchester, still The interest which Joan of Arc inspires unmoved, gave orders that the ashes and at the present day extends even to the house bones of the heretic' should be collected where she dwelt, and to the family from and cast into the Seine. Such was the end which she sprung. Her father died of grief of Joan of Arc—in her death the martyr, as at the tidings of her execution; her mother in her life the champion, of her country. long survived it, but fell into great distress.
It seems natural to ask what steps the King Twenty years afterwards we find her in the of France had taken during all this interval receipt of a pension from the city of Orleans ; to avert her doom. If ever there had been a three francs a month; 'pour lui aider à sovereign indebted to a subject, that sove vivre.'I Joan's brothers and their issue took reign was Charles VII., that subject Joan of the name of Du Lis from the Lily of France, Arc. She had raised the spirits of his people which the King had assigned as their arms. from the lowest depression. She had re. It is said by a writer of the last century that trieved his fortunes when well nigh despaired their lineage ended in Coulombe Du Lis, of by himself. Yet no sooner was she cap- Prior of Coutras, who died in 1760. Yet tive than she seems forgotten. We hear we learn that there is still a family at Nancy, nothing of any attempt at rescue, of any pro- and another at Strasburg, which bear the posal for ransom ; neither the most common name of Du Lis, and which put forth a pediprotest against her trial, nor the faintest gree to prove themselves the relatives-not threat of reprisals ; nay, not even after her as a modern traveller unguardedly expresses death, one single expression of regret ! it, the descendants !-of the holy Maid. Charles continued to slumber in his delicious
The cottage in which Joan had lived at retreats beyond the Loire, engrossed by dames Domremy was visited by Montaigne in his of a very different character from Joan's, and travels. 'He found the front daubed over careless of the heroine to whom his security with rude paintings of her exploits, and in in that indolence was due.
its vicinity beheld "l'Arbre des Fées,' which Her memory on the other hand was long had so often shaded her childhood, still flourendeared to the French people, and long didishing in a green old age, under the new they continue to cherish a romantic hope that she might still survive. So strong was Chronique du Doyen de St. Thiebault à Metz this feeling, that in the year 1436 advantage finissant en 1445; cité par Calmet, Histoire de was taken of it by a female impostor, who Lorraine, vol. ij., p. 702.
Collection des Mémoires, vol. vüi., p. 311. pretended to be Joan of Arc escaped from
| Compte-ren her captivity. She fixed her abode at Metz, face de Buchon, p. 66;
and Sismondi, vol. xiii., p. and soon afterwards married a knight of good' 193.
name of 'l'Arbre de la Pucelle.' Gradu- 1 mand were so glaring, that scarce one of the ally the remains of this house have dwindled chiefs, or princes, or prelates, who heard her to one single room, which is said to have in council or familiar conversation, appears been Joan's, and which in the year 1817 was to have retained beyond the few first days employed as a stable. But we rejoice to the slightest faith in her mission. At best learn that the Council-General of the De- they regarded her as a useful tool in their partment has since, with becoming spirit, hands, from the influence which they saw purchased the venerable tenement, and res- her wield upon the arıny and the people. cued it from such unworthy uses.
And herein lies, we think, a further proof of From the preceding narrative it will be her perfect honesty of purpose.
A delibeeasy to trace the true character of Joan. A rate impostor is most likely to deceive those thorough and earnest persuasion that hers on whom he has opportunity and leisure to was the rightful cause that in all she had play his artifices, while the crowd beyond said she spoke the truth--that in all she did the reach of them most commonly remains she was doing her duty—a courage that did unmoved. Now the very reverse of this was not shrink before embattled armies, or be always the case with Joan of Arc. leagured walls, or judges thirsting for her The fate of Joan in literature has been blood-a serenity amidst wounds and suffer- strange,--almost as strange as her fate in life
. ings, such as the great poet of Tuscany as- The ponderous cantos of Chapelain in her cribes to the dauntless usurper of Naples :- praise have long since perished-all but a
"Mostrommi una piaga a sommo 'l petto few lines that live embalmed in the satires of
Poi disse sorRIDENDO: Io son Manfredi !' Boileau. But, besides Schiller's powerful -a most resolute will on all points that were
drama, two considerable narrative poems yet connected with her mission-perfect meek- survive with Joan of Arc for their subject, — ness and humility on all that were not-a
the epic of Southey, and the epic of Voltaire. clear, plain sense, that could confound the The one, a young poet's earnest and touchcasuistry of sophists—an ardent loyalty, such ing tribute to heroic worth-the first flight of as our own Charles I. inspired—a dutiful de- the muse that was ere long to soar over India votion, on all points, to her country and to and Spain ;* the other full of ribaldly and God. Nowhere do modern annals display a blasphemous jests, holding out the Maid of character more pure—more generous—more
de humble amidst fancied visions and undoubted rision. But from whom did these far difvictories—more free from all taint of selfish- ferent poems proceed? The shaft of ridicule ness—more akin to the champions and mar
came from a French-the token of respect tyrs of old times. All this is no more than
from an English-hand! justice and love of truth would require us to
Of Joan's person no authentic resemblance
had say. But when we find some French listo now remains. A statue to her memory rians, transported by an enthusiasm almost been raised upon the bridge at Orleans, at equal to that of Joan herself, represent her the sole charge---so said the inscription of as filling the part of a general or statesman
the matrons and maids of that city: this proas skilful in leading armies, or directing coun- bably preserved some degree of likeness, but cils—we must withhold our faith. Such unfortunately perished in the religious wars skill, indeed, from a country girl, without of the sixteenth century. There is no poreither education or experience, would be, of 1606 and 1612, and they greatly differ
trait extant; the two earliest engravings are had she really possessed it, scarcely less su- from each other. Yet who would not readily pernatural than the visions which she claimed. But the facts are far otherwise. In
ascribe to Joan in fancy the very affairs of state, Joan's voice was never heard ;
* « The Vision of Kehama,' and « Roderick the in affairs of war, all her proposals will be Last of the Goths. We have lately read · Joan of found to resolve themselves into two, either Arc, revised, in the collected edition of Mr. to rush headlong upon the enemy, often in Southey's poems, of which it forms the first rolthe very point where he was strongest, or to these words, and few, indeed, are they who will
In his preface, dated May 10, 1837, he has offer frequent and public prayers to the Al. read them unmoved :-* I have entered upon the mighty. We are not aware of any single serious task of arranging and collecting the whole instance in which her military suggestions of my poetical works. What was it, indeed, but were not these, or nearly akin to these. Nay, rations of my youth! Well may it be called a se
to bring in review before me the dreams and aspi. more, as we have elsewhere noticed, her rious task, thus to resuscitate the past. But seriwant of knowledge and of capacity to com- ous though it be, it is not painful to one who knows
that the end of his journey cannot be far distant, Collection des Mémoires, vol. viii., p. 214. and, by the blessing of God, looks on to its termi† Dante, Purgatorio, Canto iii.
nation with a sure and certain hope.'
features so exquisitely moulded by a ycnng
When Sir Humphrey Davy wrote on princess? Who that has ever trodden the agricultural chemistry, Organic Chemistry gorgeous galleries of Versailles has not fondly was almost unknown. That happy genius liogered before that noble work of art-be. did as much as could be done with the fore that touching impersonation of the materials at his command, and establishChristian heroine - the head meekly bended, ed some principles of the highest importand the hands devoutly clasping the sword ance.
The work before us is an attempt in sign of the cross, būt firm resolution im- to pursue the same path of inductive inprinted on that close-pressed mouth, and quiry, with the aid of the more extended beaming from that lofty brow!— Whose means which the present state of science thoughts, as he paused to gaze and gaze again, affords,
. might not sometimes wander from old times Most of our readers are aware that the to the present, and turn to the sculptress, greater part of all vegetables consists of sprung from the same Royal lineage which but four elements--namely, carbon, hyJoan had risen in arms to restore-so highly drogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; very often gifted in talent, in fortunes, in hopes of hap- of the first three alone ; while the remainpiness—yet doomed to an end so grievous der is composed of certain saline, earthy, and untimely? Thus the statue has grown and metallic compounds, which form the to be a monument, not only to the memory ashes that remain when vegetables are of the Maid, but to her own: thus future burned. The former are called the orgenerations in France-all those at least who ganic, the latter the inorganic elements of know how to prize either genius or goodness plants. Professor Liebig has demonstratin woman--will love to blend together the ed that the latter, although occurring in two names--the female artist with the female very small quantity, are yet as essential warrior--MARY OF WURTEMBERG and Joan to the development of the plant as the OF ARC.
former; and it is obvious that the first inquiry, in such a work as his, must be as to the sources from which all these ne. cessary constituents are derived, and the
best means of supplying them. Art. II.--Organic Chemistry, in its Ip general opinion of writers on vegetable
With regard to the carbon of plants, the plications to Agriculture and Physio- physiology, and of practical agriculturists, logy. By Justus Liebig, Professor of attributes its origin to the substance called Chemistry in the University of Gies. humus, or vegetable mould, which is pre
Translated from the German MS. of the Author by Dr. Lyon Playfair. ly the remains of former vegetables in a
sent in all fertile soils, and which is mere8vo. London. 1810.
state of decay. This substance, either
alone or in combination with lime and PROFESSOR LIEBIG has long enjoyed an Eu- other alkalies, is believed to be absorbed ropean reputation as one of the most pro- by the roots, and thus directly to furnish found and sagacious of chemists; and in carbon for the plant. But this view has particular has taken the lead, both by his been shown by M. Liebig to be quite unpersonal labours and by those of the admi- tenable ; and he has demonstrated by a rable school which he has formed in Ger- most ingenious and convincing train of many, in those researches into the chemis- argument, that the carbon of plants is detry of the animal and vegetable kingdom, rived from the carbonic acid of the atmoswhich have, within the last fifteen years, phere. We are tempted to quote pretty created a new science, that of Organic largely on this point, both because this Chemistry
seetion affords an excellent specimen of
our author's reasoning, and also because, · Agriculture," he says, 'is the true foundation in the economy of nature, the supply of of all trade and industry--- it is the foundation of the riches of states. But a rational system of carbon to plants is beautifully associated agriculture cannot be formed without the appli- with the restoration to the atmosphere of cation of scientific principles; for such a system the oxygen removed from it by the respi. must be based on an exact acquaintance with ration of animals and other processes, the means of nutrition of vegetables, and with and thus preserves the air constantly in the influence of soils, and action of manure upon the same state of fitness for the life of anthem. This knowledge we must seek from
imals. chemistry, which teaches the mode of investigating the composition and studying the charac
After proving, from the analysis of the ters of the different substances from which plants properties of humus, that it cannot yield derive their nourishment.'-- Preface, p. vii. to vegetables, in the most favourable cir.
cumstances, more than a mere fraction of different. It is not denied that manure exercises their annual increase of carbon, he pro- but it may be affirmed with positive certainty
an influence upon the development of plants ; ceeds:
that it neither serves for the production of the Other considerations, of a higher nature,
carbon nor has any influence upon it, because confute the common view respecting the nu
we find that the quantity of carbon produced by tritive office of humic acid (bumus) in a manner
manured lands is not greater than that yielded so clear and conclusive, that it is difficult to con
by lands which are not manured. The discusceive how it could have been so generally sion of the manner in which the manure acts has adopted. Fertile land produces carbon in the nothing to do with the present question, which form of wood, hay, grain, and other kinds of
is the origin of the carbon. The carbon must produce, the masses of which, however, differ in be derived from other sources; and as the soil a remarkable degree.'-p. 13.
does not yield it, it can only be extracted from
the atmosphere. Here follows a calculation of the average in plants, it has never been considered that the
'In attempting to explain the origin of carbon annual produce of one Hessian acre of question is intimately connected with the origin average land, in the different shapes of of humus. It is universally admitted that huwood, meadow-hay, corn, and beet.root : mus arises from the decay of plants. No primithe land in the two latter cases being ma. tive humus, therefore, can have existed; for nured ; in the two former, the forest and plants must have preceded the humus. Now, the meadow, not manured. Notwith. whence did the first vegetables derive their car. standing the vast difference of bulk, in the atmosphere?
bon ?-and in what form is the carbon contained weight, and shape, in these different forms
*These two questions involve the consideraof produce, the quantity of carbon in each tion of two most remarkable natural phenomena, is almost exactly the same; viz. about which, by their reciprocal and uninterrupted in. 1000 lbs. per acre. This interesting re- fluence, maintain the life of individual animals sult, in the case of the forest, is derived and vegetables, and the continued existence of from an account, on the best authority, of both kingdoms of organic nature.'--- pp. 14--16. the quantity of wood annually cut for fuel in the admirably managed forests of Ger The two phenomena here alluded to many, without injury to the future value are the well-known facts that the proporof the forest. This quantity may fairly tions of oxygen and carbonic acid gases be considered as the equivalent of the an. in the atmosphere are, and have long connual crop of an annual plant, such as corn, tinued stationary; notwithstanding the where the soil is judiciously cropped, and enormous quantities of oxygen withdrawn not unfairly exhausted. In the cases of at every moment from the atmosphere by hay, corn, and beet-root, the crop was the respiration of men and animals, as well simply weighed, and the amount of car- as by the processes of combustion and pubon ascertained by analysis.
trefaction; the whole of which oxygen is
converted into an equal volume of carbon'It must be concluded from these incontestableic acid gas, and returned in this form to facts that equal surfaces of cultivated land, of the atmosphere : so that we should expect an average fertility, produce equal quantities of the carbonic acid to increase exactly in carbon ; yet how unlike have been the different proportion as the oxygen diminished, inconditions of the growth of the plants from which stead of the
proportions of both remaining this has been deduced !
'Let us now inquire whence the grass in unchanged. a meadow, or the wood in a forest, receives its carbon, since there no manure--no carbon--has • It is quite evident that the quantities of carbeen given to it as nourishment;—and how bonic acid and oxygen in the aimosphere which it happens that the soil, thus exhausted, instead remain unchanged by lapse of time, must stand of becoming poorer, becomes every year richer in some fixed relation to one another: a cause in this element. A certain (and very large) must exist, wbich prevents the increase of carquantity of carbon is taken every year from the bonic acid, by removing that which is constautly forest or meadow in the form of wood or hay; produced; and there must also be some means and in spite of this, the quantity of carbon in of replacing the oxygen which is removed from the soil augments-it becomes richer in humus. the air by ihe processes of combustion and pu
'It is said that in fields and orchards, all trefaction, as well as by the respiration of anithe carbon which may have been taken away mals. Both these causes are united in the proas herbs, as straw, as seeds, as fruit, is replaced cess of vegetable life. by means of manure; and yet this soil produces • The facts stated in the preceding pages prove no more carbon than that of the forest or mea. that the carbon of plants must be derived excludow, where it is never replaced. It cannot be 'sively from the atmosphere. Now car bon exists conceived that the laws of the nutrition of in the atmosphere only in the form of carbonic plants are changed by culture-ihat the sources acid ; that is, in a state of combination with oxof carbon for fruit or grain, for grass or trees, are ygen.
• It has already been mentioned likewise that, which it is required. The quantity of carbon carbon and the elements of water form the prin contained in sea-water is proportionally still cipal constituents of vegetables; the quantity greater.'—p. 21. of the substances which do not possess this composition being proportionally very small. Now Again :the relative quantity of oxygen in the whole mass (of vegetables) is less than in carbonic sources of oxygen gas are the tropics and warm
“The proper, constant, and inexhaustible acid. It is therefore certain that plants must climates, where a sky seldom clouded permits possess the property of decomposing carbon-the glowing rays of the sun to shine upon an ic acid, since they appropriate its carbon for immeasurably luxuriant vegetation. The tem. their own use. The formation of their principal perate and frigid zones, where artificial warmth component parts must necessarily be attended must replace ihe deficient heat of the sun, prowith the separation of the carbon of the carbonic duce, on the contrary, carbonic acid in superaacid from its oxygen, which latter must be re- bundance, which is expended in the nutrition of turned to the atmosphere, while the carbon en- the tropical plants. The same stream of air ters into combination with water, or its ele- which moves by the revolution of the earth ments. The atmosphere must thus receive a from the equator to the poles, brings to us in its volume of oxygen for every volume of carbonic passage from the equator the oxygen generated acid which has been decomposed.'—pp. 18-20. ihere, and carries away the carbonic acid formed
during our winter. After some details proving, from the ex- *Plants thus improve the air by the removal periments of Priestley, Sennebier, and De of carbonic acid, and by the restoration of oxy. Saussure, that plants when exposed to gen, which is immediately applied to the use of light, really possess the property of thus man and animals. ... Vegetable culture heightdecomposing carbonic acid, and liberating healthy country would be rendered quite un
ens the salubrity of a country; and a previously oxygen, Professor Liebig adds :
inhabitable by the cessation of all cultivation.'• The life of plants is closely connected with that of animals, in a most simple manner, and for a wise and sublime purpose. The presence compressed, we trust they will convey to
Although the above extracts are much ceived without the concurrence of animal life, our readers some idea of the cogency and but the existence of animals is undoubtedly beauty of the arguments by which Prodependent on the life and development of fessor Liebig has established his proposiplants. Plants not only afford the means of tions. They leave no doubt as to the subnutrition for the growth and continuance of lime and perfect arrangements by which animal organization, but they likewise furnish much of the economy of nature is main. that which is essential to the support of the tained; they point directly, in the words important vital process of respiration ; for besides separating all noxious matters from the at- of our author, to an infinite wisdoin, for mosphere, they are an inexhaustible source of the unfathomable profundity of which lanpure oxygen, thus supplying the loss which guage has no expression. The importthe air is continually sustaining. Animals, on ance of the conclusions thus established the other hand, expire carbon (as carbonic acid) | to a scientific system of agriculture is too which plants inspire; and thus the composition obvious to require comment. of the medium in which both exist, namely, the atmosphere, is preserved constantly unchanged. 'It may be asked, is the quantity of carbonic that the absorption of carbon from the atmos
• How does it happen,' asks Professur Liebig, acid in the atmosphere, which scarcely amounts phere by planis is doubted by all botanists to one-thousandıń part, sufficient for the wants and vegetable physiologists, and that by the of the whole vegetation on the surface of the earth? Is it possible that the carbon of plants greater number the purification of the air by has its origin from the air alone? This queso have arisen from the action of plants on the air
means of them is wholly denied ? These doubis tion is very easily answered. It is known that in the absence of light, that is, during the a column of air of 2,216-66 lbs. Hessian rests
night.'-p. 26. upon every square foot Hessian of the surface of the earth; the diameter of the earth and its These doubts and difficulties are diswhole weight of the atmosphere can be calcu.cussed and dissipated by our author in a lated with the utmost exactness. The thou- most masterly chapter, which, however, sandth part of this is carbonic acid, which we cannot quote at present. He candid. contains upwards of twenty.seven per cent. of ly acknowledges that carbon. By this calculation it can be shown that the aimosphere contains 3000 billion lbs. • The opinion is not new that the carbonic Hessian of carbon; a quantity which amounts acid of the air serves for the nutriment of plants, to more than the weight of all the plants, and and that its carbon is assimilated by them; it of all the strata of coal and brown coal, which has been admitted, defended, and argued for, exist upon the earth. This carbon is therefore by the soundest and most intelligent natural more ihan adequate to all the purposes for 1 philosophers, namely, by Priestly, Sennebier,