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orator of modern times has it) project- some one of the columns of your Maed the huge cake of ice, which had gazine usually devoted to critical anafastened itself to the shores of Green- lysis. land, into the Atlantic Ocean ; that We have heard so much of the efthe whale-fishers were engaged to co- fects of the season upon turnips and operate, with the aid of gunpowder or cabbages, that I shall not meddle with steam, in this movement; and that any thing so low and trite. What I the vessels of war were fraught with purpose laying before the public are, subsidies, and are instructed to con- --Ist, An account of the number of cert ulterior measures. Now it was quarts of soda water and ginger beer long ago foreseen, that such an opera- taken off during the late season, with tion, if it could be brought about, a statement of its excess in amount, would increase prodigiously the degree over and above the average consumption of heat in this country; and we all for the three preceding summers; an know that the quality of every nation- aerostatic computation of the cubic al constitution depends almost exclu- feet of fixed air disengaged, and an sively upon climate, the genius of lib- inquiry into its necessary effects upon erty being utterly incapable to reside the atmosphere. From which data, I or breathe in any country where the doubt not to shew that an augmentathermometer ordinarily stands above a tion of heat was created to the extent certain point. What better plan, of at least one degree Fahrenheit. In then, could be devised to extinguish this calculation I shall have the the last spark of freedom in this once friendly assistance of a gentleman conhappy' land, and to prepare our minds nected with the Edinburgh Review, and bodies for absolute slavery, than whose profound skill in mathematics to spread over this island the climate has enabled him to expose many comof Spain? or Otaheite? of Constanti- monly received errors which have crept nople? or China ? or Terra Australis ? into that science. When I mention, that or of the Terra del Fuego?-May such we owe to this gentleman's article on a scheme be finally defeated ! May the Pauperism Report in the number the clouds of to-day be the harbingers for February last, our present knowof a biting winter and a soaking spring! ledge of the fact that the proportion -I am becoming warm, Mr Editor of 900,000 to 10,000,000 is as 9 to 10, a sensation I am weary of—a truce for the public will know how to appreciate a moment to politics, and now to my the accuracy of the arithmetical reprincipal object in addressing you at sults to be found in my intended treathe present moment, and to which, I tise. 2dly, An account of all the fares trust, the remarks I have already made received during the present season by will be considered an appropriate pre- watermen and hackney-coachmen reslude.

pectively, shewing the just balance of In a word then, it is my intention- profit to the former, and of loss to the (excuse me if I feel a kind of delicate latter; with a view of probable conseembarrassment in making this commu- quences. 3dly, A statement of the nication)-it is my intention, I say, to Sunday receipts at the Cumberland, come out in the course of the winter in Flora, and other tea-gardens, Kilburne two handsome quartos, with a view, Wells, Mother Redcaps, the Elephant statistical, philosophical, and economi- and Castle, and other houses of the cal, of the pernicious effects of the hot stones, to be compared with those of summer of 1818 upon domestic trade, the Metropolitan Republicans. 4thly, commerce, and the different ranks of Ditto, ditto, number of pounds of ice society in London ; and an ingenious consumed at all the confectioners, and feasible project for the prevention fish - mongers, and tavern - keepers of all those evils which may be expect throughout the bills of mortality; with ed to flow from the recurrence of e- a dissertation on the physical properqually high degrees of temperature. ties of currant and pine-apple ices. I request leave, through the medium In short, I should tire you (if I have of your invaluable Miscellany, to put not done so already) with all the dethe public in possession of the heads tails of my embryo volumes. Suffice and ends of my intended treatise ; not it to say, that they will contain the doubting, at the same time, that when precise increase during the summer of the work itself shall appear, you will the number of street iinstrels; a crifind it worthy of favourable notice in tical discourse on the individual pro

fessions of that art; schedules of the of that universal agent of our times, Sabbath tolls at Hyde Park corner, steam. Marshgate, Whitechapel, and Tyburn The personal of the establishments turnpikes ; tables for ascertaining, up- to be under the joint direction of the on the new principle, the depth in the founder of the new musical school, earth at which the state of atmospheric and the material under that of Mr D. temperature, for any given distance of E. of Knightsbridge, whose flying fish time past, may be dug out;-in the year, is to be put in requisition, for the when Henry VIII. retired to a monas- purpose of keeping up a communicatery, for instance ;-and many other tion between the several boilers. particulars too numerous to mention. The money required to be borrowed From the whole body of evidence thus from the trustees of Drury Lane Thecollected, I shall draw irrefragable in- atre, and the proprietors of Waterloo ferences, and acute prognostications, Bridge, who have kindly promised which will be to the full as surprising, your humble servant to advance it out just, and satisfactory, as half the poli- of the profits they have realised, and tical speculations and prophecies which to be secured by a capitation-tax, have been delivered by a certain class from which all brewers, members of of angurs for many years past. But gas and water-work companies, soap as details are not worth a fig, unless and sugar boilers are to be exempt, they furnish a sage and profound provided that their manufactories are theory, I shall touch upon a few gene- situated to the east of the metropolis. ral principles.

A proportionate allowance to be made Whatever, by the process of inter- to all melting chandlers, masters of nal traffic, is gained to one class of steam-boats, and publicans, who perpersons, is ultimately subtracted from mit the use of tobacco in their houses. another, and a corresponding degree The author pledges himself not to of political influence passes with the require more" (as his compensation) profit; for wealth is power. It is easy than 20 per cent upon the capital to see what great political changes stock; and if this plan be approved of may be wrought, when power has thus by the public (as he doubts not it shifted its channels, and how much will) he will be the first fortunate strength may be given to a govern.' projector whose schemes ended in ment, by any contrivance which shall smoke.

L. M. U. B. transfer a large portion of national wealth from those of whom it feels jeaJous, to others whom it is interested in favouring; and it will be my business INACCURACIES OF POETS IN NATURAL to shew hereafter what reprehensible

HISTORY motives have given birth to that conniving negligence, or those more re- To determine the specific characters prehensible schemes to which we owe and local manners of animals is not the the late alarming innovations in our task either of the poet or the novelist; climate-innovations which have sa- yet no doubt the pleasure derived from crificed the interests of the truly Brie works of imagination may be much tish chop-house to those of the fa- lessened in the minds of many by means shionable and frenchified confectioner, of incongruous associations. and by which the blunt hackney cha- Thus, in the Lady of the Lake, the rioteer has been made to succumb to solitude and desolation of an ancient the trimming time-and-tide-serving field of battle is described as follows: wherryman. Awake to these consi

“ The knot-grass fettered there the hand, derations, I have turned my thoughts Which once could burst an iron band ; to the discovery of some barrier against Beneath the broad and ample bone these frightful inroads, feeling assured, That bucklered heart to fear unknown, that such a discovery would meet thé A feeble and a timorous guest, cordial approbation of our constitution. The field-fare framed her lowly nest.” al representatives. With what success, let the public judge, when they Now it is well known to every shall see in my work (the price of school-boy, that the field-fare only via which will be unusually moderate), sits this country during the winter the particulars of my scheme for the season, that it has never been known creation of artificial clouds, by means to breed in the island, and consequentVol. IV.


p. 103.

ly is never associated with the idea of ent torpor and death, and suddenly á nest, or “ the leafy month of June.” winging its flight through the air, ao

The author of Mandeville has com- dorned with life and beauty, its relamitted a somewhat similar mistake in tion to the chrysalis or nymph, has regard to another of the feathered been deemed analagous to that between tribe.

the soul and the body of man. The “ It was a small part of the edifice only order of things has, however, been that was inhabited in my time. Several completely reversed in the mind of a magnificent galleries, and a number of spa, modern poet, as evinced in the followcious apartments, were wholly neglected, and ing passage ; suffered to remain in a wofül state of dilapidation. Indeed it was one wing only that callid forth to wander o'er the dewy vales,

6. Thus the gay moth by sun and vernal gales was now tenanted, and that imperfectly; the

From flower to flower, from sweet to sweet centre and the other wing had long been re

will stray, signed to the owls and the bitterns.”

Till, tir'd and satiate with her food and play, vol. i. p. 48.

Deep in the shades she builds her peaceful The last-mentioned bird is one

nest, which, more than most others, avoids In lov'd seclusion pleas'd at length to rest : the dwellings of the human race, and there folds the wings that erst so widely bore; usually chooses, for the purposes of ni- Becomes a household nymph, and seeks to dification, some lonely spot in the vici- range no more. nity of fens or marshes.

From which it would appear that the În the works of Gesner there is an chrysalis is derived from the moth, and engraving of a whale, in which the not the moth from the chrysalis. lines are so strongly marked, and dis

I conceive Southey to be the most posed in such a manner, that the ani- correct, as well as the most skilful of mal appears as if covered with large

all the living poets, in adapting the scales. There is also a vessel near it, facts of Natural History to the uses with an inscription, expressing that the of Poetry. According, however, to whale is often mistaken for an island, those skilful and intelligent entomoloand that seamen frequently incur great gists, Messrs Kirby and Spence, in danger by attempting to cast anchor some of the most picturesque descripby its side. Shaw is of opinion that tions in Madoc, he confounds the fireMilton was conversant with the write fly of St Domingo (Elater noctilucus) ings of Gesner, whose work was then with a quite different insect, the lantthe great depositary of natural know- ern-fly (Fulgora laternaria) of Madam ledge, and that this plate suggested to

Merian. him the expression of “ scaly rind”. in From underneath her vest, a cage, or net

“ She beckoned, and descended, and drew out the following sublime passage, which it rather might be called, so fine the

twigs, has been censured by some hypercritics. Which knit it, where, confined, two fire-flies “ That sea beast

gave Leviathan, which God, of all his works, Their lustre. By that light did Madoc first Created hugest that swim the ocean stream. Behold the features of his lovely guide." Him haply slumbering on the Norway foam, The same insect is again alluded to

The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff, in the following beautiful passage: Deeming some island, oft, as seamen tell,

“ Sorrowing we beheld With fixed anchor in his scaly rind The night come on; but soon did night disMoors by his side under the lee, while night

play Invests the sea, and wished morn delays." More wonders than it veiled ; innumerous The term is no doubt inaccurate

tribes when applied to the whale tribe, to From the wood-cover swarmed, and darkwhich the Leviathan of the Scriptures

ness made is generally referred. Some authors Their beauties visible; one while they stream.

ed have been of opinion that the crocodile A bright blue radiance upon flowers that is mentioned under that name, and in closed a paper in one of your late Numbers, Their gorgeous colours from the eye of day ; the great sea-snake is considered as the Now motionless and dark, eluded search animal probably alluded to.

Self-shrouded ; and anon, starring the sky, The butterfly has always been con- Rose like a shower of fire." sidered as an emblem of immortality. From the days of Solomon until the Deriving its existence from a compara- middle of last century, it was generaltively shapeless body, in which, had it ly affirmed, that the ant “prepared long been confined in a state of appare her bread in the summer, and gather


ed her food in the harvest." What- examples which might be adduced of ever may be the case in regard to the the general negligence of poets, in respecies of more southern climes, it ap- gard to a subject which, if properly pears to have been very generally ad- attended to, might be rendered one of mitted by every naturalist, from Gould the most beautiful auxiliaries of their to Huber and Latreille, that the Eu- art. ropean species of ants are torpid during winter, and consequently do not require a supply of food. The pupa, or intermediate state of these insects, bears a considerable resemblance to a

(From the German of Schiller.) grain of corn, and, as the future population of the colony depends in a

MR EDITOR, great measure upon the welfare of such I bend you the following translation as exist in that state, they are particu- of one of the smaller poems of Schiller, larly careful in removing them from which do not seem as yet to be so gedanger, and in exposing them occasion- nerally known in this country as they ally to such a degree of heat as may deserve to be. It is remarked by Matend to hasten their extrusion. It is dame de Stael, that one of the distinprobable that these circumstances alone guishing excellences of the German have occasioned the general idea of writers, is the facility with which they their provident habits; so that the identify their own feelings with those many poetical descriptions and sage of the age and character which they reflections which have arisen from the delineate. I know none of these write impression of their being

ers to whom this applies with greater “ Studious, ere stormy winter frowns, to lay truth than to Schiller. His feeling, Safe in their cells the treasured prey,” too, is under the control of a purer have originated in misconception. Every one must have observed, in genius of his country; and we are

taste than belongs in general to the the stillness of a fine summer evening,

never offended in his works with that the choral dances of water-flies, for the

extravagance and affectation on which most part above the stream which gave

some of our critics would pronounce them birth. What a beautiful picture sentence of excommunication against has been drawn by Wordsworth of the whole body of German literature. that simple image.

The woes of a personage of the hea“ Nor wanting here to entertain the thought, then mythology would make but a Creatures that in communities exist, Less, as might seem, for general guardian- sorry appearance in most hands; but ship,

in this author there is an unrivalled Or thro' dependance upon mutual aid, power of blending the classic images Than by participation of delight,

of antiquity with that depth of passion And a strict love of fellowship combined. and sentiment which we consider to What other spirit can it be that prompts belong more peculiarly to the moderns. The gilded summer flies to mix and weave I think this remark will be found to Their sports together in the solar beam, Or in the gloom of twilight hum their joyp" be verified in the following piece. If

not, let the want be imputed to the Dr Darwin, notwithstanding the weakness of the translation, and not to frequency of his learned references, any deficiency in the original. has been guilty of many

inaccuracies in his poetry. Of these, the following Now the kindly Spring appears, may be taken as an instance:

The earth exults in youth again “ So sleeps in silence the curculio, shut

Each sunny hill his green slope rears, In the dark chamber of the cavern'd nut; And bursts each stream its icy chain ; Erodes with ivory beak the vaulted shell, See Jove looks down, and smiles serene And quits on filmy wings its narrow cell.” O'er its blue and glassy bosom ;

Now, although the larva of the cur- Mild the Zephyr waves his wing, culio “ dwells in the hollow nut," the And spreads to air the op'ning blossom. perfect insect is never found there, but In each grove new songs I hearundergoes its final transformation un

Hark! the mountain-nymph replies der ground.

“ Thy flowers return to glad the year

But not thy child to glad thine eyes.” The preceding are a few of the many

Aye me! I've wandered long and far, See the Introduction to Entomology by And sought through earth each distant Kirby and Spence, Vol. ii. p. 416.

place ;

O Sol, thine all-revealing star

Some cov’nant of mysterious kind I've called in vain her steps to trace. "Twixt those who are, and who are not? No friendly ray of thine hath told

Are they all fled ?--they are not goneWhere roams my Child; the searching day No! thou art not for ever reft ; Which pours its light on all below ; A tie there is,-and 'tis but one

Hath beamed not on her wand'ring way. The Gods in pity yet have left. Hast thou, O Jove, this evil wrought ?

When Winter comes to chill the year, Or thou, fell Monarch of the dead Smit by her charms-to thy dark floods,

To bid the blooms of Spring decay,

And lays the shiv'ring forests bare, Hast thou my hapless Child conveyed ?

And sweeps their leafy pomp away ; Who will my cheerless message take

Then from Vertumnus' flowing horn Down to that cold and gloomy shore ?

The rich and precious gift I take The boat flits ever o'er the lake,

That teems with life,--the golden corn, Yet wafts but airy shadows o'er.

An off'ring to the shades to make. These fields are shut from mortal view, Mourning, I sink it in the furrow,

Wrapped upin midnight's deepest shroud; It lies upon my Daughter's breast, Since Styx his mournful current drew,

Thus shall my mingled

love and sorrow No living form e'er crossed his flood. Be in this mystic form expressed. A thousand ways to death lead down,

Anon the hours in circling train But none lead back to light again ;

Lead in the renovating Spring ; Her tears below in silence flow,

Then that which died shall wake again, And I unweeting here remain.

-New life the vernal suns shall bring; E'en those whose race from Pyrrha came,

The seed to all that seemed as dead, -The death-doomed daughters of the Lifts to the light its joyful head,

When pent within the earth's cold bosom, earthDare follow through the funeral flame

And thousand colours paint its blossom.

The stem ascends to upper sky,
The offspring of a painful birth!
Only she who Heav'n inherits,

While deep in earth its fibres twine ; May not touch the gloomy strand ;

To nurse the plant, thus Heav'n on high, Powers of Fate ! must heavenly spirits

And earth below their powers combine. 'Scape alone your mighty hand! Half in the world of living light, Plunge me from these realms of light

Half in the realms of darkness hid ; Down to Ruin's deep abyss !

To me they're messengers of hope,-. Spare not aught my heav'n-born right- Sweet voices warbled from the dead. Ah! comes a mother's woe to this ! . Tho' Fate have doomed it, and tho' Hell

Have bound her with its hundred streams, Where with her gloomy spouse she sits,

She may be blessed :-these blossoms tell In joyless state, I hie me down,

In voice soft mingling with my dreams, And mingle with the ghosts that flit

“ That e'en though far from day's bright In phantom pomp around her throne.

beams, Her straining eye is dim with tears,

Where only shapes of sorrow roam,And seeks in vain the golden light

There yet are breasts where kindness streams, It wanders to the distant spheres,

And hearts where love can hold his home.” But can not meet her mother's sight; And will not, till our joys shall leap. Ye flowers that o'er the meadow blow;

From heart to heart, with bosoms joined ; To you my blessing here is given, Till the stern Orcus melt, and weep May your full chalice ever flow With tears of sympathetic kind.

With purest nectared dew of heaven.

I'll dip you in the streams of light; Idle wish, and hopeless moan !

With colours from the rainbow borne, See in one unvarying track

I'll paint your blooms with hues as bright The steady oar of day rolls on

As glitter on the brow of morn. And shall the will of Jove go back ? Thus shall each kindly bosom read No! fixed it stands ;—from every woe In you my mingled joy and pain,

He turns his haughty eyes away; When Autumn's sickly garlands fade, If once thou'st trod the realms below,

When Spring recalls their bloom again. Fare thee well, my Child, for aye !

Y. Till Aurora's beams shall glow

O'er these darkling streams-farewell Till Hope shall stretch her radiant bow

Across the gloomy depths of Hell.
And is there nought with me to rest,

From the Italian of Guidi.
No kind remembering pledge to tell ;
Though distant far, within thy breast A Lady, like to Juno in her state,

There lives thy Mother's image still ? Upon the air her golden tresses streaming, Are there no ties by love entwined

And with celestial eyes of azure beaming, Twixt Child and Mother? Is there not Entered whilere my gate.


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