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JANUARY, 1794.]
Commerce of the United States.

[H. OF R. should also obtain an equitable share in carrying sate the damage. It is only in the first instance, our own produce; we should enter into the field of no doubt, that the

burden is to be thrown upon the competition on equal terms, and enjoy the actual United States. The proper Department of Gobenefit of advantages which nature and the spirit vernment will, no doubt, take proper steps to obof our people entitle us to.

tain redress. The justice of foreign nations willHe adverted to the advantageous situation this certainly not permit them to deny reparation when country is entitled to stand in, considering the na- the breach of the Law of Nations appear eviture of our exports and returns. Our exports are dently; at any rate, it is just that the individual bulky, and therefore must employ much shipping, should not suffer. He believed the amount of the which might be nearly all our own: our exports damages that would come within the meaning of are chiefly necessaries of life, or raw materials

, this resolution, would not be very considerable. the food for the manufacturers of other nations. Mr. M.'s resolutions being seconded, were preOn the contrary, the chief of what we receive sented and read by the Clerk. from other countries, we can either do without, or Mr. W. SMITH rose to make some remarks on produce substitutes.

the observations of Mr. MADISON, when a motion It is in the power of the United States, he con- was made by Mr. FitzsIMONS, that the Commitceived, by exerting her natural rights, without vio- tee should rise, and report progress, and that the lating the rights, or even the equitable pretensions House should give order for printing the resoof other nations-by doing no more than most na- lutions. tions do for the protection of their interests, and After some further remarks by two or three much less than some, to make her interests re- members, Mr. Madison said he had no wish to spected ; for, what we receive from other nations precipitate the discussion ; he was content that are but luxuries to us, which, if we choose to the Committee should now rise, and that a future throw aside, we could deprive part of the manu- early day should be assigned. facturers of those luxuries, of even bread, if we are The motion for the Committee's rising being forced, to the contest of self-denial. This being the put, was agreed to. The Committee rose accordcase, our country may make her enemies feel the ingly, and reported progress. extent of her power. We stand, with respect to A question then occurred as to the day on which the nation exporting those luxuries, in the relation the business should be taken into consideration. of an opulent individual to the laborer, in produc- Next Monday was mentioned. ing the superfluities for his accommodation; the Mr. Ames proposed next Monday week. He former can do without those luxuries, the con- observed that the resolutions involved the greatsumption of which gives bread to the latter. est interests of this country; that, for himself, he

He did not propose, or wish that the United could not possibly be prepared to discuss the subStates should, at present, go so far in the line ject by Monday next. The Report of the Secrewhich his resolutions point to, as they might go. tary was incomplete; a supplementary. Report The extent to which the principles involved in had been received from that officer, which had those resolutions should be carried, will depend not yet been printed, and he believed that the upon filling up the blanks. To go to the very ex- members were not possessed of a knowledge of its tent of the principle immediately, might be incon- contents; he could speak for himself at least. He venient. He wished, only, that the Legislature further remarked, that the subject required the should mark out the ground on which we think most mature deliberation of the House. Sudden we can stand ; perhaps it may produce the effect and hasty decisions might be followed with the wished for, without unnecessary irritation ; we most serious effects; they might involve the saneed not at first go every length.

crifice of the essential interests, or the honor of the Another consideration would induce him, he United States. said, to be moderate in filling up the blanks--not Mr. Madison said, he saw no necessity for a to wound public credit. He did not wish to risk very distant day; the subject was not a new one; any sensible diminution of the public revenue. He it existed previous to the present Government; it believed that if the blanks were filled with judg- had been repeatedly before the Legislature of the ment, the diminution of the revenue, from a di- United States ; it had been amply dilated on in minution in the quantity of imports, would be reports and public dissertations; he did not concounterbalanced by the increase in the duties. ceive there was a single proposition contained in

The last resolution he had proposed, he said, is, the resolutions which had not been repeatedly rein a manner, distinct from the rest. The nation volved in the minds of every member of the is bound by the most sacred obligation, he con- House. He supposed an early discussion would ceived, to protect the rights of its citizens against be the most eligible, as the members would, as it a violation of them from any quarter ; or, if they proceeded, naturally throw light upon it. cannot protect, they are bound to repay the damage. Mr. W. Smith was in favor of Monday week.

It is a fact authenticated to this House by com- He supposed that many documents would be munications from the Executive, that there are wanted by the members, which were not now in regulations established by some European nations, the possession of the House. Besides, he obcontrary to the Law of Nations, by which our served that, as soon as the present question was property is seized and disposed of in such a way got rid of, he should lay before the House sundry that damages have accrued. We are bound either resolutions respecting foreign tonnage,

which to obtain reparation for the injustice, or compen-would naturally connect themselves with the re

H. OPR.]

Pay of Soldiers.

[JANUARY, 1794.

solutions brought forward by the member from which seemed to meet the unanimous sense of the Virginia.

members; but Mr. Clark thought this last augMr. Nicholas was in favor of Wednesday. He mentation too great. They might, in this way of wished for an early discussion. He thought the proceeding, raise the pay in time to ten dollars a subject would receive more light from the public month. deliberations of the members themselves, than it Mr. Scott was of opinion that there was no would derive from their studies in their cham- just proportion between the wages of ordinary bers; the discussion will be interesting; it cannot labor and that of military service. He could not be hurried, and no sudden decision need be anti- hire a workman, who was to sleep at peace in his cipated from as early a day as Wednesday. bed, and to dine at a good table, for the pay that

Mr. MURRAY was in favor of Monday week. was given to a soldier for enduring the hardships He differed from the gentleman last up, that a of his dangerous profession. An augmentation of public collision on this or any other subject, was their pay would Hatter the troops. It would put the most probable way to strike out the truth. them in good humor; and therefore he hoped that The calm and dispassionate consideration of pro- the five dollars would be carried through the positions at leisure, appeared to him more likely House. to be succeeded by a just and sound decision. He Mr. Smilie said, that the expense of living had wished for more time than some gentlemen ap- been considerably raised in every part of the peared willing to allow.

United States. The pay of the soldiers ought, in Mr. S. Smith was in favor of Monday week. common justice, to be advanced in an equal deHe enumerated a number of documents which he gree with that of the other persons employed in thought would be found necessary to enable the the service of the State. Congress had lately remembers to judge with precision. He considered ceived a petition from some gentlemen employed the subject as highly important to his constitu- in the public offices of Philadelphia. The officers ents, on which too much deliberation could of the Army had been talking of a similar necesscarcely be bestowed. It refers to taxes and new sity of an advance in their pay. The United impositions on trade, the expediency of which States ought to pay well, that they might obtain ought to be maturely considered. The object of good men. Many recruits had, upon late occathe propositions are evidently a commercial war- sions, enlisted, and several of them in Philadelphia, fare; this is commonly introductive of another who never should have been admitted into the species of contest—a very serious consideration. Military Establishment of any nation whatever. The gentleman who brought forward the resolu- Mr. Wadsworth did not see any reason for the tions, had probably matured his ideas on the sub- proposed additional dollar per month. If he had ject. For his part, he had not; he required more thought it necessary, he should have been very time.

ready to mention it. In the States north of PennThe motion for Monday week being put, was sylvania, the wages of a common laborer were carried by a large majority.

not, upon the whole, superior to those of a comOrdered, That the Secretary of the Treasury mon soldier. It had been alleged that, by augreport to this House a comparative view of the menting the pay of the troops, we should get bettonnage employed in the trade between the Unit- ter men. This was a doctrine which he, for one, ed States and foreign countries, for the years 1790, did not understand. The present Western Army 1791, and 1792 ; also, that he report the actual ton- were as good troops as ever went into the field, nage of vessels of the United States, employed in and much better than the late Continental Army. one year, between the United States and foreign Men of a sober character did not and would not countries.

enlist. Recruits might have very good morals, The House resolved itself into a Committee of and it was certain that many honest men did not the Whole House on the bill providing for de- love labor. Curiosity, levity, the heat of youth, stroyed certificates of certain descriptions; and, and other very excusable motives, sent people to after some time spent therein, the Committee rose, the Army; but it never was, nor ever will be, the and had leave to sit again.

place where a thoughtful and industrious private man would be ambitious to exert his talents. For

this reason, he was convinced that to enlarge the Monday, January 6.

pay would answer no good purpose. As to the JAMES GILLESPIE, from North Carolina, ap- people, it was in vain to imagine

that they would

militia, who were, many of them, substantial peared, produced his credentials, and took his seat fulfil the end of an Army in the Indian war. They in the House.

had been tried, and the experiment had failed. PAY OF SOLDIERS.

He again adverted to the impossibility of supply

ing the ranks with recruits above the most ordiThe House resolved itself into a Committee of nary classes of life. He never had seen an Army, the Whole House on the bill for completing and such as it was believed that the additional dollar better supporting the Military Establishment of would assemble, and he despaired ever to see such the United States. The bill being read, an Army: There was, however, an act of bounty,

On the clause of the bill for augmenting the pay which might be of infinite service to the troops, of the soldiers from three to four dollars per month, and which he should take a future opportunity of Mr. IRVINE proposed an addition of a fifth dollar, moving. He referred to a provision for the widows JANUARY, 1794.]

Pay of Soldiers.

[H. OF R.

and children of such soldiers as should happen to when every article was above its natural price; lose their lives in the service.

because, when things return to their old level, it Mr. Boudinot said, that he should be very sorry would be impossible to reduce their wages. The to recommend the augmentation, if he thought people of Europe had, by their wars, increased that it would induce farmers, and sober, indus- the demand for the produce of our farms, and this trious people to quit their families and professions had raised the wages of labor. The members of in exchange for a military life. This, he thought, Congress had six dollars per day, and it would be would indeed be a very alarming consequence, no easy matter to alter that, which he seemed to and, did he apprehend it, he should undoubtedly hint might not be quite improper. He thought oppose the intended increase. He had no appre- that high pay would only serve to make the solhensions of that kind. America would be in a diers get drunk. It would be much better to give very bad situation, indeed, if an additional pay of them some substantial gratification at the end of twelve dollars a year could bribe a farmer or the service. manufacturer to enlist. He should look very Mr. Wadsworth said that the Army, in getting strange at any of his neighbors who should tell four dollars, got plenty, and he despaired of seeing him that they had embraced such an offer. In- five dollars pass through that House; but, were stead of augmenting the pay, perhaps it was better they to vote twenty dollars, they never would be to add something to the rations; those, for ex- able to enlist that class of men whom it was example, of salt and flour. He thought it safest to pected five dollars would collect. A member had agree to the four dollars, because if they voted for mentioned, as a proof of the possibility of enlisting five, the bill would probably be thrown out of the the sons of farmers, the instance of a party in one other House; and thus, by grasping at too much, of the New England States, who had formed the movers of the amendment would lose the bill themselves into à military body, and had gone altogether. Originally, troops had been raised for westward in quest of a settlement, but were cut less than two dollars per month. The pay had to pieces by the Indians. He knew this, and he since been augmented to three, and was now on had likewise heard of others who had since gone the way of being raised to four. He wished to from the same quarter, and upon the same errand. make its advances gradual. If we looked at the He had inquired about their characters, and had situations of other countries, and contemplated the found, just as he had expected, that they were state of their finances, we should be convinced that very honest, good sort of people, but somewhat of America paid her troops as well in proportion to a rambling disposition, and not remarkably indusher ability as any other people in the world, and trious. As to the notion of enlisting men, and atthat her soldiers had no right to complain. taching them to their country, by five dollars a

Mr. MONTGOMERY spoke a few words in favor month, it would not do. The old Continental of an advance to five dollars.

Army were very good soldiers, but certainly some Mr. Scott said, that Pennsylvania had some of them did not fight for the sake of their country, time ago raised a few companies of soldiers for since they deserted by scores. They were, howher frontier service, and given them two pounds ever, brought back, and fought very well. Their ten shillings currency per month, which was equal reasons for deserting, he did not pretend to know; to six dollars and two-thirds. In consequence of but this he knew, that they were very idle and this, the companies had been filled with some of very worthless fellows, which did not hinder them the most respectable kind of people in the country. from doing their duty. Mr. W.added, that it was They were quite of a different class from the re- a mistake to propose giving five dollars a month cruits raised for the Western Army. He wished for fear that we should not be able to get recruits. to try the five dollars. This superior pay was re- In a short time our communication by sea would ported to have hurt the Continental recruiting be.cut off. We would likewise be prevented from service. He thought it very possible that such emigrations into the back country. Recruits would had been the case. If Government give the pro- then be had in the greatest abundance for four posed five dollars, the Continental Army might, dollars a month, as great numbers of people would perhaps, get all the levies which it wanted from then be thrown'out of employment, and enlist for these very companies.

want of it. Mr. HUNTER would have voted for six dollars. The amendment to the bill, of adding two dol

Mr. Beatty said, that he was for giving five lars instead of one, was rejected. dollars, from a conviction that it was requisite for Mr. Clark then moved, as an amendment of the service.

the bill, that that there should be an addition of Mr. Smilie was decidedly for the additional four ounces of bread or flour, and four ounces of augmentation. The recruits, he said, who had meat to each ration. been raised in this city were sad fellows, and not Mr. HARTLEY was for augmenting the rations. fit to be trusted. Better pay would bring forward He knew that they were too small. In cultivated better men.

countries they might do, but not in the back Mr. Smith said that, as to the rate of labor, woods, where vegetables were not to be had. good men were hired to work in Vermont for Mr. WaDSWORTH was convinced that the raeighteen pounds a year, which is equal to four tions were sufficient, unless on a march. He spoke, dollars per month, and out of that they find their he said, from experience. own clothes. He thought it a very dangerous Mr. Giles had been frequently informed by plan to raise the wages of soldiers at this time, I officers in the Army, that the rations were all de

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H. OF R.)
Flag of the United States.

[JANUARY, 1794. fective. In the back woods, the soldiers had been I therefore recommend to the consideration of Conoften reduced to such distress for want of vegeta- gress the expediency of an establishment of this nables, as to go in search of acorns to supply their ture, under such regulations as shall appear to them place.

advisable. Mr. Fitzsimons said, that he had been informed

G. WASHINGTON. that the principal objection to the rations was the

UNITED STATES, January 7, 1794. inferior quality of the meat, and that this arose The said Message was read, and ordered to lie from the leanness of the cattle, as being exhausted on the table. by hard driving; Instead, therefore, of a regular Resolved, That it be an instruction to the comincrease, it might perhaps be better to provide for mitte- appointed on Thursday last, on the subject accidental contingencies.

of the Algerine communications, that they prepare Mr. MURRAY moved, and his motion was se- and report to the House an estimate of the exconded, to amend the amendment by striking out pense that will be requisite to place the principal the words, and "four ounces of meat.”

seaports and harbors of the United States in a Mr. Smith said, that an aid-de-camp, who was state of defence. his relation, and now serving in the Army, had Ordered, That the Report of the Secretary of wrote him that they were just now well fed, well the Treasury, of the sums necessary to be approclothed, in good health, and as good spirits as an priated for the service of the year one thousand Army had ever enjoyed. The reason of the com- seven hundred and ninety-four, which was made mon rations of provisions failing in-a march, was on the twenty-third ultimo, be committed to a owing to the waste in cooking. The amendment Committee of the Whole House on Thursday of Mr. CLARK, and the additional amendment of next. Mr. MURRAY, were both withdrawn.

Mr. TRUMBULL, from the committee appointed The Committee now rose and reported the to prepare and report such Standing Rules and amendment, and the bill and amendment were or-Orders of proceeding as are proper to be observed dered to lie on the table.

in this House, made a report; which was read, Resolved, That a committee be appointed to and ordered to lie on the table. report whether any, and what, alteration ought to be made in the ration now allowed to the troops

FLAG OF THE UNITED STATES. of the United States; and that Mr. IRVINE, Mr. The House resolved itself into a Committee of DEARBORN, and Mr. HEISTER, be the said com- the Whole House on the bill sent from the Senate, mittee.

entitled “ An act making an alteration in the Flag

of the United States." Tuesday, January 7.

Mr. Goodhue thought it a trifling business, The following Message was received from the which ought not to engross the attention of the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES :

House, when it was their duty to discuss matters

of infinitely greater consequence. If we are to Gentlemen of the Senate,

of the House of Representatives:

alter the Flag from thirteen to fifteen stripes, with

two additional stars, because Vermont and KenI lay before you an official statement of the expenditure to the end of the year one thousand

seven hundred tucky have been added, we may go on adding and and ninety-three, from the sum of ten thousand dollars, altering at this rate for one hundred years to come. granted to defray the contingent expenses of Govern. It is very likely, before fifteen years elapse, we ment, by an act passed on the twenty-sixth of March, shall consist of twenty States. The Flag ought one thousand seven hundred and ninety.

to be permanent. G. WASHINGTON. Mr. Lyman was of a different opinion. He UNITED STATES, January 7, 1794.

thought it of the greatest consequence not to ofThe said Message and statement were read, and

fend the new States. ordered to lie on the table.

Mr. Thatcher ridiculed the idea of being at so Another Message was received from the PRE- much trouble, as a consummate specimen of friSIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

volity. At this rate, every State should alter its

public seal when an additional county or townGentlemen of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives:

ship was formed. He was sorry to see the House

take Experience has shown that it would be useful to


their time with such trifles. have an officer particularly charged, under the direction

Mr. GREENUP considered it of very great conseof the Department of War, with the duties of receiving, quence to inform the rest of the world that we had safe-keeping, and distributing the public supplies, in all now two additional States. cases in which the laws and the course of service do not

Mr. Niles was very sorry that such a matter devolve them upon other officers; and also, with that should even for a moment have hindered the of superintending, in all cases, the issues in detail of House from going into more important affairs. supplies, with power for that purpose to bring to ac- He did not think the alteration either worth the count all persons intrusted to make such issues in rela- trouble of adopting or rejecting; but he supposed tion thereto. An establishment of this nature, by se- that the shortest way to get rid of it was to agree curing a regular and punctual accountability for the to it, and for that reason, and no other, he advised issues of public supplies, would be a great guard against to pass it as soon as possible. abuse, would tend to insure their due application, and The Committee agreed to it, and the Chairman to give public satisfaction on that point.

reported the bill. The House then took it up.

JANUARY, 1794.]


[H. OF R.

it was

Mr. Boudinot thought it of consequence to making an alteration in the Flag of the United keep the citizens of Vermont and Kentucky in States," was read the third time. good humor... They might be affronted at our re- Mr. B. BOURNE moved that it should be referjecting the bill.

red to a select committee. Mr. GOODHUE said, he felt for the honor of the Mr. Watrs seconded the motion. He said his House, when spending their time on such sort of object was, to have a clause added to establish the business. But, since it must be passed, he had Flag of the United States, so that in case of new only to beg this favor, that it might not appear accessions to the Union, future applications for upon the journals, and go into the world as the alterations may be precluded; he added, that he first of the bills passed this session.

supposed the title of the bill, should the amendMr. Madison was for the bill passing.

ment he proposed take place, ought to be a bill to Mr. Giles thought it very proper that the idea establish the Flag of the United States. should be preserved of the number of our States, The motion for a reference to a select commitand the number of stripes corresponding. The tee being pụt, was negatived-49 to 39. expense was but trifling, compared with that of Mr. W. then moved that the bill should be reforming the Government of a new State. committed to the Committee of the Whole, for

Mr. Smith said that this alteration would cost the purpose of introducing a clause to fix, for ever, him five hundred dollars, and every vessel in the the Flag of the United States. This motion was Union sixty. He could not conceive what the lost. Senate meant by sending them such bills. He And, on the question that the bill do pass, supposed that it must be for want of something resolved in the affirmative-yeas 50, nays 42, as better to do. He should indulge them, but let us follows: have no more alterations of this sort. Let the YEAS.- James Armstrong, Theodorus Bailey, AbraFlag be permanent.

ham Baldwin, Thomas Blount, Thomas P. Carnes, It was ordered that the bill be read a third time Gabriel Christie, Thomas Claiborne, William J. Dawto-morrow.

son, Henry Dearborn, George Dent, Samuel Dexter, A motion was then made for publishing the William Findley, William B. Giles, Christopher Greenresolutions of the House concerning the Algerine up, Samuel Griffin, William Barry Grove, George Hanbusiness.

cock, Carter B. Harrison, Thomas Hartley, John Heath, Mr. Wadswort: recommended publicity. He Daniel Heister, John Hunter, William Irvine, William said that their talking so much about secrecy Lyman, Nathaniel Macon, James Madison, Joseph made the world believe they really had a secret, M Dowell, William Montgomery, Andrew Moore, Peter when in fact they had none. It reminded him of | Muhlenberg, William Vans Murray, Anthony New, a story in the last war. They intended. a secret siah Parker, Andrew Pickins, Francis Preston, Robert

John Nicholas, Nathaniel Niles, Alexander D. Orr, Joexpedition into Canada; but unluckily they let a Rutherford, Thomas Scott, John Smilie, Israel Smith, clergyman into the story, and he next Sunday Samuel Smith, Thomas Tredwell, Philip Van Cortoffered up his prayers from the pulpit for its suc- landt, Abraham Venable, Francis Walker, Benjamin cess, which put an end to it. The House agreed Williams, Richard Winn, and Joseph Winston. to the publication of the resolutions.

Nars.-Fisher Ames, John Beatty, Elias Boudinot, Resolved, That the injunction of secrecy im- Shearjashub Bourne, Benjamin Bourne, Lambert Cadposed by the House, so relates to the reso walader, Abraham Clark, David Cobb, Peleg Coffin, lutions agreed to on Thursday last, on the subject Joshua Coit, Isaac Coles, Thomas Fitzsimons, Uriah of the confidential communications from the PRE- Forrest, Dwight Foster, Ezekiel Gilbert, James Gillespie, SIDENT, respecting the measures which have been Nicholas Gilman, Henry Glenn, Benjamin Goodhue, pursued for obtaining a recognition of the Treaty James Hillhouse, Samuel Holten, Amasa Learned, between the United States and Morocco, and for Richard Bland Lee, Mathew Locke, Francis Malbone, the ransom of prisoners, and establishment of peace Alexander Mebane, Joseph Neville, John 8. Sherburne, with the Algerines, be removed, and that the said Jeremiah Smith, Thomas Sprigg, Zephaniah Swift, Siresolutions be published.

las Talbot, George Thatcher, Uriah Tracy, Jonathan Ordered, That a committee be appointed to se- Trumbull, John E. Van Allen, Peter Van Gaasbeck, lect such parts of the PRESIDENT'S Communica- Peleg Wadsworth, Jeremiah Wadsworth, Artemas tions, respecting the Regency of Algiers, as his Ward, John Watts, and Paine Wingate. Letter, accompanying said Communications, sug- Mr. Irvine, from the committee appointed to gests it would be proper to keep secret, and that report whether any, and what, alteration ought to they report the same to the House.

be made in the ration now allowed to the troops Ordered, That a committee be appointed to of the United States, made a report; which was prepare and bring in a bill for regulating Pilots in read, and ordered to lie on the table. the bay and river Delaware, and for the establish- The House again resolved itself into a Comment and support of light-houses, beacons, buoys, mittee of the Whole House on the bill providing and public piers; and that Mr. William Smith, for destroyed certificates of certain descriptions ; Mr. Fitzsimons, and Mr. Hillhouse, be the said and, after some time spent therein, the Chairman committee.

reported that the Committee had again had the said bill under consideration, and made several

amendments thereto. WEDNESDAY, January 8.

Ordered, That the said bill, with the amendThe bill sent from the Senate, entitled " An actI ments, do lie on the table.

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