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Then tell me who thou art, with form so dire.
THE HOLY OXE spoke.
SANJAYA spoke. 35 Having heard these words of Keśava, he who bears a
tiara, lifting up his hands, making salutations and tremLling, again spoke thus to Krishna, bowing down and stammering, overwhelmed with fear.
1 King of the Sindhavas, who a desperate conflict, after the fall of dwelt in the country of the Indus. Bhishma. He was finally killed by Arjuna in 2 The hairy one, i.e., Krishņa.
The Rākshas flee on every side through fear,
1 Brahmā proceeded from the and the judge of the lower regions Supreme Brambă, whom Krishṇa respectively. represents.
• So called because in his human 2 Because all things dwell in him. nature he belonged to the tribe of 3 The gods of ocean, air, and fire, Yadu.
Of weightier honour than the Guru (2) bears,
THE HOLY ONE spoke.
* A spiritual teacher, extrava
2 Sankara and Śridhara connect gantly honoured. • By reverencing adhyayana (reading or study) with his mother, one gains this world; by the words Veda and sacrifice, exreverencing his father, the interme- plaining the passage as if the study diate world; and by constant atten. of these things was here meant, and tion to his guru, the world of also not a right study of them. [My Brahınā " (Manu ii. 233). The copy of Śrīdhara's Commentary has world of Brahmā is the highest atirekena; Telang has vyatirekena ] heaven.
Be not afraid or in thy mind distressed
SANJAYA spoke. 50 Vāsudeva, having thus addressed Arjuna, caused his
proper form to appear again, and the great Spirit, becoming once more of a gentle form, consoled him that had been affrighted.
Having seen this thy gentle human form, O destroyer of foes! I have now become composed in mind and have returned to (my proper) nature.
THE HOLY ONE spoke This form of me that thou hast seen is one hard to see. Even the gods constantly desire to see this form.
Not by Vedas, nor by austerities, nor by gifts, nor by sacrifice, can I be seen as thou hast seen me now.
But by exclusive worship may I thus be known and seen in truth and be obtained (entered), O slayer of foes ! 55 He who does everything for Me, whose supreme object
I am, who worships Me, being free from attachment and without hatred to any creature, this man, Arjuna! comes to Me.
Thus the Bhagavad Gītā, Reading the Eleventh, whose title is
“THE MANIFESTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL FORM."
(a) Māhātmyam. “Magnanimitas” (Lassen and Burnouf); “greatness" (Thomson); “majestät" (Lorinser). The reference is certainly to the instances of greatness or excellence in the preceding chapter.
(6) Nidhāna, treasure or treasury. Sankara explains it by paramāsraya, chief asylum or receptacle.
(c) Purusha, literally the Male, as the divine generator of all.
(d) Pushkalābhiḥ. “Hymnis perpulcris" (Lassen). Sankara explains the word as meaning complete, full (sampūrņa). The word means complete, but also great, excellent, distinguished. Burnouf has “ dans de sublimes cantiques."
(e) Prarrittim, lit. going forth, either in action or being. Lassen's translation is “Haud presagio equidem quidnam pares." Telang's, “ Thy deeds I understand not." Srīdhara and Sankara interpret it by ceshtā, movement, action. I think it means here the developed being by which the god was made manifest.
(f) Kāla, time, and sometimes death. Lassen and Burnouf accept the former, and Thomson the latter meaning. In the Atharva-Veda, Kāla is accounted a god, and hymns are addressed to it. In the Vishņu Purāņa (v. 6), Time is a portion of Hari (Vishņu). “Afterwards that which is described as the part of Hari, which has the nature of Time, infused into those beings direful sin” (Sans. T. i. 62). Ananda seems to accept the meaning, “death,” for he says that the meaning is, “ I am Kāla, because I destroy the lives of all.” Srīdhara has a similar explanation.
(9) Sadasat tat param yat. “Enti et non-enti quod subest”