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one muhúrta : and just so many muhúrtas let man- CHAP, • kind consider as the duration of their day and night. 65. '

The sun causes the distribution of day and night, both divine and human ; night being intended ' for the repose of various beings, and day for their 6 exertion.

66. ' A month of mortals is a day and a night of the Pitrởs or patriarchs inhabiting the moon ; and the • division of a month being into equal halves, the half

beginning from the full moon is their day for actions; ' and that beginning from the new moon is their night

for slumber.

67. A year of mortals is a day and a night of the Gods, or regents of the universe seated round the north pole; and again their division is this, their

day is the northern, and their night the southern course of the sun.

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68. ' Learn now the duration of a day and a night • of B RAHMA', and of the several ages which shall be I mentioned in order succinctly.

69.4 Sages have given the name of Crita to an age ' containing four thousand years of the Gods; the

twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, · and the twilight following it, of the same number :

70. · In the other three ages, with their twilights preceding and following are thousands and hun• dreds diminished by one.

71. " The






71. ^ The divine years, in the four human ages just

enumerated, being added together, their sum, ' twelve thousand, is called the age of the Gods :

72. · And, by reckoning a thousand such divine ages, a day of Brahma' may be known: his night • also has an equal duration :

73. · Those persons best know the divisions of the days and nights, who understand that the day of

BRAHMA', which endures to the end of a thousand ' such ages, gives rise to virtuous exertions; and that * his night endures as long as his day.

74. · At the close of his night, having long re. posed, he awakes, and awaking, exerts intellect, or reproduces the great principle of animation, whose property it is to exist unperceived by sense :

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75. - Intellect, called into action by his will to create worlds, performs again the work of creation; ' and thence first emerges the subtil ether, to which philosophers ascribe the quality of conveying sound; 76. · From ether, effecting a transmutation in form, springs the pure and potent air, a vehicle of all

scents; and air is held endued with the quality of 6 touch :

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77. " Then from air, operating a change, rises light 'or fire, making objects visible, dispelling gloom,

, spreading bright rays; and it is declared to have the quality of figure;

78. . But


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78. • But from light, a change being effected, comes CHAP. water with the quality of taste; and from water is deposited earth with the quality of smell: such were they created in the beginning. 79. “ The before-mentioned age of the Gods, or twelve thousand of their years, being multiplied by

seventy-one, constitutes what is here named a Men' wantara, or the reign of a Menu.

80. · There are numberless Menwantaras ; creations · also and destructions of worlds, innumerable : the

Being supremely exalted performs all this, with as ' much ease as if in sport; again and again, for the sake of conferring happiness.

81. - In the Crăta age the Genius of truth and right, ' in the form of a Bull, stands firm on his four feet ; nor does any advantage accrue to men from iniquity; 82. · But in the following ages, by reason of unjust gains, he is deprived successively of one foot; and even just emoluments, through the prevalence of theft, falsehood, and fraud, are gradually diminished by a fourth part.

83. Men, free from disease, attain all sorts of ' prosperity, and live four hundred years in the Crăta

age; but, in the Trétà and the succeeding ages, their · life is lessened gradually by one quarter.

84. “ The life of mortals, which is mentioned in the · Véda, the rewards of good works, and the powers

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of embodied spirits, are fruits proportioned among men to the order of the four ages.

85. • Some duties are performed by good men in the ' Crăta age; others, in the Trétà; some, in the Dwapara ; others, in the Cali ; in proportion as those ages decrease in length.

86. ' In the Crita the prevailing virtue is declared

to be in devotion; in the Trétà, divine knowledge; in ' the Dwapara, holy sages call sacrifice the duty

chiefly performed; in the Cali, liberality alone.

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87. - For the sake of preserving this universe, the · Being, supremely glorious, allotted separate duties to ' those who sprang respectively from his mouth, his arm, his thigh, and his foot. 88.“ To Bráhmens he assigned the duties of reading the Veda, of teaching it, of sacrificing, of assisting others to sacrifice, of giving alms, if they be rich, and, if indigent, of receiving gifts : 89. · To defend the people, to give alms, to sacrifice, to read the Veda, to shun the allurements of ' sensual gratification, are, in a few words, the duties • of a Cshatriya :

90. “ To keep herds of cattle, to bestow largesses, • to sacrifice, to read the scripture, to carry on trade,

to lend at interest, and to cultivate land are prescribed or permitted to a Vaisya :

91. . One

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91. ' One principal duty the supreme Ruler assigns CHAP. 'to a Súdra; namely, to serve the before-mentioned

classes, without depreciating their worth.

92.“ Man is declared purer above the navel; but ' the self-creating Power declared the purest part of

him to be his mouth.

93. Since the Bráhmen. sprang from the most ex' cellent part, since he was the first born, and since 'he possesses the Véda, he is by right the chief of

this whole creation.

94. · Him, the Being, who exists of himself, produced in the beginning from his own mouth, that,

having performed holy rites, he might present cla' rified butter to the Gods, and cakes of rice to the

progenitors of mankind, for the preservation of this
world :
95. - What created being then can surpass Him,
-with whose mouth the Gods of the firmament con-

tinually feast on clarified butter, and the manes of ' ancestors, on hallowed cakes?

96. “ Of created things, the most excellent are · those which are animated; of the animated, those ' which subsist by intelligence; of the intelligent, mankind; and of men, the sacerdotal class ; 97. · Of priests, those eminent in learning; of the learned, those who know their duty; of those who ' know it, such as perform it virtuously; and of the

' virtuous,


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