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A cool behaviour fets him on the rack, and is interpreted as an instance of averfion or indifference ; a ford one raises his suspicions, and looks too much like diffimulation and artifice. If the person he loves be chearful, her thoughts must be employed on another ; and if fad, she is certainly thinking on hin felf. In short, there is no word or gesture fo infignificant, but it gives him new hints, feeds his fufpicions, and furnishes him with fresh matters of discovery : so that if we confider the effects of this passion, one would rather think it proceeded from an inveterate hatred, than an exceffive love ; for certainly none can meet with more disquietude and uneasiness than a suspected wife, if we except the jealous husband.
But the great unhappiness of this passion is, that it naturally tends to alienate the affection which it is fo folicitous to ingross; and that for these two reasons, because it lays too great a constraint on the words and actions of the fufpected person, and at the same time fhews.you have no honourable opinion of her; both of which are strong motives to aversion.
Nor is this the worst effect of jealousy ; for it often draws after it a more fatal train of consequences, and makes the person you fuspect guilty of the very crimes you are so much afraid of. It is very natural for such who are treated ill and upbraided falsely, to find out an intimate friend that will hear their complaints; condole their füfferings, and endeavour to footh and assuage: their secret resentments. Besides; jealousy puts a wow man often in mind of an ill thing that she would not: otherwise perhaps have thought of, and fills her imagination with such an unlucky idea, as in time grows familiar, excites desire, and loses all the shame and horror which might at firft attend it. Nor is it a wonder if the who suffers wrongfully in a man's opinion of her, and has therefore nothing to forfeit in his esteem, resolves to give him reason for his suspicions, and to enjoy the pleasure of the crime, since she must undergo the ignominy. Such probably were the considerations that directed the wife man in his advice to husbands; Be not
jealous over the wife of thy boson, and teach her not: an evil lesson against thyself.' Ecclus.
And here, among the other torments which this pafsion produces, we may usually observe that none are greater mourners than jealous men, when the perfon who provoked their jealousy is taken from them. Then it is that their love breaks out furiously, and throws off all the mixtures of suspicion which choaked and smothered it before. The beautiful parts of the character rise uppermost in the jealous husband's memory, and upbraid him with the ill usage of so divine a creature as was once in his poffeffion ; whilst all the little imperfections, that were before so uneasy to him, wear off from his remembrance, and shew themselves no more.
We may see by what has been said, that jealousy takes the deepest root in men of amorous dispositions ; and of these we may find three kinds who are most over-run with it.
The first are thofe who are conscious to themselves of any infirmity, whether it be weakness, old age, deformity, ignorance, or the like. These men are so well acquainted with the unamiable part of themselves, that they have not the confidence to think they are really beloved; and are fo diftruftful of their own merits, that all fondness towards them puts them out of countenance, and looks like a jeft upon their persons. They grow suspicious on their first looking in a glass, and are ftung with jealousy at the sight of a wrinkle. A handsome fellow immediately alarms them, and every thing that looks young or gay turns their thoughts upon their wives.
A second sort of men, who are most liable to this pallion, are those of cunning, wary, and distrustful tempers. It is a fault very justly found in histories composed by politicians, that they leave nothing to chance or humour, but are still for deriving every action from some plot or contrivance, for drawing up a perpetual scheme of causes and events, and preserving a constant correspondence between the camp and the council table. And thus it happens in the affairs of love with men of too refined a thought. They put a construction on a look, and find out a design in a smile ; they give new senses and significations to words and actions and are ever tormenting themselves with fancies of
II their own raising. They generally act in a disguise themselves, and therefore mistake all outward shows and appearances for hypocrisy in others; so that I believe no men see less of the truth and reality of things, than these great refiners upon incidents, who are lo wonderfully subtle and over-wise in their conceptions.
Now what these men fancy they know of wonien by reflection, your lewd and vicious men believe they have learned by experience. They have seen the poor husband so milled by tricks and artifices, and in the midst of his inquiries so loft and bewildered in a crooked intrigue, that they still suspect an under-plot in every female action; and especially when they fee any resemblance in the behaviour of two persons, are apt to fancy it proceeds from the same design in both. These men therefore bear hard upon the suspected party, pursue her close through all her turnings and windings, and are too well acquainted with the chace, to be flung off by any false steps or doubles : besides, their acquaintance and conversation has lain wholly among the vicious part
of womankind, and therefore it is no wonder they censure all alike, and look upon the whole sex as a species of impostors. But if, notwithstanding their private experience, they can get over these prejudices, and entertain a favourable opinion of some wonien; yet their own loose desires will stir up new suspicions from another side, and make them believe all men subject to the fame inclinations with themselves.
Whether these or other motives are most predominant, we learn from the modern histories of America, as well as from our own experience in this part of the world, that jealousy is no northern paslion, but rages most in those nations that lie nearest the influence of the fun. It is a misfortune for a woman to be born between the tropics ; for there lie the hottest regions of jealousy, which as you come northward cools all along with the climate, until you scarce meet with
any thing like it in the polar circle. Our own nation is very temperately situated in this respect; and if we meet with some few disordered with the violence of this paflion, they are not the proper growth of our country, but are many degrees nearer the sun in their conftitutions than in their climate.
After this frightful account of jealousy, and the ferfons who are n.ost subject to it, it will be but fair to fhew by what means the passion may be best allayed, and those who are pofleffed with it set at ease. Other faults indeed are not under the wife's jurisdiction, and, fhould, if possible, escape her obfervation ; but jealouly calls upon her particularly for its cure, and deserves all her art and application in the attempt: besides, the has this for her encouragement, that her endeavours! will be always pleafing, and that she will till find the affection of her husband rising towards her in proporlion as his doubts and suspicions vanish ; for, as we have seen all along, there is fo great a inixture of love in jealousy, as is well worth the feparating. But this shall be the subject of another paper.
Credula res amor eft Ovid. Met. 7. ver. 826:
The man, who loves, is easy of belief. HAVING in my yefterday's paper discovered the nature of jealousy, and pointed out the persons who are most subject to it, I must here apply myself to my fair correfpordents, who defire to live well with a jèalous husband, and to ease his mind of its unjust suspicions:
The first rule I shall propose to be observed is, that you never seem to ditlike in another what the jealous man is himself guilty of, or to admire any thing in which he himself does not excel. "A jealous man is very quick in his applications, he knows how to find a double edge in an invective, and to draw a farire on himself out of a panegyric on another. He does not trouble hinself to consider the person, but to direct the character;
and is fecretly pleased or confounded as he finds more or less of himself in it. The commendation
of any thing in another stirs up his jealousy, as it shews you have a value for others besides himself; but the commendation of that, which he himself wants, infanies him more, as it thews that in some respects you prefer others before him. Jealousy is admirably described in this view by Horace in his ode to Lydia.
Quum tu, Lydia, Telephi
Cervicemi rofeam, cerea Telephi
Fervens difficili bile tumet jecur :
Certâ fede manet ; humor & in genas
- Quàm lentis penitùs macerer ignibus. Od. 13.lib.z.
And melt my very soul away. The jealous man is not indeed angry if another : but if you find those faults which are to be found in his own character, you discover not ooly your dislike of another, but of himself. In short, he is so desirous of ingrossing all your love, that he is grieved at the want of any charm, which he believes has power to raise it ; and if he finds by your cenfures on others; that he is not so agreeable in your opinion as he might be, ke naturally concludes you could love him better if he had other qualifications, and that by consequence your af fection does not rise fo high as he thinks it ought. If