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the teaching of chap. v. 15, or with the common Hindū idea of Brahman

(e) Mano hridi nirudhya. Manas is the sentient faculty, hrid is the bodily organ; or, as Mr. Thomson expresses it, “ Manas is the heart that desires and hșid that which beats.” The meaning is, Keep the affections in their own seat, i.e., the breast.

(f) Avartino. “Remeabiles” (Lassen). Āvarta means a winding round; avartin, winding round or revolving. The meaning is not that they may return, or, as Mr. Thomson renders it, “subject to return,” but that they revolve from being to not-being, i.e., from visible being to absorption into Brahma, and vice versá, at stated periods. The reference is not to the soul, “which is liable to return, after a certain sojourn, from any of the eight worlds," as Mr. Thomson asserts, but to these worlds themselves, which come and go in a certain revolving order. Sankara says, from their being defined by time. See chap. ix. 7.

(g) Avaśaḥ, not by will of their own, i.e., at the command of Brahma. Mr. Thomson translates it by “spontaneously,” adding in a note, “ Avāśa cannot have its more usual signification of against their will,' since matter, being irrational, could have no will of its own, but rather without any will of their own,' i.e., in agreement with the laws of necessity." But if so, it cannot emanate spontaneously. The constraining power is not a law of necessity, but a command from Brahma. Lassen has "ultro," probably by mistake; Telang, "devoid of power.” Ananda explains the word by aswatantra, not independently, by their own act.. Tantra means a thread, the art of weaving, and hence formation, cause. Srīdhara's gloss is paratantra, dependent on another.

(1) Suklakrishạe gatī, “ these two ways of black and white." Sukla means also the increasing half of the moon's course, and

krishna the waning half. Light and darkness are common symbols of happiness and the reverse. The grotesque imagination of the Hindū has made the symbol to be a controlling cause; but it is strange that the soul, which is immaterial, and is often described or symbolised as "pure light,” should depend on a material element for its guidance. Srīdhara says that the devotee is not bewildered, because he does not desire heaven and the rest as a means of happiness, but has his abode in the Supreme Lord. But this does not explain how, if he dies when the moon is waning, he must return to earth again. I cannot believe that the enlightened author of the Bhagavad Gītā wrote these READING THE NINTH.

verses.

THE HOLY ONE spoke. Now will I declare to thee, who dost not cavil, that most mysterious knowledge, divine and human, which when thou knowest, thou wilt be free from evil.

Royal knowledge !1 royal mystery! the supreme purification this, comprehensible at sight, holy, easy to practise, and eternal.

The men who receive not by faith this holy doctrine attain not to Me, O destroyer of foes ! but return to the ways of this world of death,

All this universe has been spread out by Me, by my unmanifested material nature (Prakriti). All things

dwell in Me; I do not dwell in them; 5

And yet these things dwell not in Me.* See my royal mystery!(a). My spirit, which is the source of all, supports all things but dwells not in them.

As the mighty wind moves everywhere, but is ever contained within the ether," know that thus all beings are contained in Me.

Rājavidyā. Rāja, prince or king, or active energy of Brahmā, and is here means chief, supreme.

sometimes represented as his wife. 2 Dharmyam, according to law or • Referring to the twofold nature right. Dharma often expresses a of Brahma. They do not dwell in religious duty, but has here its most his higher spiritual nature. ancient meaning

5 Akāśā, the ether, sometimes 3 Prakriti, or primordial matter, is rendered "space.” It is the subtle here affirmed to be a part of Brahma. fluid which pervades all space. In the Purāņas, Prakriti is the sakti, Sometimes it seems to denote the

At the end of a kalpa,' all things, O son of Kunti ! go into my material nature; at the beginning of a kalpa, I send them forth again.

Resting on my material nature (6) (Prakriti), I send forth again and again all this mass of beings, without their will, by the power of Prakṣiti.

And these works, O destroyer of foes! bind not Me, who sit apart as a stranger and in these works am unattached. 1ο Nature (Prakriti), under my surveillance, gives birth to

everything, moving or fixed (animate or inanimate), and by this means, O son of Kuntī! the world revolves.

Fools disregard Me when invested with a human body, not knowing my higher nature, the Supreme Lord of all.

Vain in hope, vain in action, vain in knowledge, and devoid of sense, these partake of the deluding (c) nature of Rākshasas and Asuras.3

But the great-souled men, O son of Prithā! who partake absolute idea of space, but not in the Institutes of Manu (iii. 25) they the Bhagavad Gitā.

are connected with Pisāchas, a low 1 Cf. chap. viii. p. 97.

order of demons. In the oldest parts 2 All works, except works of de- of the Rig Veda, however, Asura is votion, bind the doer, i.e., they con- the name of the Supreme Spirit, the nect him with bodily conditions, as Ahura of the system of Zoroaster. In their result, in a future life. The the Purīņas, the Asuras are repreworks of Brahınā are not followed sented as warring against the gods by any consequences, because they and sometimes overcoming them. are done without "attachment.” So The name was probably given to a perfect Yogin may act, and then the gods of the aboriginal tribes attain to nirvāṇa (cf. chap. iii. 19). (see Sans. T. iv. 154, 155). The

Asuras, giants or demons, ene. Rākshasas are fierce demons, who mies of the gods; their residence is guard the treasures of Kuvera, in Pātāla, below the earth. The the god of wealth. Their name is dark mode or constituent of Pra- derived from raksh, to guard. There kriti (tamo-guņa) prevails in them. is a dreadful account of oue in the In the third book of the Mahābhārata Rāmāyaṇa (iii. 2, 4),

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like they are placed between gods and a mountain-peak, a man-eater, loud. men : “From Manu all creation, voiced, hollow-eyed, huge, horrible, gods, Asuras, men, must be pro- ... bearing three lions, four tigers, duced ” (Ind. Wisd., p. 395). In two wolves, ten deer, and the head

who was

of the divine nature, worship Me with hearts resting on no other (God), knowing Me as the eternal source of all things.

Evermore glorifying Me, earnestly striving (after Me),2 steadfast in vows and doing Me reverence, they worship

Me with a constant devotion (21). 15

Others also, sacrificing with the sacrifice of knowledge, worship Me, everywhere present in many forms by my oneness and

my

divisible nature. I am the offering; I am the sacrifice ;4 I am the offering to forefathers; 5 I am the sacred herb;6 I am the holy hymn ? and the sacrificial butter ;8 I am the fire; I am the burnt-offering. of an elephant on the point of an kratu is a sacrifice enjoined by the iron pike.” The Yakshas were de. Vedas (śruti), and yajna one re. mons of a similar kind, but placed quired by tradition (smriti). But by Manu (xii. 47) above the Rāk- this distinction is not supported by shasas. He calls them “the servants the common use of the words. K'ratu and companions of Kuvera.” seems to denote sacrifice strictly ;

1 In the gods the element (guna) yajna, worship in general, of which of Nature, called “goodness,” pre- sacrifice was a chief part. In the vails. Sankara connects it with calm. Sakuntalā, Indra is called Sataness, restraint, coinpassion, and faith. kratu, he of the hundred sacrifices

Striving to gain a true know. (p. 268, Williams's ed.) ledge of Brahma (Madhasūdana), 5 Swadhā, the offering of food to For restraint (of the senses), for the manes of deceased ancestors. calmness, self-control, &c. (Šankara). 6 Aushadha, vegetable food or

3 Mr. Thoinson explains the sacri- medicine (Śrīdhara); food produced fice of knowledge to mean the recog. by herbs (Sankara); a medicinal nising of Brahma in every act of herb, in the Hitopadesa and in Nala. worship, but the true Yogin rose ? Mantra, a religious song. The above all pious acts except that of mantras are the hymns of the Vedas devout meditation. Sridhara says and the commentaries are Brāhthat by the knowledge which they manas. gain of Vāsudeva being the All they Ajyam, the purified butter used offer an acceptable sacrifice. Śan. in sacrifice. kara says it is by those, “who know 9 Huta, that which is offered, the that I am the Lord (īswara).” victim. Lassen and Thomson trans

4 Kratu and Yajna. Sankara late it by "incense.” There is no and other Hindū scholiasts say that authority, I believe, for this transla

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