The life of John, Duke of Marlborough, with some account of his contemporaries and of the war of the succession, Volumen2

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William Blackwood and Sons, 1852
 

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Deplorable situation of the French monarch
10
Great concessions offered by Louis
11
Counter proposals of the Allies
12
Progress of the negotiations ib 14 M de Torcy secretly offers bribes to Marlborough which are refused
13
Remarkable conversation of M de Torcy with Marlborough
14
His sentiments expressed to M do Torcy on a peace
15
Ultimatum of the Allies which is rejected by France
16
II Marlborough still labours to effect a pacification
17
False accusation against Marlborough of having prevented the peace
18
Resolution of the StatesGeneral on the rupture of the negotiations
19
Reflections on the rupture of this negotiation
20
Noble efforts of Louis to save France
21
Eulogy of M Dumont on the conduct of France on this occasion
22
Forces on both sides at the opening of the campaign
23
Marlboroughs efforts to obtain an augmentation of force in the Low Coun tries
24
Which at length are partially successful The forces at his disposal
26
Description of Villars position
27
Marlboroughs measures to deceive Villars
28
Description of Tournay
29
It was a sense of this advantage which made Napoleon engage in the Pen insular war 355
31
Siege and capture of that town 81
32
Alarms of the troops at the subterraneous warfare
33
Its real horrors
34
But the citadel is at length taken
35
Vigorous movements of Marlborough towards Mons
36
Positions taken by Marlborough after the lines were passed 88
39
Concentration of the Allied and of Villarsarmies
40
Composition and strength of the French army
41
Description of the field of Malplaquet
43
Noble force on both sides
44
Preparatory movements on both sides and interference of the Dutch deputies
45
Opinions of Marlborough and Eugene in the council of war
46
Villars fortifies his position
47
Plan of attack by the Allied generals
48
Feelings of the soldiers on both sides
49
Commencement of the battle
51
Marlborough after a desperate conflict carries the wood of Taisniere
52
Bloody repulse of the Prince of Orange on the left
53
Heroic but ineffectual efforts of the Prince of Orange to restore the com bat
54
Marlborough hastens to the spot and restores the battle
55
A vigorous attack of Villars on the right weakens his centre which Marl borough prepares to attack
56
Decisive attack by Lord Orkney on the centre
58
Terrible cavalry action
59
Boufflcrs able and orderly retreat
60
Results of the battle to the Allies
61
Loss of the French and humanity of Marlborough
62
Distinguished officers killed and wounded on both sides
64
Blame unjustly thrown on the Prince of Orange in this battle
65
Reflections of Marshal Sajte on this battle ib 63 Grief and humanity of Marlborough after the battle
67
Capturo of Mons and conclusion of the campaign
68
Continued decline of Marlboroughs influence at court
69
Unjust criticisms and censures on the campaign
71
Injudicious request of Marlborough to be made captaingeneral for life
72
His flattering reception from the Houses of Parliament
73
Increasing jealousies of him at court
74
His trial before tho Peers
75
Marlborough threatens to resign
76
His remonstrances with the Queen tA 73 He determines to resign if Mrs Masham is not removed
78
Hut is persuaded to yield and is seemingly reconciled to the Queen ib 75 Reflections on these steps of Marlborough
79
Great interests at stake in the bedchamber appointments
80
Extraordinary change in the public mind regarding the war and its hero
81
Cause of this remarkable change
82
Parallel examples in former times
83
CHAPTER VIII
84
Remarkable coincidence of particular battles in both periods
85
Remarkable parallel of the invasions of Russia by Charles XII and Napo leon
86
Proud position of Charles XII at Dresden beforo he began his march to Poland
87
His march from Dresden to Poland
88
Increasing difficulties of Charles in his march
89
Charles directs his march to the Ukraine to join Mazeppa
90
Defeat of Levenhaupt and capture of his convoy
91
March of Charles towards Moscow
92
After a thousand hardships they arrive at Pultowa ib 11 Preparations for the battle of Pultowa
93
Battle of Pultowa and total defeat of Charles
94
Surrender of fourteen thousand Swedes under Count Piper
95
Reflections on this event and grief it occasioned to Marlborough
96
Character of Peter the Great of Russia
97
His errors and delusion regarding him
98
Real character of his changes
99
Campaign on the Rhine and its disasters
100
Operations in Piedmont and their abortive result
101
Affairs of Spain in 1709 Increasing attachment of the Castilians to Philip
103
Independent and dignified tone assumed by Philip in the negotiations at the Hague
104
Operations in Aragon and on the Catalonian frontier ib 23 Operations on the Portuguese frontier
105
Marlboroughs opinion on the Spanish war ib 25 The government of the Netherlands again refused by Marlborough
106
New confederacy in the north and Marlboroughs advice regarding it
107
Commencement of the conferences of Gertruydenberg
108
Rigorous demands of the Allien
109
Real reasons of the rupture of the conferences
110
General plan of the campaign of 1710
112
Marlboroughs departure for the Continent and arrival at the Hague
113
Commencement of the campaign agreed on between Eugene and Marl borough
114
Passage of the lines of the Scarpe
115
Description of Douai
116
Its investment and siege which Villars tries to raise
117
Anecdotes illustrative of the chivalrous character of the ago
118
Both armies expect another battle
119
Villars retires without fighting
120
Tho Allies are unable to roach Arras but besiege Bethuno
122
Great skill with which Villars averted the invasion of France on this occa sion
124
Siege and fall of Bethuno
125
Increasing animosity to Marlborough in England He intends to besiege Calais
126
Siege and capture of St Venant
127
And of Aire
128
Increase of Marlboroughs difficulties at homo
129
General alarm at tho augmentation of the public burdens
130
Argument of Bolingbroke on the subject
131
Real causes of tho evils complained of
132
Envy of him among his own party
133
Final interview between the Queen and tho Duchess of Marlborough
134
Appointment of the Duko of Shrewsbury as Lord Chamberlain by the Queen alone
135
Progress of the secret intrigue with Shrewsbury
137
Shrewsbury openly joins tho Tories
138
Marlboroughs views on hearing of tho appointment
140
Renewed contest regarding Colonel Hills promotion
141
Tho Queen resolves to dismiss Lord Sunderland
142
Marlborough in vain applies to tho Duke of Shrewsbury
143
The Queen persists in her resolution and Sunderland is dismissed and Lord Dartmouth appointed
144
Effect of this stop on the Whig cabinet and on Marlborough
145
Marlboroughs anxiety lest Parliament should be dissolved
147
Consequences of theso changes in administration in England to 64 Thoir effect on tho Continout and tho Emperors lotter to Marlborough
148
Ronowed altercation between the Duchess and the Queen
149
Queen Annes answer to tho Duchess
150
Artful measures of Harley to divido thoWhigs
151
Secret mission of Mr Cresset to Hanover who dies and Marlboroughs magnauiinity on hearing of it
153
Noblo conduct of Marlborough and his wiso advice to the Duchess at this crisis
155
Harley and Mrs Mnshaiu resolve on Godolphins dismissal
156
Patriotic conduct of Godolphin and Marlborough on this occasion
157
Consternation of the Whigs and new ministry
159
Decision of Marlborough on this crisis 160
162
Parliament is dissolved and the Tories get a decided majority
163
Paltry difficulties thrown in the way of the completion of Blenheim it 77 Attempts to gain over Marlborough to the Tories
164
Ungrateful reception of Marlborough by the ministers and the country
165
Dismissal of the Duchess of Marlborough
166
Marlborough with great reluctance withholds his intended resignation
168
Causes of the fall of the Whig administration ib 82 Great achievements of Marlborough down to this time
170
CHAPTER IX
171
Commencement of the campaign of 1710 in Spain and defeat of Philip
172
Entry of Charles into Madrid and his cold reception there
173
Efforts of Philip and precarious situation of Charles at Madrid
174
Arrival of Noailles at Valladolid and great efforts of the Spaniards ih 6 Divisions and irresolution on the part of Charles at Madrid
175
The Portuguese government refuse to allow their troops to succour Charles VI
176
Vigorous measures of the French and retreat of Charles from Madrid
177
Attack on Stanhopes division at Brihuerga which is forced to capitu late
178
Battle of Villa Viciosa in which Vend6me is repulsed and subsequent disasters of the Allies
179
Great disasters in the retreat
180
Effects of these disasters on Marlborough who lands in Holland
181
Death of the Emperor Joseph and election of Charles VI as Emperor
182
Great lines constructed by Villars t6 16 Plan of the campaign
184
Appearance of the Pretender in the French army
185
Fatal separation of Eugene with his troops from Marlborough
186
Villars avoids a battle by orders of Louis
187
Who had begun a separate and secret negotiation with England
188
Marlborough determines to pass the enemys lines
189
His project for achieving this ib 23 Preparations for executing it and deceiving the enemy
190
He passes the lines with entire success
191
Extraordinary success thus gained
192
Great fame earned by Marlborough by this exploit
194
Opinion of Rousset on this success ib 28 Commencement of the siege of Bouchain
195
Interesting operations on both sides during its progress
196
Fall of Bouchain
198
Reflections on this siege by a Hanoverian officer engaged in it
199
Ostensible preparations for war and real secret negotiations for peace by the ministry
200
Conditions of the preliminaries which were agreed to
201
Infamous libels with which Marlborough is assailed by the Tories
202
Malignant misrepresentations about the campaign of 1711 ib 36 Marlboroughs letter to Oxford on these libels
203
Real object of the Tories in these attacks on Marlborough
204
Charges brought against Marlborough of having embezzled public money
205
Marlboroughs decisive refutation of the charge ib 40 Marlborough returns home deeply hurt at the clandestine accommodation
207
Marlboroughs noble speech in the House of Peers
208
Resolution carried against ministers in the Peers
209
Counter address carried in the Commons and irresolution of the Queen
211
Oxford dismisses Marlborough
212
Universal joy among the enemies of England at these measures
213
Marlboroughs noble letter to the Queen on his dismissal
214
Eugenes arrival in England and noble conduct
216
Machinations of the Tories to inflame the Queen against Marlborough
217
Louis rises in his demands at Utrecht which turns into a private treaty between France and England
218
Forces of the Allies and French in Flanders and desperato situation of Louis
219
Landrecies is ineffectually besieged by Eugene
230
Villars destroys the detachment at Dcnain
231
Conclusion of tho war between France and the Dutch at Utrecht
232
Austria continues the struggle and makos peace at Rastodt
233
Increased virulcnco of tho libels against Marlborough
234
Renewed persecution against him in pecuniary affairs
235
Marlborough obtains passports and goes abroad
236
Death and character of Godolphin
237
Moral lessons to be deduced from Marlboroughs fall
238
The grasping disposition of Marlborough and the Whigs was one chief cause of his fall
239
It was the previous revolts against the Crown which occasioned this dis trust in the Sovereign
241
Errors of the people at this crisis
242
Moral lesson from subsequent events
243
CHAPTER X
245
Marlborough is received with the highest honours on the Continent
246
Base ingratitude of the Imperial court to him
248
Continued malice against him at home
249
Suspension of the building of Blcnhoim at the public expense
250
Dissensions between Lady Masham and the Duchess of Somerset
252
And of Oxford and Bolingbroke in the cabinet ib 8 Strange mixture of parties in the Houses of Parliament
254
Contradictory measures of the Legislature in contemplation of a rupture
255
Marlboroughs conduot at this crisis
256
Mission of Mr Harley to the court of Hanover
257
Indecision of the court of Hanover and death of the Electress Sophia
258
Prudent conduct of the Elector at this crisis
259
Bolingbroke tries to form a ministry and his measures to bring in James
261
Counter measures of the Whigs and death of the Queen
262
Instantaneous measures of the Whigs to secure the succession
263
Marlborough lands at Dover and arrives in London ib 19 Marlborough resolves to hold no political situation under the new govern ment
264
George I forms a Whig administration and arrives in England
265
Bolingbroke and Ormond are outlawed and Oxford impeached
266
Commencement of the Rebellion in Scotland in 1715
269
The Earl of Mar raises the standard of rebellion at Braemar 27 V
272
Early success of the insurgents
273
Movements in the south of Scotland and advance into England
275
Advance of the insurgents to Preston and their surrender there
276
Advance of Mar to Sheriffmuir
277
Commencement of the battle and Buccess of Argyle on bis right
278
Success of the insurgents on the right and in the centre
279
Indecisive result of the battle but which turns to the advantage of the English
280
Argyle is superseded in the command by Cadogan
281
Arrival of the Pretender in Scotland and his reception at Scone
282
Passing enthusiasm and real difficulties following on his arrival
283
Reembarkation of the Pretender and suppression of the insurrection
284
Conviction and sentence of Derwentwater c
286
Noble death of Derwentwater and Konmure
287
Reflections on this subject and impolicy of death for political crimes
288
True way of dealing with such cases
289
Treachery of the English Government to the Catalans
290
Resolution and heroic efforts of the people
291
Arrival of the Duko of Berwick and forces of the besiegers
292
Preparations on both sides for the siege and opening of the trenches
293
Progress of the siege
294
Dreadful storm of the town
295
Humanity of Berwick to the besieged and termination of the War of the Succession
296
Biography of Marshal Berwick
297
His character
298
Last years of Louis XIV
299
His death
300
Fall of Bolingbroke at tho court of tho Pretender
301
Trial and acquittal of Oxford
302
56 Death of tho Countess of Bridgewater and Countess of Sunderland
303
Marlborough is struck with palsy and his public life ended
304
His last years and death 805
308
Marlboroughs fortune and will
309
Descent of tho titlo and estates
310
Anecdote of a descendant of Marlborough at the battle of Fontenoy
311
Remarkable kindness of disposition in Marlborough
312
His character as a husband father and friend ib 66 His suavity of manners to all and its great effects on tho Alliance
313
His humanity in war and care of his soldiers
314
His equanimity when assailed by his enemies and dismissed from office
315
His magnanimity in judging of others
316
False imputation against bim of being adverse to peace and fond of money
317
Subsequent life and death of the Duchess of Marlborough
319
CHAPTER XI
321
Opposite interests and causes for which the parties contended
322
Magnitude of the danger which threatened Europe if France had proved successful 823
323
Results which might have followed the triumph of Franco ib 5 Opposite sides on political questions on which the parties were ranged similar to what ...
324
Yet fundamentally the Allies and France were in both cases ranged on the Bame sides
325
Important difference in the parties by whom the war was opposed in the times of Marlborough and of Napoleon
326
State of the opposite parties in Great Britain since the Great Rebellion
327
The union of parties had brought about the Revolution
329
Dangers which flowed from the Revolution The funding system
330
General terrors it excited in Great Britain
331
Bolingbrokes account of its dangers
332
General corruption which was induced in the country
333
Bolingbrokes account of the general indignation at this demoralising system
335
His alarming picture of its effect on public moralB
336
Strong principles of freedom and loyalty in the English character
337
Reaction of generous feelings in favour of tho Tories in the advanced period of the war
338
Which distinctly appears in tho votes and composition of the House of Commons
339
Character of Bolingbroke
340
His inconsistencies and faults
342
Character of Harley Earl of Oxford
343
Swift and the Tory writers in the press
344
Feelings and principles of the High Tories in regard to the war
345
It was these causes which overturned Marlborough
346
Great violations of moral rectitude in the mode of their attack on Marl borough
347
What was the danger to be guarded against in the Peace
349
Tho result has proved the Tories were wrong in their policy regarding it
350
Disastrous effects and serious dangers to England which followed the leaving a Bourbon on the Spanish throne
351
Examples of this in later times
352
These dangers have arisen solely from the Spanish alliance
353
France
356
Instance of the same political infatuation in our times
357
Results which have followed from it in the last instance 35S 35 Strange insensibility to national sins which often prevails
359
Analogy between the situation of the Tories in the War of the Succession and the Whigs in that of the Revolution
361
Extraordinary coincidence in the crises of the two contests
362
Real causes of this identity of conduct of the opposite parties on these occasions
363
Excuses which existed for the policy of the Tories at the Treaty of Utrecht from the dread of Spain
364
Bolingbrokes picture of the ruined state of the Spanish monarchy at this period
365
What course the Tories sheuld have pursued at the Treaty of Utrecht
367
But no excuse can be found for our violation of the Treaty of Utrecht by the Quadruple Alliance in 1834
368
Answer to the common argument used in behalf of the Quadruple Alliance
369
Our active interference to put down Don Carlos and the male line was still more unjustifiable
370
What England sheuld have done on the occasion
371
Just punishment we have now received
372
Great change which the substitution of the female line for the male in Spain made in this respect on the interests of other powers
374
CHAPTER XII
376
Nature of the feudal wars
377
Great change when armies were paid by Government
378
Turenno introduced this system and brought it to perfection
379
Character of Condi
380
Peculiar character of Marlborough as a general
381
His extraordinary prudence and address
382
Theugh inferior in force he always maintained the initiative
383
Nature of war in the time of Marlborough
384
Circumspection was in him a matter of necessity
385
He was compelled to adopt the system of sieges and fix the war in Flanders
386
Dangers of the opposite system
387
Reasons why Marlboroughs genius was underrated in his life
388
He was the perfection of genius matured by experience
389
His great address and suavity of manner
390
His character as a statesman
391
And in private
392
His political character after the Revolution to 19 His faults and weaknesses
393
Circumstances which palliate these faults in him
394
His private character and elevated ideas in the disposal of money
395
His magnanimity and humanity
396
His character as drawn by Adam Smith and Bolingbroke
397
The five great generals of modern times
398
Leading characteristics of each ib 26 Character of Prince Eugene
399
His astonishing successes over the Turks
400
Narrow escape from ruin and wonderful victory at Belgrade
401
His character as a general and parallel to Napoleon
402
Daring and skill with which he extricated himself from dangers ib 31 Early life of Frederick the Great
403
His accession to the throne and vigorous application to its duties
404
His aggression on and conquest of Silesia and first victory at Mollwitz
405
His glorious successes over the Austrians
406
Who are at length obliged to make peace
407
His decided and indomitable character already appears
408
His great services to his kingdom during the next ten years of peace
409
Coalition of Austria Russia France Saxony and Sweden agaiuBt Prussia ib 39 Frederick invades Saxony and conquers that country
410
Great effects of this stroke
411
He defeats the Austrians at Prague and is defeated at Kolin ib 42 Desperate situation of the Prussian monarchy
412
Fredericks marvellous victories at Rosbach and Leuthen
413
Disasters sustained by his troops in other quarters and victory of Zorndorf
414
Fredericks defeat at Hohonkirchen
415
Terrible battle of Cunnersdorf in which Frederick is defeated
416
Overwhelming misfortunes in other quarters ib 48 Victory of Frederick over Laudon at Liegnitz
417
Dreadful battle and victory of the Prussians at Torgau to 50 Desperate state of Prussia at this time
418
Operations in the camp of Bunzelwitz in 1761
419
The death of the Empress of Russia restores his affairs
420
Wonderful result of the struggle
421
His character as a general
422
Comparison of Frederick and Napoleon
423
Their points of resemblance
424
Of Marlborough and Wellington ib 58 Points in which their situations differed
426
Great superiority of force with which Wellington had to contend
427
Marlborough made moro use of cavalry than Wellingtonand why
430
Napoleons and Hannibals opinion of cavalry
431
Marlborough was more successful than Wellington in sieges
432
Causes of this circumstance ib 67 Great and remarkable land triumphs of England over France
433
Long series of laud disasters sustained by Franco from England
434
What have been the causes of this ?
436
Value of contemporary correspondence in establishing historic truth
437
Its vast effect on Marlboroughs memory ib Index
439
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