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and whose sites cannot now be ascertained. Another great destruction of them has been effected by the changing of the course of rivers.

There are various opinions about the uses for which these ancient remains were constructed: while some of them are too much like modern fortifications to admit of a doubt of their having been used for defences, others, nearly similar in design, from their situation entirely exclude the adoption of such an opinion. Hence we find four kinds of remains formed of earth: two kinds of mounds or barrows, and two which have been viewed as fortifications. The barrows or burial piles are distinguished by such as contain articles which were inhumed with the dead, and those which do not contain them. From what cause they differ in this respect it is difficult to determine. Some have supposed the former to contain bones only of warriors, but in such mounds the bones of infants are found, and hence that hypothesis is overthrown; and indeed an hypothesis can scarcely be raised upon any one matter concerning them without almost a positive assurance that it has been created to be destroyed.

As a specimen of the contents of the mounds generally, the following may be taken; being such as Dr. Drake found in those he examined:- 1. Cylindrical stones, such as jasper, rock-crystal, and granite; with a groove near one end. 2. A circular piece of cannel coal, with a large opening in the centre, as though made for the reception of an axis; and a deep groove in the circumference, suitable for a band. 3. A smaller article of the same shape, but composed of polished argillaceous earth. 4. A bone, ornamented with several carved lines, supposed by some to be hieroglyphics. 5. A sculptural representation of the head and beak of some rapacious bird. 6. Lumps of lead ore. 7. Isinglass (mica membranacea). This article is very common in mounds, and seems to have been held in high estimation among the people that constructed them; but we know not that modern Indians have any particular attachment to it. A superior article, though much like it, was also in great esteem atnong the ancient Mexicans. 8. Small pieces of sheet copper, with perforations. 9. Larger oblong pieces of the same metal, with longitudinal grooves and ridges. 10. Beads, or sections of small hollow cylinders, apparently of bone or shell. 11. Teeth of carnivorous animals. 12. Large marine shells, belonging, perhaps, to the genus buccinum; cut in such a manner as to serve for domestic utensils. These, and also the teeth of animals, are generally found almost entirely decomposed, or in a state resembling chalk. 13. Earthern ware. This seems to have been made of the same material as that employed by the Indians of Louisiana within our recollection, viz. pounded muscle and other river shells, and earth. Some perfect articles have been found, but they are rare. Pieces, or fragments, are very common. Upon most of them, confused lines are traced, which doubtless had some meaning; but no specimen has yet been found having glazing upon it like modern pottery. Some entire vases, of most uncouth appearance, have been found. Mr. Atwater of Ohio, who has pretty fully described the western antiquities, gives an account of a vessel, which seems to have been used as a jug. It was found in an ancient work on Cany Fork of Cumberland River, about four feet below the surface. The body of the vessel is made by three heads, all joined together at their backs. From these places of contact a neck is formed, which rises about three inches above the heads. The orifice of this neck is near two inches in diameter, and the three necks of the heads form the legs of the vessel on which it stands when upright. The heads are all of a size, being about four inches from the top to the chin. The faces at the eyes are about three inches broad, which increase in breadth all the way to the chin.

Of the works called fortifications, though already mentioned in general terms, their importance demands a further consideration.

At Piqua, on the western side of the Great Miami, there is a circular wall of earth inclosing a space of about 100 feet in diameter, with an opening on the side most remote from the river. “The adjacent hill

, at the distance of nalf a mile, and at the greater elevation of about 100 feet, is the site of a stone wall, nearly circular, and inclosing perhaps 20 acres. The valley of the river on one side, and a deep ravine on the other, render the access to three fourths of this fortification extremely difficult. The wall was carried generally along



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the brow of the hill, in one place descending a short distance so as to include a spring. The silicious limestone of which it was built, must have been transported from the bed of the river, which, for two miles opposite these works, does not at present afford one of 10 pounds weight. They exhibit no marks of the hammer, or any other tool. The wall was laid up without mortar, and is now in ruins.

“ Lower down the same river, near the mouth of Hole's Creek, on the plain, there are remains of great extent. The principal wall or bank, which is of earth, incloses about 160 acres, and is in some parts nearly 12 feet high. Also below Hamilton, there is a fortification upon the top of a high hill, out of view from the river, of very difficult approach. This incloses about 50 acres. Adjacent to this work is a mound 25 feet in diameter at its base, and about seven feet perpendicular altitude.

“On the elevated point of land above the confluence of the Great Miami and Ohio, there are extensive and complicated traces, which, in the opinion of military men, eminently qualified to judge, are the remains of very strong defensive works.”

In the vicinity of Milford, on the Little Miami, are fortifications, the largest of which are upon the top of the first hill above the confluence of the East Fork with the Miami. “On the opposite side of the Miami River, above Round Bottom, are similar antiquities of considerable extent. On the East Fork, at its head waters, other remains have been discovered, of which the principal bears a striking resemblance to those above mentioned; but within, it differs from any which have yet been examined in this quarter, in having nine parallel banks or long parapets united at one end, exhibiting very exactly the figure of a gridiron.

“Further up the Little Miami, at Deerfield, are other interesting remains ; but those which have attracted more attention than any others in the Miami country, are situated six miles from Lebanon, above the mouth of Todd's

rk, an eastern branch of the Miami. On the summit of a ridge at least 200 feet above the valley of the river, there are two irregular trapezoidal figures, connected at a point where the ridge is very much narrowed by a ravine. The wall, which is entirely of earth, is generally eight or ten feet high ; but in one place, where it is conducted over level ground for a short distance, it rises to 18. Its situation is accurately adjusted to the brow of the hill; and as there is, in addition to the Miami on the west, deep ravines on the north, the southeast, and south, it is a position of great strength. The angles in this wall, both retreating and salient, are numerous, and generally acute. The openings or gateways are not less than 80! They are rarely at equal distances, and are sometimes within two or three rods of one another. They are not opposite to, or connected with any existing artificial objects or topographical peculiarities, and present, therefore, a paradox of some difficulty.” These works inclose almost 100 acres, and one of the state roads from Cincinnati to Chillicothe passes over its northern part.

On Paint Creek, 10 miles from Chillicothe, are also very extensive as well as wonderful works. “ The wall, which had been conducted along the verge of the hill, is by estimation about a mile and a half in length. It was formed entirely of undressed freestone, brought chiefly from the streams 250 feet below, and laid up without mortar or cement of any sort. It is now, like all the walls of a similar kind which have been discovered in the western country, in a state of ruins. It exhibits the appearance of having been shaken down by an earthquake, not a single stone being found upon another in such a manner as to indicate that to have been its situation in the wall. In several places there are openings, immediately opposite which, inside, lie piles of stone."

Dr. Harris, in 1803, very accurately described the remains at Marietta, at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers. “The largest SQUARE FORT,” he observes, “ by some called the town, contains 40 acres, encompassed by a wall of earth from 6 to 10 feet high, and from 25 to 36 in breadth at the base. On each side are three openings at equal distances, resembling 12 gateways. The entrances at the middle are the largest, particularly that on the side next the Muskingum. From this outlet is a COVERT WAY, formed of two parallel walls of earth, 231 feet distant from each other, measuring from centre to centre. The walls at the most elevated part on the inside are 21 feet in height, and 42 in breadth at the base, but on the outside average only of five feet high. This forms a passage of about 360 feet in length, leading by a gradual descent to the low grounds, where it, probably, at the time of its construction, reached the margin of the river. Its walls commence at 60 feet from the ramparts of the fort, and increase in elevation as the way descends tawards the river; and the bottom is crowned in the centre, in the manner of a well-formed turnpike road. Within the walls of the fort, at the north-west corner, is an oblong, elevated square, 188 feet long, 132 broad, and nine feet high; level on the summit, and nearly perpendicular at the sides. At the centre of each of the sides the earth is projected, forming gradual ascents to the top, equally regular, and about six feet in width. Near the south wall is another elevated square, 150 feet by 120, and eight feet high. At the southeast corner is the third elevated square, 108 by 54 feet, with ascents at the ends. At the south-east corner of the fort is a semicircular parapet, crowned with a mound, which guards the opening in the wall. Towards the south-east is A SIMILAR FORT, containing 20 acres, with a gateway in the centre of each side and at each corner. These openings are defended with circular mounds."

There are also other works at Marietta, but a mere description of them cannot interest, as there is so much of sameness about them. And to describe all that may be met with would fill a volume of no moderate size : for Dr. Harris says, “ You cannot ride 20 miles in any direction without finding some of the mounds, or vestiges of the ramparts." We shall, therefore, only notice the most prominent.

Of first importance are doubtless the works upon the Scioto. The most magnificent is situated 26 miles south from Columbus, and consists of two nearly exact figures, a circle and a square, which are contiguous to each other. A town, having been built within the former, appropriately received the name of Circleville from that circumstance. According to Mr. Atwater, who has surveyed these works with great exactness and attention, the circle was originally 11384 feet in diameter, from external parallel tangents, and the square was 907) feet upon a side; giving an area to the latter of 3025 square rods, and to the circle 3739 nearly; both making almost 44 acres.

The rampart of the circular fort consists of two parallel walls, and were, at least in the opinion of my author, 20 feet in height, measuring from the bottom of the ditch between the circumvallations, before the town of Circleville was built. " The inner wall was of clay, taken up probably in the northern part of the fort, where was a low place, and is still considerably lower than any other part of the work. The outside wall was taken from the ditch which is between these walls, and is alluvial, consisting of pebbles worn smooth in water and sand, to a very considerable depth, more than 50 feet at least.” At the time Mr. Atwater wrote his account, (about 1819,) the outside of the walls was but about five or six feet high, and the ditch not more than 15 feet deep. The walls of the square fort were, at the same time, about 10 feet high. This fort had eight gateways or openings, about 20 feet broad, each of which was defended by a mound four or five feet high, all within the fort, arranged in the most exact manner; equidistant and parallel. The circular fort had but one gateway, which was at its south-east point, and at the place of contact with the square. In the centre of the square was a remarkable mound, with a semicircular pavement adjacent to its eastern half, and nearly facing the passage way into the square fort. Just without the square fort, upon the north side, and to the east of the centre gateway, rises a large mound. In the opposite point of the compass, without the circular one, is another. These, probably, were the places of burial. As the walls of the square fort lie pretty pearly in a line with the cardinal points of the horizon, some have supposed they were originally projected in strict regard to them; their variation not being more than that of the compass; but a single fact of this kind can establish nothing, as mere accident may have given them such direction. " What surprised me,” says my authority, “ on measuring these forts, was the exact manner in which they had laid down their circle and square; so that after every effort, by the most careful survey, to detect some error in their measures ment, we found that it was impossible.”



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As it is not my design to waste time in conjectures upon the authors of these antiquities, or the remoteness of the period in which they were constructed, I will continue my account of them, after an observation upon a single circumstance. I refer to the fact of the immense trees found growing upon the mounds and other ancient works. Their having existed for a thousand years, or at least some of them, can scarcely be questioned, when we know from unerring data that trees have been cut upon them of the age of near 500 years; and from the vegetable mould out of which they spring, there is every appearance of several generations of decayed trees of the same kind; and no forest trees of the present day appear older than those upon the very works under consideration.

There are in the Forks of Licking River, above Newark, in the county of Licking, very remarkable remains of antiquity, said by many to be as much so as any in the west. Here, as at Circleville, the same singular fact is observable, respecting the openings into the forts; the square ones having several, but the round ones only one, with a single exception.

Not far below Newark, on the south side of the Licking, are found numerous wells or holes in the earth. “ There are,” says Mr. Atwater," at least a thousand of them, many of which are now more than 20 feet deep.” Though called wells, my author says they were not dug for that purpose. They have the appearance of being of the same age as the mounds, and were doubtless made by the same people ; but for what purpose they could have been made, few seem willing to hazard a conjecture.

Four or five miles to the north-west of Somerset, in the county of Perry, and southwardly from the works on the Licking, is a stone fort, inclosing about 40 acres. Its shape is that of a heart, though bounded by straight lines. In or near its centre is a circular stone mound, which rises like a sugar-loaf from 12 to 15 feet. Near this large work is another small fort, whose walls are of earth, inclosing but about half an acre. I give these the name of forts, although Mr. Alwater says he does not believe they were ever constructed for defence.

There are curious remains on both sides of the Ohio, above and opposite the mouth of the Scioto. Those on the north side, at Portsmouth, are the most extensive, and those on the other side, directly opposite Alexandria, are the most regular. They are not more remarkable than many already described.

What the true height of these ruined works originally was, cannot be very well ascertained, as it is almost impossible to know the rate of their diminution, even were the space of time given ; but there can be no doubt that most of them are much diminished from the action of tempests which have swept over them for ages. That they were the works of a different race from the present Indians, has been pretty confidently asserted ; but as yet, proof is entirely wanting to support such conclusion. In a few instances, some European articles have been found deposited in or about some of the works; but few persons of intelligence pronounce them older than others of the same kind belonging to the period of the French wars.

As it respects inscriptions upon stones, about which much has been said and written, I am of the opinion, that such are purely Indian, if they were not made by some white maniac, as some of them most unquestionably have been, or other persons who deserve to be classed among such; but I would not be understood to include those of South America, for there the inhabitants evidently had a hieroglyphic language. Among the inscriptions upon stone in New England, the “ Inscribed Rock," as it is called, at Dighton, Mass., is doubtless the most remarkable. It is in Taunton River, about six miles below the town of Taunton, and is partly immersed by the tide. If this inscription was made by the Indians, it doubtless had some meaning to it; but I doubt whether any of them, except such as happened to know what it was done for, knew any thing of its import. The divers faces, figures of half-formed animals, and zigzag lines, occupy a space of about 20 square feet. The whimsical conjectures of many persons about the origin of the inscription might amuse, but could not instruct; and it would be a waste of time to give an account of them.

A stone, once thought to contain some marvellous inscription, was deposited a few years since in the Antiquarian Hall, at Worcester, Mass.; and it was with some surprise, that, on examining it, I found nothing but a few lines of quartz upon one of its surfaces. The stone was singular in no respect beyond what may be found in half the farmers' fields and stone fences in New England.

In a cave on the bank of the Ohio River, about 20 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, called Wilson's or Murderer's Cave, are figures engraven upon stone, which have attracted great attention. It was very early possessed by one Wilson, who lived in it with his family. He at length turned robber, and, collecting about 40 other wretches like himself about him, took all the boats which passed on the river with any valuable goods in them, and murdered the crews. He was himself murdered by one of his own gang, to get the reward which was offered for his apprehension. Never having had any drawings of the hieroglyphics in this cave, we cannot form any very conclusive opinion upon them. As a proof of their antiquity, it has been mentioned, that among those unknown characters are many figures of animals not known now to be in existence; but in my opinion, this is in no wise a conclusive argument of their antiquity; for the same may be said of the uncouth figures of the Indian manitos of the present day, as well as those of the days of Powhatan.

At Harmony, on the Mississippi, are to be seen the prints of two feet imbedded in hard limestone. The celebrated Rappe conveyed the stone containing them from St. Louis, and kept it upon his premises to show to travellers. They are about the size of those made by a common man of our times, unaccustomed to shoes. Some conclude them to be remains of high antiquity. They may, or may not be: there are arguments for and against such conclúsion; but on which side the weight of argument lies is a matter not easily to be settled. If these impressions of feet were made in the soft earth before it was changed into fossil stone, we should not expect to find impressions, but a formation filling them of another kind of stone (called organic) from that in which the impressions were made; for thus do organic remains discover themselves, and not by their absence.

A review of the theories and opinions concerning the race or races anterior to the present race of Indians would perhaps be interesting to many, and it would be a pleasing subject to write upon : but, as I have elsewhere intimated, my only object is to present facts as I find them, without wasting time in commentaries; unless where deductions cannot well be avoided without leaving the subject more obscure than it would evidently be without them.

Every conjecture is attended with objections when they are hazarded upon a subject that cannot be settled. It is time enough to argue a subject of the nature of this we are upon when all the facts are collected. To write volumes about Shem, Ham, and Japhet, in connection with a few isolated facts, is a most ludicrous and worse than useless business. Some have said, it is an argument that the first population came from the north, because the works of which we have been speaking increase in importance as we proceed south; but why they should not begin until the people who constructed them had arrived within 40° of the equator, (for this seems to be their boundary north,) it is not stated. Perhaps this people came in by way of the St. Lawrence, and did not need any works to defend them before arriving at the 40° of north latitude. The reader will readily enough ask, perhaps, For what purpose could fortifications have been built by the first people ? To defend themselves from wild beasts, or from one another? With this matter, however, we have nothing to do, but were led to these remarks, preparatory to a comparison be tween the antiquities of the north with those of the south.

On the other hand, it is said the original people of North America must have come from the south, and that their progress northward is evident from the same works; with this difference, that as the people advanced, they dwindled into insignificance; and hence the remains which they left are proportionate to their ability to make them. But there is nothing artificial among the ancient ruins of North America that will compare with the artificial mountain of Anahuac, called Cholula, or Chlolula, which to this day is about 164 feet in perpendicular height, whose base occupies a square, the sides of which measure 1450

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