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warriors had generally escaped to the mountains and deserts. Thus far, the campaign had been prosperous with the whites, but three or four men having been killed; but it had no other effect upon the Indians than to increase their rage.
Meanwhile, Fort Prince George had been closely invested, and Colonel Montgomery marched to its relief. From this place, two friendly chiefs were despatched to the middle settlements, to offer peace to the people there, and orders were sent to those in command at Fort Loudon, to use means to bring about an accommodation with the Upper Towns; but the Indians would not hear to any terms, and Colonel Montgomery was constrained to march again to find the enemy. He had now the most difficult part of his service to perform. The country through which he had to march was covered by dark thickets, numerous deep ravines, and high river banks; where a small number of men might distress and wear out the best appointed army.
Having arrived within five miles of Etchoe, the nearest town of the middle settlements, the army was attacked on the 27 June, in a most advantageous place for the attacking party. It was a low valley, in which the bushes were so thick, that the soldiers could see scarcely three yards before them; and in the bottom of this valley flowed a muddy river, with steep clay banks. Through this place the army must march. Rightly judging the enemy had not omitted so important a pass, Colonel Montgomery ordered out a company of rangers, under Captain Morrison, to enter the ravine and make discovery. No sooner had he entered it, but the fierce war-whoop was raised, and the Indians darted from covert to covert, at the same time firing upon the whites. Captain Morrison was immediately shot down, and his men closely engaged; but, being without delay supported by the infantry and grenadiers, they were able to maintain their ground, and the battle became obstinate; nor could the Indians be dislodged, until near an hour of hard fighting. In the mean time, the Royal Scots took possession of a place between the Indians and a rising ground on their right, while the Highlanders sustained the light infantry and grenadiers on the left. As the left became too warm for them, and not well understanding the position of the Royal Scots, the Indians, in their retreat, fell in with them, and were sharply encountered; but they soon effected their retreat to a hill, and could no more be brought to action. In this fight, 96 of the whites were killed and wounded, of whom 20 were of the former number. Of the Cherokees, 40 were said to have been killed.
The Indians had now been driven from one ravine, with a small loss; but Colonel Montgomery was in no condition to pursue his advantage farther, and he therefore, after destroying so much of his provisions as would afford horses for the wounded, began his retreat out of the Indian country, and, in obedience to his commission, soon after returned to New York; not, however, without leaving 400 men for the security of the province. But it was soon seen, that what had yet been done only increased the rage of the Indians, and their depredation continued at the very heels of the retreating army. They immediately cut off all communication with Fort Loudon, which was garrisoned with 200 men.* Ockonostota, with his numerous warriors, kept strict watch, insomuch that there was no means of escape. At length, the garrison having miserably subsisted, for some time, upon poor famished horses, dogs, &c., many of them became resolved to throw themselves into the power of the Indians, wishing rather to die by their hands, than miserably to perish within their fortress. Captain Steuart, an officer among them, was well known to the Indians, and possessed great address and sagacity. He resolved, at this crisis, to repair to Chote, the residence of Očkonostota, and make overtures for the surrender of the garrison. He, accordingly, effected his object, and returned with articles of capitulation agreed upon. Besides the names of Ockonostota and Paul Demere, the commander of the garrison, the name of another chief was to the articles, called Cunigacatgoae. The articles stipulated, that the garrison should march
* The Cherokees were now supposed to number 3000 warriors, and it was daily expected that the Chocktaws were about to join them.
OCKONOSTOTA.-MASSACRE OF THE ENGLISH.
out with their arms and drums, each soldier having as much powder and ball as his officers should think necessary, and that they should march fc: Virginia unmolested.
Accordingly, on 7 August, 1760, the English took up their march for Fort Prince George. They had proceeded but about 15 miles, when they encamped, for the night, upon a small plain near Taliquo. They were accompanied thus far by Ockonostota in person, and many others, in a friendly manner, but at night they withdrew without giving any notice. The army was not molested during the night, but, at dawn of day, a sentinel came running into camp with the information that a host of Indians were creeping up to surround them. Captain Demere had scarce time to rally, before the Indians broke into his camp with great fury. The poor emaciated soldiers made but feeble resistance. Thirty of their number fell in the first onset, among whom was their captain. Those that were able, endeavored to save themselves by flight, and others surrendered themselves upon the place. This massacre, it will not be forgotten, was in retaliation for that of the hostages already related. Among the prisoners was Captain Steuert. They were conducted to Fort Loudon, which now became Ockonostota's head-quarters.
Attakullakulla, learning that his friend Steuart was among the captives, proceeded immediately to Fort Loudon, where he ransomed him at the expense of all the property he could command, and took care of him with the greatest „enderness and affection.
The res:less Ockonostota next resolved to invest Fort Prince George. He was induced to undertake that project, as fortune had thrown in his way some of the means for such an undertaking, hitherto beyond his reach.
Before abdicating Fort Loudon, the English had bid in the ground several bags of powder. This his men had found. Several cannon had also been left behind, and he designed to force his English prisoners to get them through the woods, and manage them in the attack upon Fort Prince George. But Attakullakulla defeated these operations, by assisting Captain Steuart to escape. He even accompanied him to the English settlements, and returned loaded with presents.
The French were said to have had their emissaries busily employed in spiriting on the Indians. One, named Lewis Latinac, an officer, is particularly mentioned. He persuaded them that the English had nothing less in view than their total extermination, and, furnishing them with arms and ammunition, urged them to war. At a great council of the nation, after brandishing his hatchet, he struck it into a log of wood, calling out, “ Who is the man that will take this up for the king of France ?"
SALOUE or SILÒUEE, a young warrior of Estatoe, instantly laid hold of it, and cried out, “I am for war. The spirits of our brothers who have been slain, still call upon us to avenge their death. He is no better than a woman that refuses to follow me.” Others were not wanting to follow his example, and the war continued.
Silduee was a Cherokee chief, and was introduced by Mr. Jefferson, to illustrate the observation in his Notes on Virginia, that the Indian “is affectionate to bis children, careful of them, and indulgent in the extreme; that his affections comprehend his other connections, weakening, as with us, from circle to circle, as they recede from the centre ; that his friendships are strong and faithful to the uttermost extremity." “A remarkable instance of this appeared in the case of the late Col. Byrd, * who was sent to the Cherokee nation to transact some business with them. It happened that some of our disorderly people had just killed one or two of that nation. It was therefore proposed in the council of the Cherokees, that Col. Byrd should be put to death, in revenge for the loss of their countrymen. Among them was a chief called Silòuee, who, on some former occasion, had contracted an acquaintance and friendship with Col. Byrd. He came to him every night in his tent, and told him not to be afraid, they should not kill him. After many days' deliberation,
* Perhaps the same mentioned by Oldmiron, (i. 283,) who, in speaking of the Indian pow. wows, says, “one very lately conjured a shower of rain for Col. Byrd's plantation in time of drouth, for iwo bottles of rum;" and our author says he should not have believed, had he not found it in an author who was on the spot !
nowever, the determination was, contrary to Silòuee's expectation, that Byra should be put to death, and some warriors were despatched as executioners. Silouee attended them; and when they entered the tent, he threw himself between them and Byrd, and said to the warriors, “This man is my friend. before you get at him you must kill me!' On which they returned, and the council respecied the principle so much, as to recede from their determination.”
A more impolitic and barbarous measure, perhaps, never entered the heart of man, than that of offering a reward for human scalps. This was done by Virginia, as we have before related. It is true the government of Virginia was not alone in this criminal business, but that betters not her case. The door of enormity being thus opened, it was easy to have foreseen, that many men upon the frontiers, “of bad lives and worse principles," says an intelligent writer, ** stood ready to step in. As the event proved, many friendly Indians were murdered, and the government defrauded. It was at the news of a murder of this description that Colonel Byrd was seized.
Such was the condition of the country, that a second application was made to General Amherst for aid, and he promptly afforded it. Colonel James Grant arrived there early in 61, and not long after took the field with force of English and Indians, announting to about 2600 men. He traversed the Cherokee country, and subdued that people in a hard-fought battle, near the same place where Colonel Montgomery was attacked the year before. It lasted about three hours, in which about 60 whites were killed and wounded. The Joss of the Indians was unknown. Colonel Grant ordered bis dead to be sunk in the river, that the Indians might not find them, to practise upon them their barbarities. He then proceeded to the destruction of their towns, 15 in number, which he accomplished without molestation. [ Peace was at last effected by the mediation of Attakullakulla. This chief's residence was upon the Tennessee or Cherokee River, at what was called the Overhill Towns. In 1773, when the learned traveller, Bartram, travelled into the Cherokee country, he met the old chief on his way to Charleston; of which circumstance he speaks thus in his Travels :—“Soon after crossing this large branch of the Tanase, 1 observed descending the heights, at some distance, a company of Indians, all well mounted on horseback. They came rapidly forward ; on their nearer approach, I observed a chief at the head of the caravan, and apprehending hini to be the Little-carpenter, emperor or grand chief of the Cherokees, as they came up, I turned off from the path to make way, in token of respect, which compliment was accepted, and gratefully and magnanimously reiurned ; for bis highness, with a gracious and cheerful smile, came up to me, and clapping his hand on his breast, offered it to me, saying, I am Ata-cul-culla, and heartily shook hands with me, and asked me if I knew it; I answered, that the good spirit who goes before me spoke to me, and said, that is the great Ata-cul-culla.” Mr. Bartram added, that he was of Pennsylvania, and though that was a great way off, yet the name of Attakullakulla was dear to his white brothers of Pennsylvania. The chief then asked him if he came directly from Charleston, and if his friend “John Stewart were well.” Mr. Bartram said he saw him lately, and that he was well. This was, probably, the same person whom Altakullakulla had assisted to make an escape, as we have just related.
Il carrying out the history of the two chiefs, Attakullakulla and Ockonostotu, we have omitted to notice Chlucco, better known by the name of the Longwarrior, king or mico of the Seminoles. He went out with Colonel Montgomery, and rendered bim essential service in his unsuccessful expedition, of which we have spoken. A large band of Creeks accompanied him, and there is but little doubt, if it had not been for him and his warriors, few of the English would have returned to their friends. But, as usual, the English leader, in his time, had all the honor of successfully encountering many difficulties, and returning with his own life and many of his men's. It was by the aid of Chlucco, that the army escaped ambush after ambush, destroyed many of the Cherokee villages, and finally his warriors covered its retreat out of one of the lost dangerous countries through which an army could pass. Long-warrior was what the New England Indians termed a great powwow. That he was
Annual Register, iv. 58 ; Hewatt, ii. 218–51. 380
a man possessing a good mind, may fairly be inferred from his ability to withstand the temptation of intoxicating liquors. He had been known to remain sober, when all his tribe, and many whites among them, had all been wallowing in the mire of drunkenness together. In the year 1773, at the head of about 40 warriors, he marched against the Chocktaws of West Florida. What was the issue of this expedition we have not learned. We may have again occasion to notice Chlucco.
MoncachTape, the Yazoo-Narrative of his adventures to the Pacific Ocean—GRAND
SUN, chief of the Natchez-Receives great injustice from the French-Concerts their destruction—700 French are cut off —War with them— The Natchez destroyed in their turn-GREAT-MORTAR-MÄGILLIVRAY-His birth and education-Visits New York – Troubles of his nation-His death—TamF-KING-Man-dog.
MONCACHTAPE was a Yazoo, whose name signified, in the language of that nation, killer of pain and fatigue. How well he deserved this name, the sequel will unfold. He was well known to the historian Du Pratz, about 1760, and it was owing to his singular good intelligence, that that traveller was able to add much valuable information to his work." This man (says Du Pratz *) was remarkable for his solid understanding and elevation of sentiment; and I may justly compare him to those first Greeks, who travelled chiefly into the east, to examine the manners and customs of different nations, and to communicate to their fellow citizens, upon their return, the knowledge which they had acquired." He was known to the French by the name of the Interpreter, as he could communicate with several other nations, having gained a knowledge of their languages. Monsieur Du Pratz used great endeavors among the nations upon the Mississippi, to learn their origin, or from whence they came; and observes concerning it, “All that I could learn from them was, that they came from between the north and the sun-setting; and this account they uniformly adhere to, whenever they give any account of their origin.” This was unsatisfactory to him, and in his exertions to find some one that could inform him better, he met with Moncachtape. The following is the result of his communications in his own words :
“I had lost my wife, and all the children whom I had by her, when I undertook my journey towards the sun-rising. I set out from my village contrary to the inclination of all my relations, and went first to the Chicasaws, our friends and neighbors. I continued among them several days, to inform myself whether they knew whence we all came, or, at least, whence they themselves came; they, who were our elders; since from them came the language of the country. As they could not inform me, I proceeded on my journey. I reached the country of the Chaouanous, and afterwards went up the Wabash, or Ohio, near to its source, which is in the country of the Iroquois, or Five Nations. I left them, however, towards the north ; and, during the winter, which, in that country, is very severe and very long, I lived in a village of the Albenaquis, where I contracted an acquaintance with a man somewhat older than myself, who promised to conduct me, the following spring, to the great water. Accordingly, when the snows were melted, and the weatber was settled, we proceeded eastward, and, after several days' journey, 1 at length saw the great water, which filled me with such joy and admiration, that I could not speak. Night drawing on, we took up our lodging on a high bank above the water, which was sorely vexed by the wind, and made so great a noise that I could not sleep. Next day, the ebbing and flowing of the water filled me with great apprehension ; but my companion quieted my fears, by assuring me that the water observed certain bounds, both in advancing and retiring. Having satisfied our curiosity in viewing the great water, we returned to the village of the Abenaquis, where I continued the following winter; and, after the snows were melted, my companion and I went and viewed the great fall of the River St. Lawrence, at Niagara, which was distant from the village severa days' journey. The view of this great fall, at first, made my hair stand on end, and my heart almost leap out of its place; but afterwards, before I left it, i had the courage to walk under it. Next day, we took the shortest road to the Ohio, and my companion and I, cutting down a tree on the banks of the river we formed it into a pettiaugre, which served to conduct me down the Ohio and the Mississippi, after which, with much difficulty, I went up our small river, and at length arrived safe among my relations, who were rejoiced to see me in good health.-This journey, instead of satisfying, only served to excite my curiosity. Our old men, for several years, had told me that the ancient speech informed them that the red men of the north came originally much bigher and much farther than the source of the River Missouri ; and, as I had longed to see, with my own eyes, the land from whence our first fathers came, I took my precautions for my journey westwards. Having provided a small quantity of corn, I proceeded up along the eastern bank of the River Mississippi, till I came to the Ohio. I went up along the bank of this last river, about the fourth part of a day's journey, that I might be able to cross it without being carried into the Mississippi. There I forined a cajeux, or raft of canes, by the assistance of which I passed over the river; and next day meeting with a herd of buffaloes in the meadows, I killed a fat one, and took from it the fillets, the bunch, and the tongue. Soon after, I arrived among the Tamaroas, a village of the nation of the Illinois, where I rested several days, and then proceeded northwards to the mouth of the Missouri, which, after it enters the great river, rims for a considerable time without intermixing its muddy waters with the clear stream of the other. Having crossed the Mississippi, I went up the Missouri, along its northern bank, and, after several days' journey, I arrived at the nation of the Missouris, where I staid a long time to learn the language that is spoken beyond them. In going along the Missouri, I passed through meadows a whole day's journey in length, which were quite covered with buffaloes.
* Hist. Louisiana, ii. 121.
“ When the cold was past, and the snows were melted, I continued my journey up along the Missouri, till I came to the nation of the west, or the Čanzas. Afterwards, in consequence of directions from them, I proceeded in the same course near 30 days, and at length I met with some of the nation of the Otters, who were hunting in that neighborhood, and were surprised to see me alone. I continued with the hunters two or three days, and then accompanied one of them and his wife, who was near her time of lying in, to their village, which Jay far off betwixt the north and west. We continued our journey along the Missouri for nine days, and then we marched directly northwards for five days more, when we came to the fine river, which runs westward in a direction contrary to that of the Missouri. We proceeded down this river a whole day, and then arrived at the village of the Otters, who received me with as much kindness as if I had been of their own nation. A few days after, I joined a party of the Otters, who were going to carry a calumet of peace to a nation beyond them, and we embarked in a pettiaugre, and went down the river for 18 days, landing now and then to supply ourselves with provisions. When I arrived at the nation who were at peace with the Otters, I staid with them till the cold was passed, that I might learn their language, which was common to most of the nations that lived beyond them.
“The cold was hardly gone, when I again embarked on the fine river, and in my course I met with several nations, with whom I generally staid but one night, till I arrived at the nation that is but one day's journey from the great water on the west. This nation live in the woods about the distance of a league from the river, from their apprehension of bearded men, who come upon their coasts in floating villages, and carry off their children to make slaves of them. These men were described to be white, with long black heards that came down to their breast ; they were thick and short, had large heads, which were covered with cloth ; they were always dressed, even in the greatest heats; their clothes fell down to the middle of their legs, which, with