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1230. How is tartaric acid prepared, and what is the action on it of (a) oxidizing agents, (6) caustic potash ?

1231. What is the formula of tartar emetic? What percentage of carbon does it contain ?

1232. Describe the isomeric modifications of tartaric acid.

TRIBASIC ACIDS.

1233. Give a short account of the natural occurrence of citric acid, and describe how the acid is manufactured.

1234. What different products are obtained by heating citric acid ?

1235. What is tricarballylic acid, and how is it related to citric acid ?

1236. If 0-276 gramme of citric acid were used in an organic analysis, what weight of carbon dioxide and of water should be obtained ?

1237. What is the action of chlorine on citric acid ?

1238. By what reactions is citric acid recognised and distinguished from tartaric acid ?

BENZOL AND ITS DERIVATIVES,

1239. How has benzol been prepared synthetically?

1240. How is benzol obtained from coal-tar ? How is it purified ?

1241. 7.892 grammes of benzoic acid are heated with excess of lime. What reaction occurs, and how much of the product is obtained ?

1242. What products are obtained by passing alcohol vapour through a red-hot tube ?

1243. How would you ascertain the presence of benzol vapour in coal-gas?

1244. Draw the graphic formula of benzol.

1245. What is the action on benzol of (a) sulphuric acid, (6) nitric acid, (c) bromine?

1246. What is aniline? How is it prepared and purified ? What is the action of hydrochloric acid on aniline ?

1247. What is toluidine, and how is it related to aniline ?

1248. What is oil of bitter almonds ? To what class of bodies does it belong ?

1249. Give a short account of the preparation of a few of the most important coal-tar colours.

AMINES AND AMIDES.

1250. How are amines distinguished from amides ?

1251. Describe the preparation of ethylamine, diethylamine, and triethylamine.

1252. Point out the resemblances between ammonia and the amines.

1253. What is the action of ammonia on ethyl iodide and of potash on the product? Give equations.

1254. What is the action of nitrous acid on the amines ? Give an example.

1255. To what class of organic bodies does urea belong? Give reasons for placing it in this class.

1256. How much urea when treated with nitrous acid should evolve 179 C.C. of nitrogen at N.T.P. ?

1257. Give the formula for acetamide. Describe its preparation and reactions.

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