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MONOBASIC ACIDS.

1194. How does formic acid occur in nature ? How may it be produced from inorganic materials? Give two methods.

1195. How is formic acid prepared in quantity and obtained anhydrous ?

1196. What occurs (a) when sodium formate is heated, (6) when a formate is heated with sulphuric acid, (c) when formic acid is heated with mercuric oxide, (d) when chlorine acts on formic acid, (e) when calcium formate is distilled ? Give equations for each reaction.

1197. How would you prepare ammonium formate ? What occurs when it is heated ?

1198. What occurs when potassium hydrate acts on chloroform ? Give an equation.

1199. How are hydrocyanic and formic acids related to each other?

1200. How is pyroligneous acid prepared and purified ? By what other names is the substance known?

1201. How may acetic acid be obtained from ethyl alcohol? Give other ways for preparing the acid.

1202. Give different methods for preparing vinegar.

1203. What weight of acetic acid would be required to neutralize exactly 7.892 grammes of potassium carbonate ?

1204. How is potassium biacetate prepared, and what occurs when it is heated ? Give an example of a similar reaction with an inorganic salt.

1205. What is the action of chlorine and of phosphorus trichloride on acetic acid ? Give equations.

1206. Give the formulæ of the following bodies : (a) silver acetate, (6) ethyl acetate, (c) potassium mono-chloracetate, (d) lead acetate, (e) acetyl chloride, (f) acetic anhydride, (g) acetamide.

1207. You are provided with bromine, acetic acid, sulphuric acid, and potassium cyanide, how would you prepare cyanacetic acid ? Give its formula, and state how a dibasic organic acid may be obtained from it.

1208. How may propionic acid be prepared starting with acetic acid ?

1209. How is lactic acid related to (a) propionic acid, (6) malonic acid, (c) glycollic acid ?

1210. Give a short account of the isomers of lactic acid, and explain their constitution by graphic formulæ.

1211. Give several methods for preparing lactic acid, and state which method you would adopt for obtaining large quantities of it.

1212. How is benzoic acid prepared ? In what respects do its reactions and preparation resemble those of acetic acid ?

1213. What occurs when benzoic acid is heated with lime? Give an equation.

1214. What is naphthalene, and how may benzoic acid be obtained from it?

1215. By what reactions are formic, acetic, lactic, and benzoic acids recognised ?

DIBASIC ACIDS.

1216. Write the formulæ of oxalic acid and its homo. logues up to adipic acid.

1217. How may oxalic acid be obtained starting with cyanogen and vice versâ ? How may it be obtained starting with carbon dioxide ?

1218. Give reactions (other than those referred to above) for preparing oxalic acid, and give a full account of the method adopted on the large scale.

1219. What is the action on oxalic acid of (a) heat, (6) potassium permanganate, (c) sulphuric acid, (d) potassium hydrate? Give equations.

1220. One hundred cubic centimetres of a solution of potassium permanganate are required to saturate a solution of o‘0396 gramme iron. How much of this solution is needed to decompose completely o‘873 gramme crystallized oxalic acid ?

1221. How much carbon dioxide by volume and weight should be given off by treating 6-789 grammes oxalic acid with potassium permanganate ?

1222. State fully what occurs when a solution of potassium permanganate is added to one of oxalic acid alone, and in presence of sulphuric acid.

1223. How much carbon dioxide and monoxide can be obtained from the oxalic acid required to neutralize 19 grammes of caustic soda?

1224. How many series of salts does oxalic acid form ? Give examples of each with formulæ.

1225. Give the formula for each of the following bodies and explain how they are related to oxalic acid : (a) oxamide, (6) oxamic acid, (c) glyoxal, (d) glyoxylic acid, (e) glycollic acid.

1226. How may succinic acid be prepared (a) syntheti cally, (6) from malic acid ?

1227. How may succinic acid be obtained starting with acetic acid and vice versâ ?

1228. What is the action of hydriodic acid on tartaric acid ?

1229. By what reaction can it be proved that succinic acid contains ethylene, and how may ethylene be obtained from it?

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