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ACETYLENE.

1169. What occurs when electric sparks are passed through coal-gas? How may the body produced be collected ?

1170. How may acetylene be obtained from (a) chloroform, (6) methyl chloride, (c) coal-gas, (d) marsh-gas?

1171. What is the composition of copper acetylide, and how may pure acetylene be obtained from it?

1172. What is the action on acetylene of (a) bromine, (6) nascent hydrogen, (c) sulphuric acid, (d) heated potassium?

GLYCERINE.

1173. Explain the terms mono-di-and trihydric alcohols, and give examples of each.

1174. How is glycerine prepared on the large scale from fats? How is it purified ?

1175. How could you obtain glycerine from the hydrocarbon C,H,?

1176. What is the action on glycerine of (a) hydrochloric acid, (6) phosphorus pentachloride, (d) hydriodic acid ?

1177. How is glycerine related to (a) propyl glycol, (6) isopropylic alcohol, (c) acrolein and acrylic acid ?

ETHERS.

1178. Define the terms ethers and haloid ethers, and give examples of each derived from mono- di- and trihydric alcohols respectively.

1179. Describe fully the so-called continuous process for preparing ether, and give equations for the reactions. How is ether purified ?

1180. How may ether be prepared from sodium ethy. late ? What are mixed ethers, and how are they prepared ?

1181. How would you separate and detect each constitutent in a mixture of alcohol, ether, and water ?

1182. What occurs when sodium is dropped into (a) pure ether, (6) ether containing alcohol?

1183. What volume of oxygen is required for the complete combustion of three volumes of ether vapour ? Ether

vapour is mixed with fifty times its volume of air and exploded, what is the composition of the residual 1184. What volume of ether vapour weighs the same as (a) 1 litre of air, (6) 2 litres of chlorine, (c) 7 litres of carbon dioxide ?

gases

1185. How is methylic ether prepared ? Compare its chemical and physical properties with those of ethylic ether.

1186. What is acetic ether? Give its formula and describe its preparation.

ALDEHYDES.

1187. How are the aldehydes related to the alcohols and the acids? Give general methods for their preparation. What is the derivation of the name aldehyde ?

1188. What is the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone ? What is the action of nascent hydrogen on each ?

1189. What occurs when a mixture of acetate and formate of potassium is distilled ? How does this reaction serve for preparing the homologues of the fatty acids ? Give an example and equations for all the reactions.

1190. How is ethyl aldehyde obtained pure ? What is the action of ammonia and of alkaline bisulphites on aldehyde ?

1191. What is the action of aldehyde on silver oxide ? Give an equation.

1192. What is the percentage composition of aldehyde? Name other bodies which have the same empirical formula.

1193. What is chloral ? How is it prepared, and how is it related to aldehyde ?

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