Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

blance to that of Greece.

Discoveries respecting the Air.-Its mechanical and chemical Properties.

-Its Relation to Animals and Plants.The Winds.Meteorology.-

Sounds.-

Acoustic Phenomena.

THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF

EUROPE.

CHAPTER I.

THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST. THE THREE ATTACKS: NORTHERN OR MORAL; WESTERN OR

INTELLECTUAL; EASTERN OR MILITARY.

THE NORTHERN OR MORAL ATTACK ON THE ITALIAN SYSTEM, AND ITS

TEMPORARY REPULSE.

Geographical Boundaries of Italian Christianity.--Attacks upon it.
The Northern or moral Attack.The Emperor of Germany insists on a

reformation in the Papacy.-Gerbert, the representative of these Ideas, is made Pope. They are both poisoned by the Italians. Commencement of the intellectual Rejection of the Italian System.-It originates in the Arabian doctrine of the supremacy of Reason over

Authority. The question of Transubstantiation.-Rise and development of Scholasticism.Mutiny among the Monks. Gregory VII. spontaneously accepts and enforces a Reform in the Church,

-Overcomes the Emperor of Germany.Is on the point of establishing a European Theocracy.The Popes seize the military and monetary Resources of Europe through the Crusades.

The geogra

The realm of an idea may often be defined by geometrical lines.

If from Rome, as a centre, two lines be drawn, one of which passes eastward, and touches the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus, the other westward, and phical boundcrosses the Pyrenees, nearly all those Mediterra- aries of Latin

Christianity. nean countries lying to the south of these lines were living, at the time of which we speak, under the dogma, “ There is but one God, and Mohammed is his prophet;" but the countries to the north had added to the

« AnteriorContinuar »