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blance to that of Greece.
Discoveries respecting the Air.-Its mechanical and chemical Properties.
-Its Relation to Animals and Plants.—The Winds.—Meteorology.-
THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF
THE AGE OF FAITH IN THE WEST. THE THREE ATTACKS: NORTHERN OR MORAL; WESTERN OR
INTELLECTUAL; EASTERN OR MILITARY.
THE NORTHERN OR MORAL ATTACK ON THE ITALIAN SYSTEM, AND ITS
Geographical Boundaries of Italian Christianity.--Attacks upon it.
reformation in the Papacy.-Gerbert, the representative of these Ideas, is made Pope. They are both poisoned by the Italians. Commencement of the intellectual Rejection of the Italian System.-It originates in the Arabian doctrine of the supremacy of Reason over
Authority. The question of Transubstantiation.-Rise and development of Scholasticism.—Mutiny among the Monks. Gregory VII. spontaneously accepts and enforces a Reform in the Church,
-Overcomes the Emperor of Germany.—Is on the point of establishing a European Theocracy.—The Popes seize the military and monetary Resources of Europe through the Crusades.
The realm of an idea may often be defined by geometrical lines.
If from Rome, as a centre, two lines be drawn, one of which passes eastward, and touches the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus, the other westward, and phical boundcrosses the Pyrenees, nearly all those Mediterra- aries of Latin
Christianity. nean countries lying to the south of these lines were living, at the time of which we speak, under the dogma, “ There is but one God, and Mohammed is his prophet;" but the countries to the north had added to the