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Public Lands.

of the Treasury, made on the 10th of December themselves constrained to adopt the opinion that last, it appears that the balance due from purcha- it would be expedient to abolish the present system. sers of public lands in the State of Ohio, amount- In expressing this opinion, the Committee feel ed, exclusively of interest, on the

some diffidence. The present system was adopt1st October, 1803, to

- $1,092,390 ed on mature deliberation, so far has succeeded 1st October, 1804, to

1,434,212 very well in its operation; but, by the accumula1st October, i805, to

2,094,305 tion of debts, the evils which were dreaded, now From this statement it appears, that the debt in begin to unfold themselves, and certainly wear an the course of the two last years has nearly doubled, unpleasant aspect. and it must continue to increase, not only in pro- It is not believed that the proposed change of portion to the increase of sales, but from an accu- system will operate any serious inconvenience to mulation of arrears arising from failure in punc- persons whose circumstances furnish them any tuality of payment.

prospect of becoming purchasers. The small By a letter and statement received from the tracis in which the lands are now offered for sale, Secretary of the Treasury, and which are here place them in the reach of every person who emiunto annexed, and to be considered as part of this grates to that country with a view of purchasing; report; it appears that there was due on the 1st and unless the price should be greaily reduced, day of January last, on account of purchases moneyed capitalists will not be induced to engage made prior to the first day of January, 1801, up in that extensive speculation in land, which some wards of $229,000, which, according to law, must years since prevailed so generally in every part of be paid in the course of the present year, or the lands the country, and from which so many mischiefs be exposed to sale. This sum, as appears by the have resulted. Secretary's letter, is due from three huodred and The committee, on a full consideration of the pine persons. Although no sales have yet taken subject, are induced respectfully to submit the place, there is no doubt but some must be made, following resolution: or the lands revert to the United States, if the Resolved, Tbat it is expedient to repeal all such law is rigidly executed. A very large proportion parts of the laws respecting the sale of the public of the debtors whose lands are thus to be sold, or lands, as authorize a credit on any part of the lo revert, in the course of the present year, are no purchase money. doubt inhabitants of the State of Ohio. It appears doubtful whether under these circumstances an attempt to sell would be attended with success.

[The following letter, from the Secretary of the Trea

sury accompanies the above report.] Judging from what has happened in similar cases in other States, a strong presumption arises, that

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Mar. 28, 1806. a sale of the lands cannot be effected so as to raise Sir: I had the honor to receive your letter of the money. Few men are willing to incur the yesterday, requesting such information as may be resentment of their neighbors by bidding for their connected with the proposition to repeal so much property at public vendue, even when other neigh of the existing laws as authorizes a credit on any bors are the creditors; and when the public is part of the purchase money of the public lands. concerned, scarcely a man will be found hardy It will be seen by recurrence to the report made enough to do it. The lands will, therefore, in by this Department, on the 10th December, 1805, many instances revert to the Government, encum- (statements G and C,) that the balance due by bered by the occupancy of a tenant, who ought purchasers of public lands, in the State of Obio, to be evicted before another sale should be made. amounted, exclusively of interest, on the It might be added, that few strangers would run 1st October, 1803, to

- $1,092,390 the risk of bidding for property at a vendue, when 1st October, 1804, to

1,434.212 the united interest of the whole neighborhood 1st October, 1805, to

2,094,305 was opposed to the sale.

The debt has, therefore, been increased one Should this, on experience, prove to be the case, million of dollars, or nearly doubled in two years; and the increase of the number of debtors bear and it will every year be augmented, not only in any proportion to the increase of debt, as under proportion to the increase of sales, but also on acthe temptation held out by the present system of count of the accumulation of arrears which may credit it no doubt will, there is reason to appre- not be punctually paid. hend, that in a few years more there will be seri. It also appears, by the enclosed statement, chat ous cause of alarm, not only on account of the the sum due on the 1st of January last, for purdebt due, but even from the laods which may re- chases made prior to the year 1805, and which main unsold in that section of the Union. Strong ought to have been discharged before the end of the ly impressed as the committee are with this opin- year 1805, is, exclusively of interest, $207,409 82. ion, and believing, as they do, for the reasons as- The interest due on that sum is estimated at about signed by the Secretary of the Treasury in his $22,000; the number of persons by whom it is letter herewith submitted, that, in abolishing the due, is three hundred and nine; and it is esticredit given by the present system, and hereafter mated that the sum, including interest, which is selling the public lands for ready money only, due by persons who have paid only the first inthe actual receipts into the Treasury from this stalment, is

- $166,000 source would be very little, if at all reduced, and By persons who have paid the two first the revenue of course but little affected, they feel instalments

28,000

Expedition of Lewis and Clarke. By persons wbo have paid the three first

less injurious than a continuation of the present instalments

35,000 mode.

I will only add, that if credits shall not be al

lowed hereafter, some indulgence, in point of time, Making for principal and interest, as

may be given to those former purchasers, whose above

- $229,000 lands will otherwise be sold during the course of

this year, on account of their not having comIn every case where those arrears will not be pleted the payments within five years of the time paid at the end of five years from the date of the of purchase. Should the present system be conpurchase, (which, for the above sum, will be at tinued, a more rigid enforcement of the law will various dates, but all in the course of this year) | be necessary. I have the honor to be, &c. the land will, according to law, be sold or revert

ALBERT GALLATIN. to the United States; but there is little danger of Hon. ANDREW Gregg, Chairman, &c. that contingency taking place in cases where the two or three first instalments have already been paid. I feel no hesitation in repeating the opinion

EXPEDITION OF LEWIS AND CLARKE. which was expressed two years ago, to a commit

Communicated to Congress, February 19, 1806.] tee of the House, that sales for cash only would in every respect be preferable to the present mode. To the Senate and House of

Although no symptoms of that kind have yet Representatives of the United States : appeared, ihe accumulation of a debt of $2,000,000, In pursuance of a measure proposed to Condue by more than two thousand heads of families, gress by a Message of January 18th, one thousand and which is every day increasing in amount, and eight hundred and three, and sanctioned by their extending to a greater number of persons, may approbation for carrying it into execution, Cap. ultimately create in that section of the Union a tain Meriwether Lewis, of the first regiment of powersul interest, hostile to the Federal Govern-infantry, was appointed, with a party of men, to ment, and which would endanger both the out- explore the river Missouri

, from its mouth to its standing debt and the lands unsold.

source, and, crossing the highlands by the shortest The revenue will not be affected by the change; portage, to seek the best water communication for, although a less quantity of lands will be sold, thence to the Pacific ocean, and Lieutenant Clarke the actual receipts will continue to be in propor was appointed second in command. They were tion to the existing means of payment; for such to enter into conference with the Indian nations is the demand for the public lands, that the sales on their route, with a view to the establishare limited only by the resources of the inhabi-ment of commerce with them. They entered the tants and emigrants.

Missouri May fourteenth, one thousand eight hunNor is it believed that the measure will ulti-dred and four, and on the first of November took mately be injurious to the persons who become up their winter quarters near the Mandan towns, purchasers. Although some may thereby be pre- 1,609 miles above the mouth of the river, in lativented from purchasing, the number of actual túde 47° 21' 47" north, and longitude 99° 24' 45" delinquents shows that the credit allowed often west from Greenwich. On the eighth of April, induces individuals to make purchases beyond one thousand eight bundred and five, they protheir means, and not less prejudicial to themselves ceeded up the river in pursuance of the objects than to the public. It must also be observed, that, prescribed to them. A letter of the preceding though the dominal price on which lands are sold day, April seventh, from Captain Lewis, is hereon credit, be two dollars per acre, the cash price, with communicated. During his stay among the supposing the whole payment to be made at the Mandans, he had been able to lay down the Mistime of the purchase, is only (on account of the souri, according to the courses and distances taken discount of eight per cent. a year on the three last on bis passage up it, corrected by frequent obserinstalments, which is allowed for prompt pay- vations of longitude and latitude; and to add to ment,) one dollar and sixty-four cents per acre. the actual survey of this portion of the river, a A quarter section, containing one hundred and general map of the country between the Mississippi sixty acres, will, therefore, cost only two hundred and Pacific, from the thirty-fourth to the fifty. and sixty-two dollars and forty cents. Prior to fourth degrees of latitude. These additions are the act which authorized the sales of land in from information collected from Indians with quarter sections, no man could become a purcha- whom he had opportunities of communicating, ser, unless he paid, within three months thereaf- during his journey and residence with them. Coter, three hundred and twenty dollars if he had pies of this map are now presented to both Houses purchased an entire section, and one hundred and of Congress. With these I communicate also a sixty dollars, if his purchase was for a half section. statistical view, procured and forwarded by him, This shows that under the proposed alteration, it of the Indian nations inhabiting the Territory of will require only one hundred dollars more in Louisiana, and the countries adjacent to its northhand to become a purchaser, than was necessary ern and western borders; of their commerce, and under the former system. Should, however, that of other interesting circumstances respecting them. be considered as a formidable objection, I would In order to render the statement as complete thiok a moderate reduction of the price of lands as may be, of the Indians inhabiting the country Expedition of Lewis and Clarke.

west of the Mississippi, I add Dr. Sibley's account and seven of them do, to whom in this respect we of those residing in and adjacent to the Territory give every assistance in our power. of Orleans.

I have transmitted to the Secretary at War, I communicate also, from the same person, an every information relative to the geography of the account of the Red river, according to the best country which we possess, together with a view information he had been able to collect.

of the Indian nations, containing information reHaving been disappointed, after considerable lative to them, on those points with which I conpreparation, in the purpose of sending an exploring ceived it important that the Government should party up that river in the Summer of one thou- be informed. sand eight hundred and four, it was thought best By reference to the muster rolls forwarded to to employ the Autumn of that year in procuring a the War Department, you will see the state of the knowledge off an interesting branch of the river party; in addition to which we have two interprecalled the Washita. This was undertaken under ters, one negro man, servant to Captain Clarke; the direction of Mr. Dunbar of Natchez, a citizen one Indian woman, wife to one of the interpreof distinguished science, who had aided, and con- ters, and a Mandan'man, whom we take with a tinues to aid us, with his disinterested and valua- view to restore peace between the Snake Indians, ble services in the prosecution of these enterprises. and those in this neighborhood, amounting in total He ascended the river to the remarkable hotsprings with ourselves to thirty-three persons. By means near it, in latitude 34° 31' 4" 16, longitude 92° of the interpreters and Indians, we shall be ena50° 45' west from Greenwich, taking its courses bled to converse with all the Indians that we shall and distances, and correcting them by frequent probably meet with on the Missouri. celestial observations. Extracts from his obser- I have forwarded to the Secretary at War my vations, and copies of his map of the river, from public accounts, rendered up to the present day, its mouth to the hot springs, make part of the pre- They have been much longer delayed than I had sent communications. The examination of the any idea they would have been, when we departed Red river itself, is but now commencing. from the Illinois; but this delay, under the cir

TH. JEFFERSON. cumstances which I was compelled to act, has FEBRUARY 19, 1806.

been unavoidable. The provision perogue and her crew, could not have been dismissed in time to have returned to St. Louis last Fall

, without Extract of a letter from Captain Meriwether Lewis, to evidently, in my opinion, hazarding the fate of the the President of the United States, dated

enterprise in which I am engaged; and I thereFort MANDAN, April 7th, 1805. fore did not hesitate to prefer the censure that I DEAR SIR: Herewith enclosed you will receive may have incurred by the detention of these papers an invoice of certaic articles, which I have for to that of risking in any degree the success of the warded to you from this place. Among other expedition. To me, the detention of these papers articles you will observe, by reference to the in. has formed a serious source of disquiet and anxiety, voice, sixty-seven specimens of earths, salts, and and the recollection of your particular charge to minerals, and sixty specimens of plants; these are me on this subject, has made it still more poigaccompanied by their respective labels, expressing nant. I am fully aware of the inconvenience the days on which obtained, places where found, which must have arisen to the War Department, and also their virtues and properties, when known from the want of these vouchers, previous to the By means of these labels, reference may be made last session of Congress, but how to avert it was to the chart of the Missouri, forwarded to the Se- out of my power to devise. cretary of War, on which the encampment of each From this place we shall send the barge and crew day has been carefully marked : thus, the places early to-morrow morning, with orders to proceed at which these specimens have been obtained, as expeditiously as possible to St. Louis ; by her may be easily pointed out, or again found, should we send our despatches, which I trust will get safe any of them prove valuable to the community on to hand. Her crew consists of ten able-bodied further investigation.

men, well armed and provided with a sufficient You will also receive herewith enclosed, a part stock of provision to last them to St. Louis. I of Captain Clarke's private journal; the other part have but little doubt but they will be fired on by you will find enclosed in a separate tin box. This the Sioux; but they have pledged themselves to journal will serve to give to you the daily details us that they will not yield while there is a man of our progress and transactions.

of them living. Our baggage is all embarked on I shall despatch a canoe with three, perhaps board six small canoes, and two perogues ; we four persons from the extreme navigable point of shall set out at the same moment that we despatch the Missouri, or the portage between this river the barge. One, or perhaps both of these peroand the Columbia river, as either may first hap- gues, we shall leave at the falls of the Missouri, pen. By the return of this canoe, I shall send you from whence we intend continuing our voyage in my journal, and some one or two of the best of the canoes, and a perogue of skins, the frame of those kept by my men. I have sent a journal which was prepared at Harper's ferry. This pekept by one of the sergeants, to Captain Stoddard, rogue is now in a situation which will enable us my agent at St. Louis, in order as much as pos- to prepare it in the course of a few hours. As sible to multiply the chances of saving something. our vessels are now small, and the current of the We have encouraged our men to keep journals, river much more moderate, we calculate upon Expedition of Lewis and Clarke.

travelling at the rate of twenty or twenty-five miles

A STATISTICAL VIEW per day, as far as the falls of the Missouri. Be- Of the Indian Nations in habiting the Territory of Louyond this point, or the first range of Rocky Moun- isiana and the countries adjacent to its northern and tains, situated about one hundred miles further, western boundaries. any calculation with respect to our daily progress,

EXPLANATORY REFERENCES. can be liutle more than bare conjecture. The cir- A. The names of the Indian nations as usually cumstance of the Snake Indians possessing large quantities of horses, is much in our favor, as by B. Primitive Indian names of nations and tribes,

spelt and pronounced in the English language. means of horses the transportation of our baggage

English orthography, the syllables producing will be rendered easy and expeditious over land,

the sounds by which the Indians themselves from the Missouri to the Columbia river. Should this river not prove navigable where we first meet c. Nick-pames, or those which have generally

express the names of their respective nations. with it, our present intention is, to continue our march by land down the river, until it becames so, D. The language they speak. If primitive, mark

obtained among the Canadian traders. or to the Pacific ocean. The map which has been

ed with a *. Otherwise, derived from, and apforwarded to the Secretary of War, will give you the idea we entertain of ihe connexion of these E. Number of villages.

proximating to the. rivers, which has been formed from the corres- F. Number of tents or lodges of the roving bands. ponding testimony of a number of Indians, who G. Number of warriors. have visited that country, and who have been separately and carefully examined on that subject, 1. The rivers on which they rove, or on which

H. The probable number of souls. and we therefore think it entitled to some degree of confidence. Since our arrival at this place, we J. The names of the nations or companies with

their villages are situated. have subsisted principally on meat, with which

whom they maintain their principal commerce our guns have supplied us amply, and have thus been enabled to reserve the parched meal, porta- K. The place at which their principal commerce

or traffic. ble soup, and a considerable proportion of pork and flour, which we had intended for the more L. The amount of merchandise necessary for

or traffic is usually carried on. difficult parts of our voyage. If Indian information can be credited, the vast quantity of game

their annual consumption, estimated in dollars with which the country abounds through which M. The estimated amount in dollars of their an

at the St. Louis prices. we are to pass, leaves us but little to apprehend

nual returns, at the St. Louis prices. from the want of food.

N. The species of peltries, furs, and other articles We do not calculate on completing our voyage which they annually supply or furnish. within the present year, but expect to reach theo. The species of peltries, furs, and other articles Pacific ocean, and return as far as the head of the

which ihe natural productions of their country Missouri, or perhaps to this place, before Winter. would enable them 10 furnish, provided proper You may therefore expect me to meet you at Montachello in September, 1806. On our return P. The places at which it would be mutually ad

encouragement was given them. we shall probably pass down the Yellow Stone

vantageous to form the principal establishments, river, which, from Indian information, waters one

in order to supply the several Indian nations of the fairest portions of this continent.

with merchandise. I can see no material or probable obstruction to Q. The names of the Indian nations with whom our progress, and entertain, therefore, the most they are at war. sanguine hopes of complete succcess. As to my- R. The names of the Indian nations with whom self, individually, I never enjoyed a more perfect they maintain a friendly alliance, or with whom state of good health than I have since we com- they are united by intercourse or marriage. menced our voyage. My inestimable friend and S. Miscellaneous remarks. companion, Captain Clarke, has also enjoyed good

NOTATIONS. healih generally. At this moment every individual of the party is in good health and excellent

over a denotes that a sounds as in caught spirits, zealously attached to the enterprise, and

taught, &c. anxious to proceed; not a whisper of discontent or

over a denotes that it sounds as in part,

dart, &c. murmur is to be heard among them; but all in unison act with the most perfect harmony. With

a withont notation. has its primitve sound, as such men I have everything to hope, and but lit

in ray, hay, &c., except only when it is foltle to fear.

lowed by r or w, in which case it sounds as â, Be so good as to present my most affectionate

set underneath, denotes a small pause, the regard to all my friends, and be assured of the

word being divided by it into two parts. sincere and upalierable attachment of, Your most obedient servant,

THE INDIAN TRADE.—The sums stated under

and opposite "L.” are the amounts of merchaa. MERIWETHER LEWIS,

dise annually furnished the several nations of InCaptain 1st U. S. Reg't of Infantry.

dians, including all incidental expenses of transTh. JEFFERSON,

portation, &c., incurred by the merchants, which President U. S.

generally averages about one-third of the whole

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Expedition of Lewis and Clarke.

D. *

amount. The merchandise is estimated at an ad-lent timber; the western and middle country high vance of one hundred and twenty-five per cent. prairies. It embraces within its limits four salines on the sterling cost. It appears to me that the which are, in point of magnitude and excellence, amount of merchandise which the Indians have unequalled by any known in North Americabeen in the habit of receiving annually, is the best there are also many others of less note. The standard by which to regulate the quantities neces-principal part of the Great Osage have always sary for them in the first instance—they will al- resided at their villages, on the Osage river, since ways consume as much merchandise as they can they have been known to the inhabitants of Louispay for—and those with whom a regular trade iana. About three years since, nearly one-half of has been carried on have generally received that this nation, headed by their chief, The Big Track, quantity.

emigrated to the three forks of the Arkansas, pear The amount of their returns stated under and which, and on its north side, they established a opposite the amount "M.” are estimated by the village, where they now reside. The Little Osage peltry standard of St. Louis, which is forty cents formerly resided on the southwest side of the Misper pound for deer-skins; i. e., all furs and pel souri, near the mouth of Grand river ; but being tries are first reduced by their comparative value reduced by continual warfare with their neighto pounds of merchantable deer-skins, which are bors, were compelled to seek the protection of the then estimated at forty cents, per pound.

Great Osage, near whom they now reside. There These establishments are not mentioned as be- is no doubt but their trade will increase. They ing thought important, at present, in a Govern- could furnish a much larger quantity of beaver mental point of view.

than they do. I think two villages on the Osage

river might be prevailed on to move to the ArkanA. Grand Osage.

sas, and the Kansas, higher up the Missouri, and B. Bar-har-cha.

thus leave a sufficient scope of country for the C. Grand Zo.

Shawnees, Dillewars, Miames, and Kickapoos.

The Osages cultivate corn, beans, &c.
E. Two.
F.

A. Little Osage.
G. 1,200.

B. Ood-za-tau. H. 5,000.

C. Petit Zo. I. Ai the three forks of the Arkansas river, and

D. Osâge. eighty leagues up the Osage river on the south

E. One. side.

F. J. Merchants of St. Louis.

G. 300. K. At their villages.

H. 1,300. L. 15,000.

I. Near the Great Osages. M. 20,000.

J. Merchants of St. Louis. N. Principally skins of the small deer, black

K. At their village. bear, some beaver, and a few otters and raccoons.

L. 5,000. o. Small deer-skins, black bear, and a much

M. 8,000. larger proportion of beaver, otter, raccoon, and

N. The same as the Great Osages. muskrat.

0. The same as the Great Osages. P. About the three forks of the Arkansas river,

P. The same as the Great Osages. six hundred miles from its junction with the Mis

Q. With all their Indian neighbors, except the sissippi. Q. With all their Indian neighbors, except the

Great Osage.

R. With the Great Osage only. Little Osage, until the United States took pos

S. See page 1041, S. session of Louisiapa.

R. With the Little Osage only.

S. Claim the country within the following lim- A. Kapzas. its, viz: commencing at the mouth of a south B. Kar-sa. branch of the Osage river, called Neangua, and C. Kâh. with the same to its source, thence southwardly

D. Osage. to intersect the Arkansas about one hundred miles E. One. below the three forks of that river; thence up the F. principal branch of the same, to the confluence of G. 300. a large northwardly branch of the same, lying a

H. 1,300. considerable distance west of the Great Saline, 1. Eighty leagues up the Kanzas river, on the and with that stream nearly to its source; thence north side. north wardly towards the Kansas river, embracing J. Merchants of St. Louis. the waters of the upper portion of the Osage river, K. On the Missouri above the mouth of the and thence obliquely approaching the same to the Kanzas river, not stationary, and at their village. beginning: The climate is delightful, and the soil L. 5,000. fertile in the extreme. The face of the country is M. 8,000. generally level and well watered; the eastern part N. The same as the Osage, with buffalo grease of the country is covered with a variety of excel-1 and robes.

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