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To give freedom is still more easy. It is not necessary to guide; it only requires to let go the tein, Bue to form a free government; that is, to cemper together these opposite elements of liberty and restraint in one consistent work, requires much thought, deep reflection, a sagacious, powerful, and combining mind. This I do not find in those who take the lead in the National Affembly. Perhaps they are not fo miserably deficient as chey appear. I rather believe it. It would put them below the common level of human understanding. But when the leaders choose to make themselves bidders at an auction of popularity, their talents, in the construction of the stare, will be of no service. They will become flatterers instead of legislators; the instruments, not the guides of the people. If any of them thould happen to propose a scheme of liberty, soberly limiced, and defined with proper qualificacions, he will be immediately outbid by his com. petitors, who will produce something more fplendidly popular. Suspicions will be raised of his fidelity to his cause. Moderation will be stigmatized as the virtue of cowards; and compromise as the prudence of traitors; until, in hopes of preferving the credit which may enable him to temper and moderate on some occasions, the popular leader is obliged to become active in propagating doctrines, and establishing powers, that will afterwards defeat any sober purpose at which he ultimately might have aimed,
But am I so unreasonable as to see nothing at all that deserves commendation in the indefatio gable labours of this assembly? I do not deny that among an infinite number of acts of violence and
folly, some good may have been done. They who destroy every thing certainly will remove some grievance. They who make every thing new, have a chance that they may establish fomething beneficial. To give them credit for what they have done in virtue of the authority they have usurped, or which can excuse them in the crimes by which that authority has been acquired, it must appear, that the fame things could not have been accomplished without producing such a revolution. Most alsuredly they might; because almost every one of the regulations made by them, which is not very equivocal, was either in the cession of the king, voluntarily made at the meeting of the states, or in the concurrent instructions to the orders. Some usages have been abolished on just grounds; but they were such that if they had stood as they were to all eternity, they would little detract from the happiness and prosperity of any ftate. The improvements of the National Assembly are fuperficial, their errors fundamental.
Whatever they are, I wish my countrymen rather to recommend to our neighbours the example of the British confticution, then to take models from them for the improvement of our own. In the former they have got an invaluable treasure. They are not, I think, without some causes of apprehenfion and complaint; but these they do not owe to their constitution, but to their own conduct. I think our happy situation owing to our conftitution; but owing to the whole of it, and not to any part singly; owing in a great measure to what we have left standing in our several reviews and reformations, as well as to what we have altered or fuperadded. Our
people will find employment enough for a truly patriotis, free, and independent spirit, in guarding what they poffefs, from violation. I would not
exclude alteration neither ; but even when I changed, it should be to preserve. I should be led to my remedy by a great grievance. In what I did, I should follow the example of oựr ancestors. I would make the reparation as nearly as possible in the style of the building. A politic caution, a guarded circumspection, a moral rather than a complexional timidity were among the ruling principles
of our forefathers in their most decided conduct. Not being illuminated with the light of which the - gentlemen of France tell us they have got so abundant a lhare, they acted under a strong impression of the ignorance and fallibility of mankind. He that had made them thus fallible, rewarded them for having in their conduct attended to their nature. Let us imitate their caucion, if we wilh to deserve their fortune, or to retain their bequests. Let us add, if we please, but let us preserve what they have left; and, standing on the firm ground of the British conftitution, let us be satisfied to admire rather than attempt to follow in their desperate flights the aeronauts of France..
I have told you candidly my sentiments. I chink they are not likely to alter yours. I do not know that they ought. You are young, you cannot guide, but must follow the fortune of your country. But hereafter they may be of some use to you, in some future form which your commonwealth may take. In the present it can hardly remain; but before its final settlement it may be obliged to pass, as one of our poets says, "through
great varieties of untried being,” and in all its transmigrations to be purified by fire and blood.
I have little to recommend my opinions, but long observation and much impartiality. They come from one who has been no tool of power, no flatterer of greatness; and who in his last acts does not wish to belye the tenour of his life. They come from one, almost the whole of whose public exertion has been a struggle for the liberty of others; from one in whose breast no anger durable or vehement has ever been kindled, but by what he considered as tyranny; and who snatches from his share in the endeavours which are used by good men to discredit opulent oppresion, the hours he has employed on your affairs; and who in so doing persuades himself he has not departed from his usual office: they come from one who desires honours, distinctions, and emoluments, but little; and who expects them not at all; who has no contempt for fame, and no fear of obloquy; who Thuns contention, though he will hazard an opinion: from one who wishes to preserve consistency; but who would preserve consistency by varying his means to secure the unity of his end; and, when the equipoise of the vessel in which he sails, may be endangered by overloading it upon one side, is desirous of carrying the small weight of his reasons to that which may preserve its equipoise.