Imágenes de páginas

H. OF R.]

Indian Lands in Georgia.

[FEBRUARY, 1795.

attention to a declaration of his own last session, or use force, when uncertain of the justice of the to justify this expression, which he used more to cause. He therefore hoped that the amendment designate a peculiar than a general character of would be rejected. the people in the region to which he applied it. Mr. FINDLEY was for the amendment, and The gentleman said, he did not value the lives of mentioned several examples to prove the cruelty one hundred Indians as much as the life of one and perfidy of the Indians. white man, or words to that extent. [This was The amendment itself was in these words: in a debate just before the close of the last session.“ Unless it shall be in immediate pursuit of the The words of Mr. Carnes were, "I would not Indians who have recently committed hostilities." give the life of one white man for that of fifty Mr. Madison did not think the question expliIndians.”] Mr. Murray said, he had two points cit; he, therefore proposed another, which was to always in his view when the frontier was a sub- prevent the pursuers from coming within a certain ject in that House-protection to the frontier number of miles of an Indian town. He was eragainst the hostility of the Indians, and restraint tremely doubtful whether his amendment or any upon the whites to prevent the occasions of war other would effectually answer the end proposed. against the savages. He had given every testi- He was convinced that no law of any kind would mony to the first by supporting every measure for be able to hinder people from crossing the line in their defence; that he represented a district per- pursuit of Indians, who might have carried off fectly beyond the danger of the Indians, was proof their families. that he was actuated in his votes for appropria- Mr. Harper said, that however lille tine the tion and force by no other motive than that which House had to spare, and however long the disbelonged to every man there who supported the cussion might have been, he could not help tresgreat principle of Government, that the whole passing on their patience for a short time to demust protect the parts. He wished to see such a liver his sentiments, as he thought himself tolersystem established, combining these two points, ably acquainted with the subject. He expressly as would give complete protection against the In- denied that the Indians ever committed any murdians, and yet restrain the whites from violating der without previous provocation. The process peace. He wished to see the day when the arms is shortly this: An Indian crosses the line and of the Government might, without a crime, strike steals a horse. And as long as Indians exist they a whole tribe, if that tribe or its members waged will always steal horses. The man to whom the war on the frontiers. But, to do this, it was ne- horse belonged collects as many of his neighbors cessary to place our relative situation so as that as he thinks sufficient, pursues the Indian, and, not justice might be secured. He wished to adopt a contented with recovering his horse, he kills the regulation like the present, to prevent our fellow- thief. The Indians, who have no such sacred citizens from the gratification of private revenge, ideas of property, immediately come over the the source from whence so much blood is shed line, and in revenge murder a number of innocent In order to justify exemplary punishment on In- people. Indian murders are not unprovoked. dian tribes, you must first be in a situation to re- They are not of that stamp. Mr. H. considered strain the whites from doing injustice to them. the amendment of Mr. VENABLE as a source of You must do what all nations have done, when, endless confusion. Any man, if it passed, might from the general or local state of civilization, pri- cross the Indian line as often as he thought provate war disturbs public tranquility-you must per, and say that he was in pursuit of Indians with restrain the right of private war, by placing the prisoners. "I undertake, (said he,) if you will power of vengeance out of the reach of indivi- give me an hundred dollars, to go to the frontier duals, and in the hands of Government. Nor did and get a witness who will ócome into a Court of this idea go at all to restrain that unalienable Justice and swear that on such a day ten Indians right of resistance against imminent danger, came over the line in arms. Mr. H. said he was which was sanctioned by the law of nature. The personally acquainted with the frontiers. He had picture drawn by the gentleman from Pennsylva- a high respect for the inhabitants, there were nia, (Mr. Scott,] with his accustomed ability and many very worthy people among them, but likeforce, was certainly an interesting one-were an wise many others of a very different kind. This encampment of Indians to be heard in the woods amendment will set open a door to all sorts of near a settlement, after any evidence of hostility, fraud and mischief. Mr. H. honored the sentihe did not doubt but the neighbors would be per- ments of patriotism that gave rise to it, but he fectly justifiable in changing the scene of blood could not possibly agree to the propriety of its from the cottage to the camp-if the amendment insertion. which actually arms all the passions of revenge Mr. White, the member from the Southwestern with the rights of law, be rejected, you will at- Territory, said, that he had to complain of the tain one of the great objects of frontier policy, slaughter of near four hundred citizens under the the ability to restrain the right of private war, auspices of your Government. He felt himself from which public war arises as a consequence. much affected, and as to the doctrine of Indiaa The Government will, when this ability to restrain killing, only in retaliation, he denied it altogether. is complete, become responsible for the protection The love of blood was hereditary in them. When of the whites against the savages. Until that is the gentleman says that with an hundred dollars accomplished, he did not believe Government in his pocket, he can find ten men on the frontierscould, either in justice or policy, expend treasure [Mr. Harper explained, that he only said he could

FEBRUARY, 1795.]
Public Debt.

[H. of. R. find a witness.] Well, (said Mr. W.) if the gen-arms on any lands allotted or secured to the Intleman did not mean a reflection on the frontiers, dians by treaties between the United States and he meant nothing at all. I know not how well any Indian tribes, shall, on conviction thereof, the gentleman may be practised in the arts of sub- forfeit a sum not exceeding dollars, and be ornation, but I myself know of no such man. [Mr. imprisoned not exceeding months, unless Harper.-I expected the gentleman would con- it shall be in continuation of a pursuit to a disfine himself to a decent answer.) Mr. W. pro- tance not exceeding miles beyond the line ceeded to observe that no man acquainted with of the particular Indians who shall have recently the frontiers would have made any such assertion committed murder, or may be carrying off capas the gentleman had done. He was likewise ex- tives or plunder. tremely surprised at the gentleman from Maryland, The second resolution being again read, and for having persisted in affirming that many of the amended, was, on the question put thereupon, frontier people were semi-savages.

agreed to by the House, as follows: The yeas and nays were now taken on the

Resolved, That it shall be lawful for the miliamendment which was lost by a majority of 7– tary force of the United States to apprehend every yeas 39, nays 46, as follows:

person or persons found in arms as aforesaid, and Yeas.—James Armstrong, Theodorus Bailey, Abra-him or them to convey to the civil authority of ham Baldwin, Thomas Blount, Thomas P. Carnes, the United States within some one of the States, Gabriel Christie, Thomas Claiborne, William J. Daw- who shall, by such authority, be secured to be tried son, George Dent, Samuel Dexter, Gabriel Duvall, in manner and form as is provided in and by the Benjamin Edwards, William Findley, Christopher act, entitled "An act to regulate trade and interGreenup, William B. Grove, George Hancock, Carter course with the Indian tribes :" Provided, That B. Harrison, John Heath, William Irvine, Matthew no person shall be confined, after his arrest, and Locke, William Lyman, Nathaniel Macon, Joseph Mc- before his removal, more than- days. Dowell, Alexander Mebane, William Montgomery, Ordered, That a bill or bills be brought in purAndrew Moore, Peter Muhlenberg, Joseph Neville, suant to the said resolutions, and that Mr. SengAnthony New, Alexander D. Orr, John Page, Thomas wick, Mr. Madison, and Mr. Hillhouse, do preScott, John Smilie, Thomas Sprigg, Thomas Tredwell, pare and bring in the same. Philip Van Cortlandt, Abraham Venable, Francis Walker, Richard Winn, and Joseph Winston.

PUBLIC DEBT. Nays.—Fisher Ames, John Beatty, Elias Boudinot, A message from the Senate informed the House Shearjashub Bourne, Benjamin Bourne, Lambert Cad. that the Senate have passed the bill, entitled “An walader, David Cobb, Peleg Coffin, Joshua Coit, Henry act making further provision for the support of Dearborn, Thomas Fitzsimons, Dwight Foster, Ezekiel Public Credit, and for the redemption of the PubGilbert, Nicholas Gilman, Henry Glenn, Benjamin lic Debt,” with amendments; to which they deGoodhue, James Gordon, Robert Goodloe Harper, James sire the concurrence of this House. Hillhouse, William Hindman, Samuel Holten, John

The House proceeded to consider the said Hunter, Aaron Kitchell, John Wilkes Kittera, Amasa Learned, James Madison, Francis Malbone, William

amendments; and the same being read,

A motion was made to strike out the section Vans Murray, Nathaniel Niles, Andrew Pickens, Theodore Sedgwick, John S. Sherburne, Jeremiah 'Smith, proposing an additional half per centum to the Israel Smith, William Smith, Zephaniah Swift, George holders of the Foreign Debt, if they should subThatcher, Uriah Tracy, Jonathan Trumbull, John E. scribe the same to the Domestic Debt, so as to Van Allen, Peter Van Gaasbeck, Peleg Wadsworth, make the principal and interest payable at the Jeremiah Wadsworth, John Watts, Benjamin Wil Treasury of the United States. liams, and Paine Wingate.

Mr. Heister observed, that he should vote for

striking out that section; that doing so would not Mr. Giles, who had been in the House during derange the other parts of the bill, as every other the whole debate, had gone out just before the provision in it would be complete without this question was put, and returning immediately after section. He was anxious to have it stricken out, bethe names had been called. asked leave to vote.

cause he conceived it was making a most important The rule of the House was read by the SPEAKER: change in the system of our Debt

, a change which; which is, that no member shall vote who was not if by experience we should find injurious, it would present at putting of the question. Mr. G. on this be out of our power to remedy. He confessed account was not allowed a vote.

there was an inconvenience and expense in reMr. Carnes then moved to amend the said resolution by adding to the end thereof the follow mitting such large sums as the interest of our

Foreign Debt and instalments to Europe ; but ing words:

asked, if that inconvenience would be remedied by “ Unless it shall be in continuation of a pursuit to a paying at the Treasury of the United States, and distance not exceeding miles beyond the line of whether subscribing it here really made it Domesthe particular Indians who shall have recently commit- tic Debt ? If it did, he should think it well worth ted murder, or may be carrying off captives or plunder.” | half a per centum in addition to the present rate It was resolved in the affirmative.

of interest; but that, he said, would not be the The said resolution, as amended, was then again case; the money was still owned in Europe, and read, and agreed to by the House, as follows: must go there, remit it who will, and therefore he

Resolved, That all persons who, unauthorized conceived that the effect of the proposed alteration by law, and with hostile intent, may be found in in the Debt would be no other than this: that

H. OF R.]

Intercourse with Foreign Nations.

[FEBRUARY, 1795.

instead of the United States remitting upon the seller of the produce: that these reasons induced best possible terms they can, a private concern in him to hope the motion to strike out the section Europe would be enabled to remit as they pleased, would prevail

. and for which they would be well paid; for one- The motion was withdrawn. half per cent. added to the present interest, is, After some discussion, the amendments were according to the different loans, from ten to twelve- agreed to, with an additional amendment upon and-a-half per cent. on the gross sums to be remit- those of the Senate. ted; and that in times of peace they might remit specie at an expense of two-and-a-half per cent.,

INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. and make a profit of from seven to ten per cent. The following confidential Message was reWhy, said he, cannot our own Treasury Depart-ceived from the President of the UNITED ment make this remittance, and save the differ- States: ence, when it may be convenient to ship money, Gentlemen of the Senate, and and that of this we ought always to be able to judge ourselves?

of the House of Representatives : He did not, however, dread this as the greatest In my first communication to Congress, during their evil; he found a greater to both the agricultural present session, I gave them reason to expect that “ cerand mercantile interests of the country.

tain circumstances of our intercourse with foreign naIt was, he said, well known that a single concern tions” would be transmitted to them. There was, at (he meant the Willinks, Van Staphorsts, &c., mer- that time, every assurance for believing that some of the chants of Amsterdam) were the directors of the most important of our foreign affairs would have been chief of our loans in Europe, and that the interest concluded, and others considerably matured, before they they had to receive upon the Foreign Debt alone should rise. But, notwithstanding I have waited until amounted to between five and six hundred thou- this moment, it has so happened that, either from causes sand dollars annually; and that besides this they trolled, I am yet unable to execute my original inten

unknown to me, or from events which could not be conwere the directors of very large purchases made, tion. That I may, however, fulfil the expectation given, and perhaps still making, of our Domestic Debt,

as far as the actual situation of things will in my judg. which they had organized, and now conducted in ment permit, I now, in confidence, lay before Congress the nature of a bank, so that we could not in either the following general statement. case expect the subscriptions of individual holders Our Minister near the French Republic has urged of our Debt, and that consequently this would be compensation for the injuries which our commerce has no inducement for them to remove here. If, there- sustained from captures by French cruisers, from the nonfore, that Debt was subscribed at all, it would be fulfilment of the contracts of the agents of the Republic by these directors. He believed that the command with our citizens, and from the embargo at Bordeaux. of such enormous sums of money to be received He has also pressed an allowance for the money voted by a single house annually from this country, by Congress, for relieving the inhabitants of St. Dominwould be dangerous to our trade; for, by the bare go. It affords me the highest pleasure to inform Condread of our banks and moneyed institutions where gress that perfect harmony reigns between the two the public money is kept, that these sums might be Republics, and that those claims are in a train of being drawn out for exportation, they would be obliged discussed with candor, and of being amicably adjusted. to narrow their discounts so as very much to re

So much of our relation to Great Britain may depend strain our exporters in their purchases and prices. upon the result of our late negotiations in London, that

, He confessed he did not believe it would injure until that result shall arrive, I cannot undertake to make the Middle States, whose produce would find a

any communication upon this subject. market in the West Indies, as well as in Europe, pending, unusual and unexpected embarrassments were

After the negotiation with Spain had been long deas much as it would those States whose rice and raised to interrupt its progress. But the Commissioner tobacco solely depended on the European market, of His Catholic Majesty, near the United States, having and was more an object for remittance. For if declared to the Secretary of State, that if a particular the agents of those gentlemen should make a point accommodation should be made in the conducting of of keeping down the price of the articles they the business, no further delay would ensue, I thought wanted to purchase, that might be effected by proper, under all circumstances, to send to His Catholic drawing largely on the Treasury, so as to produce Majesty an Envoy Extraordinary, specially charged to a scarcity of cash at the time of their coming to bring to a conclusion the discussions which have been market. This, he believed himself, might be ex- formerly announced to Congress. pected from people who do everything by calcu

The friendship of Her Most Faithful Majesty has been lation. For, as the interest is to be paid to the often manifested in checking the passage of the Algerine individual money-lender in Holland but once a

corsairs into the Atlantic Ocean. She has also furnished year, and by this plan it is to be paid here quarter- occasional convoys to the vessels of the United States, yearly, the remittance may be made to the direct- even when bound to other ports than her own. We ors in good time, either in specie, produce, or bills, may therefore promise ourselves, that as, in the ordinary at the pleasure of the receivers ; that, although it between the United States and Portugal, so the temper

course of things, few causes can exist for dissatisfaction might cost the Treasury, as had been stated, near with which accidental difficulties will be met on each ten per cent to remit bills, it ought to be consi- side, will speedily remove them. dered that when the merchant sells his bills high, Between the Executive of the United States and the it enters into the price of the articles he purchases, Government of the United Netherlands, but little interso that what is lost to the Treasury is got by the I course has taken place during the last year. It may be FEBRUARY, 1795.]

Intercourse with Foreign Nations.

[H. OF R.

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acceptable to Congress to learn that our credit in Hol- been wanted was then taken up, and it was that, land is represented as standing upon the most respecta- “ making conditional provision for the expenses of ble footing

a treaty with certain Indian tribes.” This was the Upon the death of the late Emperor of Morocco an bill respecting the back lands of South Carolina. agent was despatched to renew, with his successor, the It was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. treaty which the United States had made with him. The

The SPEAKER laid before the House a Letter agent unfortunately died, after he had reached Europe, from the Secretary of War, enclosing extracts of in the prosecution of his mission.' But, until lately, it letters and documents from Major General Wayne, was impossible to determine, with any degree of proba- and from James Seagrove, agent of Indian affairs bility, who of the competitors for that empire would be for the Creek nation; which were read, and orultimately fixed in the supreme power. Although the

dered to lie on the table. measures which have been since adopted, for the renewal of the treaty, have been obstructed by the dis

Mr. Tracy, from the Committee of Claims, to turbed situation of Amsterdam, there are good grounds whom were referred sundry reports of the Secrefor presuming, as yet, upon the pacific disposition of tary of War, accompanying statements in the cases the Emperor in fact, towards the United States, and of claimants to be placed on the list of pensioners, that the past miscarriage will be shortly remedied.

returned to the War Office by the Judges of the Congress are already acquainted with the failure of District Courts of the United States, made a rethe Loan, attempted in Holland, for the relief of our un port; which was read, and ordered to lie on the happy fellow-citizens in Algiers. This subject, than table. which none deserves a more affectionate zeal, has con- Mr. Giles, from the committee to whom were stantly commanded my best exertions. I am happy, referred the Letter from the Secretary of the therefore, in being able to say, that, from the last au- Treasury of the twenty-fifth ultimo, enclosing thentic accounts, the Dey was disposed to treat for a a statement exhibiting the number of officers empeace and ransom, and that both would, in all proba- ployed in the management of the revenue from bility, have been accomplished, had we not been disap- stills and spirits distilled within the United States; pointed in the means. Nothing which depends upon as also a Letter from the Commissioner of the Rethe Executive shall be left undone, for carrying into immediate effect the supplementary act of Congress.

venue on the subject of compensation to the said G. WASHINGTON.

officers, made a report; which was read. WhereUnited States, February 28, 1795.


Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury The Message was read, and ordered to lie for be directed to lay before the next Congress such consideration.

a statement of the internal revenues as will ascer

tain, with precision, the nett product thereof, and MONDAY, March 2.

the expense of collection ; and that he also report a

list of all the officers employed in that service, and An engrossed bill supplementary to the act, en- the compensations allowed to each of them. titled “An act to regulate trade and intercourse The House resolved itself into a Committee of with the Indian tribes,” was read the third time, the Whole House on the resolution sent from the amended, and passed.

Senate, authorizing the exportation of arms, canA message was received from the Senate, disa- non, and military stores, in certain cases; and, afgreeing to the amendment of the House of Repre- ter some time spent therein, the Committee rose, sentatives, on the bill for the support of Public and reported the said resolution, with an amendCredit and the redemption of the Public Debt. ment; which was twice read, and agreed to by The Senate receded from their own amendments the House. The said resolution, with the amendat the same time, so that the bill stands as it was ment, was then read the third time, and passed. originally agreed to.

The following Message was received from the Mr. TRACY, from the Committee of Claims, President of the United States: presented, according to order, a bill authorizing Gentlemen of the Senate, and and directing the Secretary of War to place cer- of the House of Representatives : tain persons, therein named on the pension list; which was read twice, and ordered to be engrossed, ceived, that it may be probably necessary to the more

It appears, from information which I have lately reand read the third time to-day.

successful conduct of our affairs on the coast of BarMr. BENJAMIN BOURNE, from the committee to bary, that one Cousul should reside in Morocco, anwhom was committed the bill sent from the Se- other in Algiers, and a third in Tunis or Tripoli. As nate, entitled "An act to amend the second sec- no appointment for these offices will be accepted withtion of the act for erecting a lighted beacon on out some emolument annexed, I submit to the considerShellcastle Island, in the harbor of Ocracock, in ation of Congress whether it may not be advisable to the State of North Carolina," made a report; authorize a stipend to be allowed to two Consuls for which was read. Whereupon,

that coast in addition to the one already existing, Resolved, That the said bill be rejected.

G. WASHINGTON. The House then went into a Committee on the

UNITED STATES, March 2, 1795. bill authorizing the PRESIDENT to obtain the ces- The said Message was read, and ordered to be sion of certain

lands in the State of Georgia. referred to Mr. Sedgwick, Mr. Boudinot, and After the bill had been partly read, it was ob- Mr. Parker; that they do examine the matter served by Mr. Blount, that this was not the one thereof, and report the same, with their opinion which had been moved for. The bill which had thereupon, to the House.

H. OF R.]

Duty on Carriages Intercourse with Indians-Exportation of Arms. [March, 1795. The House resolved itself into a Committee of therein mentioned,” reported that the Committee the Whole House on the bill sent from the Se- had had the said bill under consideration, and nate, entitled " An act to regulate the compensa- made no amendment tbereto. The bill was read tion of clerks;" and, after some time spent there the third time, and passed. in, the Committee rose, and reported the bill, with

DUTY ON CARRIAGES. an amendment; which was twice read, and agreed to by the House. The said bill, with the amend- The House next went into a Committee on the ment, was then read the third time, and passed. bill for repealing the act laying duties on carriages

A Message was received from the PRESIDENT for persons. OF THE UNITED States, with copies of a Letter Mr. Boudinot proposed, as an amendment, that from the Governor of the State of Delaware, and no carriage should be taxed that is not worth of an Act, enclosed, “declaring the assent of that twenty-five dollars. State to an amendment therein mentioned to the Mr. Fitzsimons was against introducing amendConstitution of the United States." The said ments in the present situation of the House, when, Message and papers were read, and ordered to lie if a gentleman really had objections to a bill

, he on the table.

cannot be heard. He did not like to leave it to A message from the Senate informed the House the discretion of collectors, who, perhaps, never that the Senate have passed the bill, entitled "An saw a carriage before, to put a value upon one. act for continuing and regulating the Military He wished the matter to stand as it is, for the preEstablishment of the United States, and for re- sent, till there can be further experience. This pealing sundry acts heretofore passed on that sub- amendment was rejected. ject,” with sundry amendments; to which they The Committee then rose and reported; and the desire the concurrence of this House.

House went through the bill, which was ordered The House proceeded to consider the said amend to be engrossed for a third reading. ments, and, the same being read, were agreed to. The Speaker laid before the House a Letter

INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. from the Treasurer of the United States, accom- Mr. Fitzsimons brought in and read a resolupanying his account of receipts and expenditures tion, that the President be authorized to buy for the War Department, from the first day of goods, this season, for supporting an intercourse September to the thirty-first day of December, with the Indians. one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, in- Letters were then called for and read, from Geclusive; which were read, and ordered to lie on neral Wayne, and from Mr. Seagrove, agent, the table.

among the Creek Indians. The latter, in strong Mr. Sedgwick, from the committee to whom terms, recommended that something of this kind was referred the Message from the PresideNT OF should be done. It was observed in one of his The United States, of this day, respecting the letters that Spaniards do everything in their powappointment of Consuls, made a report; which er to stir up the Indians to mischief. was read, and ordered to lie on the table.

Mr. MONTGOMERY hoped that so much would A message from the Senate informed the House be done as might serve to put the matter on a footthat the Senate have passed the bill, entitled " An ing of experiment. He wished that the Presiact for the more effectual recovery of debts due dent might be trusted in the mean time with it, from individuals to the United States,” with seve- and then the next Congress will be better able to ral amendments; to which they desire the concur- judge. If the Indians go to the British to buy rence of this House. The Senate have disagreed goods, they will still be under British influence. to the amendment proposed by this House to the It is as clear as a sun-beam, that the establishment resolution "authorizing the exportation of arms, of a trade must be the foundation of amity. A cannon, and military stores, in certain cases.” bill was ordered to be brought in.

The House proceeded to consider the amendments proposed by the Senate to the bill, entitled

EXPORTATION OF ARMS. “ An act for the more effectual recovery of debts The House proceeded to reconsider their amenddue from individuals' to the United States," and ment disagreed to by the Senate to the resoluthe same being read, were agreed to.

tion authorizing the exportation of arms, canAn engrossed bill laying duties on carriages for non, and military stores in certain cases conthe conveyance of persons, and repealing the for- nected with the commercial interests of the Unitmer act for that purpose, was read the third time, ed States, and for public purposes only. There was and passed.

added a proviso, that there should be none sent to Ordered, That the Letter and report from the the Dominions or Territories of any of the EuroSecretary of War, of the twenty-eighth ultimo, pean Powers now at war. accompanying a further statement in the cases of Mr. Dayton moved to strike out this proviso. claimants to be placed on the list of pensioners, Mr. Sedgwick thought that it was a proper one, which lay on the table, be referred to the Commit- but he was not at liberty to speak fully on this tee of Claims.

subject. He feared that, if this proviso was not Mr. Swift, from the committee to whom was inserted, the House might be involved in a quarcommitted the bill sent from the Senate, entitled rel with some of the belligerent Powers.

An act to authorize a grant of lands to the French Mr. Giles thought that the proviso would put inhabitants of Galliopolis, and for other purposes I the House into a situation laughable enough. The

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