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SENATE.)

Unexpended Appropriations.

(Dec. 28, 1836.

amount, to meet the outstanding appropriations. Now, be wanting, of which five millions remain in the Treaswhen it was admitted by every one that the surplus ury, and about nine and a half go to the States. It is which would be on hand at the end of the next year certainly desirable to the States to know at once that would amount to at least twenty-five millions oë dollars, these nine and a half millions will be wanted in two (and for himself he entertained no doubt that it would years, and part of it the first year. This is the intima. be thirty, unless the country should be disturbed by a tion in the President's message. Mr. B. read the pas. war, or some other unforeseen catastrophe,) he would sage: seriously ask, was there a Senator on that floor, of any “The unexpended balances of appropriation on the party, who would say, in a time of profound peace, (for 1st day of January next are estimated at $14,636,062, he would not call the Seminole war interrupting the exceeding by $9,636,062 the amount which will be left peace of the Union,) and recollecting the fact that this in the deposite banks, subject to the draft of the Treas. administration came in as a reform administration, that a urer of the United States, after the contemplated transtax should be raised, or that the money distributed un fers to the several States are made. If, therefore, the der the deposite bill, should be refunded in order to future receipts should not be sufficient to meet these make extravagant appropriations? He (Mr. C.) could outstanding and future appropriations, there may be not believe it. He knew that attempts would be made soon a necessity to use a portion of the funds deposited to prevent the renewal of the deposite act, though he with the States." could not say that this was one of them. But let him

Mr. B. said, here was a clear declaration that these iell gentlemen that these attempts would only produce unexpended balances were to meet these outstanding a reaction, and end in their defeat.

appropriations; and if the future receipts into the Treas. Mr. C., in conclusion, adverted to the subject of a re ury did not meet them, the States might soon be called duction of the revenue, and the necessity of bringing it upon for a part of their deposites. Now, here was a down to the legitimate wants of the Government. He question, first for the Finance Committee, and afterinsisted that the Committee on Finance, to whom was wards for Congress. Would they keep up unnecessary referred the consideration of this matter, were bound to taxes to meet these balances, or call upon the States to show, in a satisfactory manner, either that there would refund? He, for one, should be against keeping up the be no surplus next year, or to admit the necessity of faxes for this object, and should be for calling on the making an adequate reduction of the revenue.

States, and therefore would show them at once the Mr. BENTON said the document which had been specific objects for which the money was wanted. read, to wit: the estimate of appropriations for 1837, Mr. B. read another passage from the President's mes. was not unknown to him. He was no stranger to the sage to show that these money's must be refunded by the document itself, or to the Jaws under which it was an. States, or taxes, otherwise unnecessary, must be kept nually framed. One pari of it, that of the estimates for up to supply their place; so that, in no event, could the service of the ensuing year, was framed under an they be called and treated as an unavoidable surplus for act as old as the Government; the other part of it, that which the Government has no use: which related to the unexpended balances, was more “No time was lost, after the making of the requisite modern, and was framed under an act of 1820, to carry appropriations, in resuming the great national work of into effect more completely an act of 1795, relative to completing the unfinished fortifications on our seaboard, unexpended balances. This act of 1795 continues all ap- and of placing them in a proper state of defence. In propriations in force for two full years after the year in consequence, however, of the very late day at which which they are made; and at the end of those two years those bills were passed, but little progress could be directs any balance that may remain to be carried 10 made during the season which has just closed. the surplus fund. The act of 1820 was to facilitate the large amount of the moneys granted at your last session understanding and use of these balances; and for that accordingly remains unexpended; but as the work will purpose it directed the Secretary of the Treasury to an be again resumed at the earliest moment in the coming nex them to lis annual estimate of appropriations, spring, the balance of the existing appropriations, and divided into three heads, according to the act of 1795; in several cases which will be laid before you with the one bead was to show what part of the unexpended bal. proper estimates, further sums for the like objects may ances of the expired year would be wanted in the first be usefully expended during the next year.” of the two next years, and what part in the second of Mr. B. repeated, the Government has a use for this them, and what part would not be wanted at all; and so money, and a use so urgent, that she must raise it by would go to the surplus fund. Thus the unexpended taxation, if any of the States violate the deposite act, and balances are now, anil, ever since 1820, have been shown hold on to the moneys as their portion of a distributive in three columns, headed as directed by the eighth sec. fund. tion of that act. Thus they stand in this estimate; and To make this matter too plain for mistake, too obvithe amount under each head is, first, for the service of ous for commentary, and too imperative to be disputed, 1837, there will be wanted of these unexpended balan. Mr. B. would refer to the letter of the Secretary of the ces the sum of $11,427,480; for 1938, there will be Treasury, accompanying the annual estimates, and show. wanted $3,013,389; and there will remain the sum of ing these unexpended balances, and expressly including $195, 183, which will not be wanled at all in either of them in bis estimate for the service of 1837 and 1838. the two years, and therefore will go to the surplus This is the letter referred 10: fund. The aggregate of these three sums makes the

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, $14,636,062 mentioned in the President's message, and also in the document of the estimates; and the aggre.

December 6, 1836. gate of the two first sums will make the amount in this SIR: I have the honor to transmit, for the information second document which is now asked to be printed. In of the House of Representatives, an estimate of the apthis document the third head or column is dropped, be propriations proposed to be made for the service of the cause the amount in it is no longer wanted; and the two year 1837, amounting to

$20,354,442 57 heads in the first and second columns are united and made into one, because the object was to know how

Viz: much of the appropriations were unexpended, and Civil list, foreign intercourse, and mis. would be waniing in the next two years. This docu. cellaneous,

$2,925,670 62 ment shows that near fourteen and a half millions will l Military service, including fortifications,

A very

Dec. 28, 1836.)

Unexpended Appropriations.

(SENATE.

armories, arsenals, ordnance, Indian

importance, if it was to regulate the conduct of the affairs, revolutionary and military

States in that particular. But, then, if it be important, pensions, and internal improvements, $10,758,431 33 and is to be of service, it ought to go in a correct form. Naval service, including the marine

Now, how did the Senator from Missouri propose to send corps,

6,670,340 62 out this information. It was, that there was now an un.

expended balance of appropriations of fourteen mil. To the estimates are added statements,

lions of dollars, and the inference was, that the money showing,

must be called back from the States to meet these bal. 1. The appropriations for the service

ances when wanted. of the year 1837, made by former

Now, if this was a fact, the information had betier be acis, including arming and equipping

sent out; but if the tendency of it was to mislead every the militia, civilization of Indians,

body, it ought not to be given. The President said that revolutionary claims, revolutionary

there was a balance of unexpended appropriations of pensions under the act of 7th June,

fourteen millions of dollars, and when the five millions 1832, claims of the State of Virginia,

left in the Treasury by the provisions of the deposite gradual improvement of the navy,

law was deducied from the sum, then there would re. and public debt,

$2,347,000 00 main nine millions; and the President proceeds to say, 2. The existing appropriations which

that if there sliould be no money in the Treasury to meet will not be required for the service

this balance, then Congress must make some arrangeof the year 1836, and which it is pro

ment for that purpose. Now, he called upon the Senposed io apply in aid of the service of

ator from Missouri to show, and it was incumbent on him the year 1937, amounting to

3,013,389 34 to do so, that there would be no money in the Treasury 3. The existing appropriations which

to meet these balances. Now, did the Senator from will be required to complete the

Missouri propose to show any such thing? No, he did service of the year 1836, and former

not pretend to say that the receipts into the Treasury years, but which will be expended

would not be sufficient to meet all demands. What was in 1837, amounting to

11,427,489 87 to be the consequence of sending abroad this document? There is also added to the estimates a statement of the Was it to create an alarm, and prevent the States from several appropriations which will probably be carried making use of the money placed in their hands? Was to the surplus fund at the close of the present year; there any reason to suppose that there would be a deh. either because the objects for which they were made ciency of the revenue? Has your Secretary of the Treasare completed, or because these sums will not be re ury, asked Mr. D., said that there will be any deficiency quired for, or will no longer be applicable to them, of the revenue? No, sir, no such thing; he suggests the a mounting 10 $195,183 64.

bare, naked fact, that there will be fourteen millions of I bave the honor to be, very respectfully, your obe dollars of unexpended appropriations of the last year. dient servant,

Well, what did the Senator from Missouri say in regard LEVI WOODBURY,

to the revenues of the country? Why, he chided and Secretary of the Treasury. rebuked them all (and he took it very kindly, for he was Hon. James K. POLK,

subject to such rebukes) for staving off appropriations Speaker of the House of Representatives.

at the last session, and, in the end, withholling appropri.

ations. Well, s'r, (said Mr. D.,) I plead guilty to the With these views of the subject, and these references charge; I was one of those who resisted the double and to the President's message, and the Secretary of the triple appropriations on the fortification bill, (and I see Treasury's lettter, Mr. B. held it to be well proved that those around me who did the same,) and sleeping or the document which he proposed to have printed and waking I have never had occasion to regret the course sent to the States was not a false or deceptive paper, 10 I then took. Why, did the Senator know what were mislead and confuse the public mind, but a document the actual expenditures of the last year? If he did not, true and perspicuous, calculated to instruct and inform he could know it by looking at the President's message the public mind, and to save all good citizens from the and accompanying documents, and he would find :hat they danger of falling into the error us considering the moneys amounted io thirty-two and some odd millions of dollars; deposited with ihe States as an unavoidable surplus, for and, if I e understood matters, these fourteen millions were which the Government has no use, and which they may to be added to it-making forty odd millions appropri. consequently treat as their own. This document, if ated last session. Sir, (said Mr. D.,) compare this with printed, will save all good citizens from that error, and the appropriations of any other administration, and sce show them that the Government has actually appropri. what has been appropriated by the very reluciant Con. ated a large part of the money deposited with them, and gress, who have been chided for staring off appropri. must get it back, or raise it again by taxes.

ations, and for withholding appropriations. Find, if you Mr. CALHOUN said he had certainly made no com can, (said Mr. D.,) a parallel to this sort of extravagance. plaint of inaccuracy on the part of the secretary of the He was astonished ibat any Senator could rise in his Treasury. Hle presumed that his calculations were per place and indulge in such rebukes as the Senator from sectly accurate; but what he complained of was, ihat Missouri had, after the extravagant appropriations of tlie the Senator from Missouri proposed to send out a docu- last session. ment which was not correct, with a view to show the The Senator seemed to consider this a question, outstanding appropriations remaining unsatisfied. He whether this money should lie in the Treasury, to be maintained that the document was entirely pernicious, disposed of by the officers of the Government, on their for it set forth what was not really the truth of the case; responsibility, or go to the people of the Stales, from and all that he desired was that the public should not be whom it came. This was the question that was made deceived on the subject.

there last winter, and he, for one, never could besitate Mr. DAVIS had but one word to say in regard to this how to vote on it. After some further remarks, Mr. D. matter. If he understood this proposition, it was to said he thought some misapprehensions existed as to the give information to the States, to regulate their conduct information sent out from the two Houses of Congress. in some legislation it was supposed they were about to Did all these documents that were daily printed go to be engaged in. It was information, therefore, of some the poor and uninformed? They who stood there knew

SENATE.]

Unexpended Appropriations.

[Dec. 28, 1836.

better. It was all a miserable farce; for long before safest treasuries for keeping surplus moneys which the they were sent out from there, they were printed and Government can have.” They know this, and the squab. reprinted, and circulated all over the country.

bles, intrigues, collusions, and bargains, which they will As it had been customary to accede to the proposition soon see, for enabling the few to handle these surpluses, to print an extra number of copies of any document asked and the doubıful or political objects to which they will for by an honorable Senator, he would not deny the Sen. be applied, will soon disgust them with the whole scheme; ator from Missouri the printing of the extra number of and if this document can be printed, they will see in it, copies of this document; but he requested that the ques. the people of each State will see in it, objects as merition as to printing, and as to the distribution of the torious, and as near and as dear to them, as any that can copies when printed, might be taken separately. be devised for the application of the moneys in their own

Mr. BENTON replied to the gentleman from diassa| Legislatures. chusetts, (Mr. Davis,) who had spoken of the large ap Mr. KING, of Alabama, said, of all the extraordinary propriations of the last year; but the gentleman had for: discussions he had ever heard in that body, that of this gotten to mention two things, which would have spoiled morning was the most extraordinary. He would ask the face of the large sum which he presented: firsi, that the Senator from Missouri what object, what aim, and fourteen or fifteen millions of this sum were extraordi. what end, he proposed to accomplish by the motion he naries growing out of Indian wars and Indian treaties; had made, and the speech he bad delivered? If, said and, next, that fourteen and a half millions more were ap Mr. K., it is designed to operate on the deposite bill propriated at so late a day that they could not be ex of the last session, it is a matter that has gone by, and is pended. Mr. B. knew that these large appropriations now before the country for good or for evil. For him. were to figure in speeches out of Congress, as well as self, he felt no reluctance in submitting to the judgment in it, and, therefore, !ook care before the rise of the last the country will pass on the measure. If it be to vicsession of Congress to have a document prepared at the limize those who, at the last session, took a view of that Treasury to show each object of appropriation, so that subject different from that taken by the honorable Senthe extraordinaries might be seen, and no one deceived ator, then his motion was properly accompanied by the by the exhibition of the large amount appropriated. remarks we have just heard; for, said Mr. K., the Sena. That document nullified the cry of extravagance, so in. tor from Missouri and myself differed as widely at the continently set up just before the presidential election; last session as we appear to do now. He entertained and this document that he now asked for would nullify, the opinion then, that there would be a large, very in like manner, the idea of the unavoidable surplus for large,' amount of money in the Treasury, which could which Government had no use, if be should be so fortu. not be appropriated, without resorting to such extrava. nale as to get printed and distribuled through the gant expenditures as no administration could even apStates. The great error of the party to which the gen. proach and retain the confidence of the country. He tleman belonged was in acting upon a certain notion believed, in common with many others that he saw around which possessed all their heads, namely, that the said him, and with whom he felt proud to act, that it was party possessed all the learning, all the talents, all the their duty to devise some plan by which the Treasury wit, all the genius, all the religion, morality, civilily, de. could be relieved from the excess of revenue, and those cency, and politeness, now extant in our America; for, who administered the Government freed from the susin acting on this notion, they necessarily considered the picion that it would be used to effect improper purposes. people as having none of those valuable qualities, as they | Well

, sir, (said Mr. K.,) we believed that the best mode 10 ihemselves possessed all; and, therefore, they could pass effect those objects would be to deposite it with the off any thing they pleased upon the Baotian multitude. people of the States from whom it had been unnecessaThis error, though comfortable in itself, and so well calo rily drawn. We believed that, by this course, the friend's culated to keep a man on the best of terms with himself, of the administration were not only subserving the great had been the source of innumerable miscarriages to the interests of the country, but freeing it from the possibilgentleman's party, and would be the source of severality of censure. Who will venture to assert (said Mr. K.) This surplus conception would be one of them.

that the placing this money in the treasuries of the seveAll the work of the last session to create the surplus ral Staies, to be used as, in the discretion of the State Was distinclly seen by the country; every body knew that Governments, was best calclated to advance their interevery branch of the public service was suffering for moests, and subject to be returned whenever wanted for na. ney, and clerks raising money at usurious interest to live tional purposes, was not a better and safer deposite for on, and officers raising money on their own credit, while it, than to leave it with the deposite banks? Sir, said the iwo Houses of Congress resvunded with the cry of Mr. K., the bill passed, and passed with the strenuous surplus millions, and so many labored to save off, cut opposition of the Senator from Missouri, who, no doubt, down, and defeat appropriations, in order to create sur acted from the purest motives, and honestly believed pluses for distribution. Another great error was 10 that the money would be wanted to meet the expendisuppose that immense popularity was to be gained now tures of the General Governmerit. Whether the Sena. by pushing the system of annual distributions, and en tor was right or wrong, I leave to the country to deter. deavoring to out-run, out-leap, and out.jump one anoth- mine; bu', (said Mr. K.,) while I am ready to give him er in the glorious race of making and dividing surpluses. credit for the purest motives in opposing the deposite But the people saw through it all, and despised it all, bill, I will not consent to be held up to the American and went for a reduction of taxes, and no surplus. They people as so unwise, so impolitic, and so unjust, as to knew that the whole business was unconstitutional, cor. lend myself to a system of distribution. Nur, sir, can it rupt, and demoralizing; and bad no idea of seeing it kept be charged upon me, or the political friends with whom

and a regular altempt made to pension the States as I acted on that occasion, with the slightest semblance paupers upon the Federal Government. They knew of correctness, that we endeavored to create a su plus the absurdity and insanity of raising money one year to ror distribution, by delaying or withholóing the nebe paid back the next; they knew, without having read cessary appropriations. Far from it; far from it. Sir, our it in a book, that the famous phrase put into the mouth appropriations nearly doubled the estimates from the of Queen Elizabeth by Lord Treasurer Burleigh, and various Departments at the commencement of the ses. which he himself ivok from Demosthenes, contains allsion. We knew that there was an overflowing Treasuthe wisdom which can be taught on this head, namely, ry, and we gave liberally; in most instances, more than that the “pockels of the people are the cheapest and could be expended; but the Senator complains loudly

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that this was produced by delaying the appropriations. tify expenditures which otherwise might appear extrav. He would not stop to inquire whether such delay, if it agant, to effect objects so desirable. did take place, resulted from the course pursued by the Mr. K. said he was extremely sorry that it was necesopponents of the administration, or from the various sary to enter into a discussion as to the effect of lhe deschemes (some of them certainly of a most extravagant posile law of the last session. That effect was yet to be character) which were pressed upon the attention of seen, and the States themselves had the responsibility of Congress. When was it ever known that all the appro. making a proper disposition of the money intrusted with priation bills were passed through both Houses at an ear them. Whether we, (said Mr. K.,) in our ignorance, ly period of the session! But we are told that, not hav- / have deposited more money with them than we can ing passed bills in time to meet the expenditures of West spare, so that a portion of it will have to be called back Point, Harper's Ferry, and to pay the salaries of the for tlic necessary expenses of the Government, was an. clerks in the public offices, was evidence of a determi- other question. But such he did not understand would nation to create a surplus. Delays of this kind have fre. be the case. The argument of the Senator from Mis. quently occurred since he had been a member of the Sen-souri did not put it on that footing. There was no Sen. ate, and have, no doubt, always procluced serious incunve. ator, he believed, who was not satisfied that the five mil. nience to those whose pittance was thus withheld; but did | lions left in the Treasury by the provisions of the deposany one ever before hear it gravely chargid upon Con- ite act, with the receipts of the year, would be amply gress that the object of this delay was to create a sur. sufficient to meet all the appropriations as they were plus? He (Mr. K.) would repeat that he had given his wanted. If, however, it should, by a bare possibility, support to the most liberal appropriations; but, at the turn out otherwise, there was not a State in the Union same time, had withheld bis assent to propositions for that would hesitate for a moment in answering any call squandering the revenue, based upon repeated calls to on it that might be made by the Secretary of the Treas. ascertain the maximum of expenditure. What was ne. ury: cessary to meet the proper and economical expenditures He was not disposed (Mr. K. said) to complain of the of the Government, he would never withhold; more he course taken by the Senator from Missouri. . If the obwould not give, even at the risk of being charged with a ject of the gentleman was to oppose a prospective disdesign to create a surplus. Sir, said Mr. K., the repub.iribution, it appeared to him that it would have been as lican doctrine, as he understood it, was to draw no more well to have waited until the bill for such an object came money from the pockets of the people than was requi. before them. With regard to the manner in which that red to meet the judicious expenditures of the Govern- bill had been treated by the Committee on Finance, he ment; and if the revenue proved too great, reduce the believed that, as a reduction of the revenue was contemtaxes. Upon what principle, by what constitutional plated by them, they preferred to let it lie until it was right, do you tax the people, and draw money into the found what could be done on that subject, without maTreasury not required to carry on the operations of the king a formal report. I go (said Mr. K.) for a reducGovernmeni? He held there was no such legitimate tion of the revenue down to the wants of the Governpower, and the exercise of it was a gross usurpation. ment, and then we shall hear no more about deposite But we may be told that the compromise bill, as it has I hold that you have no right to create a surplus been termed, stands in the way of reduction. He (Mr. and then distribute it; and that, on the contrary, you K.) bad voted for that bill, but imposed upon himself no ought to reduce the taxes. I hold it my duty to oppose, obligation to hold sacred its provisions. lle had so de. as far as my little influence extends, any prospective clared in his place. He had voted for it under a spe plan for a distribution of the surplus, and will be unwil. cies of duresse, arising from the peculiar situation in ling to act on any such bill until it shall be found that it which a portion of our country was then placed. He is impossible to reduce the revenue by either of the two had believed that it did not do justice to the extent we moles proposed. had a right to deman:), but it was all which could then Mr. K. said he felt himself bound to make this explabe obtained, and he had accepled il; nor would he now nation, in consequence of the course the debate had lightly disturb it. He believed that, by a reasonable re- taken, as he had voted for the deposite law of the last duction on such articles as would not affect the manufac session, believing that in doing so he was making the turing industry of the country, and by confining the safest and least objectionable disposition of the vast sum sales of your public lands to those who purchase for ac accumulating in the Treasury. He should vote against taal settlement, you will go far to reduce the receipts of the mode proposed by the Senator from Missouri, of the Treasury to an amount, little, if any, exceeding the distributing the extra copies of the document before wants of the Government. Let us try these reductions, them, because such distribution would be unusual, was and if even then a surplus should be found, we may cast calculated to give erroneous information, could do no about for some useful and constitutional mode forits dispo-good, and, by aliaching an unnecessary importance to sition. But under no circumstances could he ever con it, mislead those to whom it should be sent. sent to the prospective legislation proposed by the Sen Mr. CALHOUN observed that if the document was ator from South Carolina; a resort to such a system of to be printed, it had better be done in the form in which distribution or deposite, call it which you will, would, it already was, for that was by far the most accurate. in his judgment, be one of the greatest misfortunes But he did not see the slightest necessity for printing it, which could befall the States; and all who regardled their and hoped it would not be printed. rights should array themselves against such a project. Mr. NILES said that he would make a single remark.

We are told by the Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. He had, in the course of the debate, heard but one reaDavis) that the appriprislions of the last session had son assigned for sending this document to the States, been extravagant beyond measure. They were liberal, which appeared to him to be entitled to any considerasir, not extravagant. There was an overflowing Treas- 1 tion: this was, that the information it contained might ury, and the state of the country rendered them proper. be useful to the Legislatures of the States, in giving a The Indian appropriations liad been great; but for them wise and prudent direction to their legislation in regard he gave his most cordial support, from policy, from jus to the money they were about to receive under the protice, from humanity. The policy of their removal was visions of the deposite act. This, he considered, was a the only sure policy; the only earthly mode by which Igitimate, fair, and, he would add, important object. that unfortunate race can be preserved as a people. There was too much reason to sear, he thought, that the Sir, my constiiuents felt this, and were prepared to jus. | Siales, or many of them, might make an unwise disposi

VOL. XII.-11

Senate.]

Unexpended Appropriations.

[Duc, 28, 1856.

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tion of this fund, and perhaps such a disposition as thrown it on the States; we have sent the golden apple
would not be altogether consistent with the principles of discord among them, and it remains to be known
and spirit of the deposite law. Did he believe that this whether it will be used for good or for evil-whether it
document contained information calculated to enlighten will be a blessing or a curse.
their course, and that it embraced all the information The Legislature of his own State was now in session,
necessary and proper for that purpose, he might be wil and he was informed were distracted with the disposition
Jing to vote for so unusual and extraordinary a measure of their share of the surplus. There were many schemes
as that proposed by the Senator from Missouri, (Mr. for disposing of it, and which would prevail he could not
Benton] He duubted, however, whether this docu. say; but presumed that the erroneous impressions to
ment would answer any useful purpose. It did not con which he had alluded would have their effect, and that
tain all the infirmation necessary, and he learned it the distribution principle would triumph, and that the
would be more likely to mislead than to enlighten the fund would be divided and subdivided, he could not say
action of the States. If any document could set public to what extent. It was proposed to divide it up among
opinion right on this subject, he thought the message of the towns; and whether the distribution principle would
the President was best adapted to do it. But he de stop there, or be followed out, might be doubisul; for so
spaired of attaining this object: public opinion had ta- strong had this principle taken hold of public sentiment
ken its course, and settled down under peculiar circum- every where, that he should hardly be surprised to hear
stances, and cannot be changed by any document we that a more thorough distribution had been made, and
can send to the States, or among the people. So far that the whole fund had been divided up per capita,
as it is wrong, it must work its own cure.

among every man, woman, and child, in the State, for
Sir, (said Mr. N.,) perhaps no law ever enacted by safe keeping. He hoped the fund would prove beni fi.
Congress has had so strange a destiny as the deposite cial to the State, although for a time it may distract ils
act of last session. Its true character had been misrep. councils. There were those, however, who regarded
resented, grossly misrepresented, both by friends and the evil as greater than the benefit. A letter he had
foes, by all parties throughout the whole Union. Du- this day received from a friend on the spot, says, "For
ring its long and arduous struggle in this hall, it was God's sake send no more money among us.”.
treated, by all who supported it at least, simply as a de. The conduct of many in regard to the deposite act
posite bill. But the moment the question was finally had been very strange; they condemn the principle of
decided, and before the bill had got really out of the distribution, they condemn the deposite bill, they con-
Senate, what did we hear? Why, one voice was raised demn those who voted for it, yet they are willing to re-
a voice of triumph-calculated to give to the law a false ceive the money; nay, they seize upon it with the keen-
character. And what did we witness afterwards? The est avidity, and seem determined to follow out the prin.
friends of the measure, he meant the original friends, ciple of distribution, which they condemn, and deter-
those who claimed its paternity, all united, in every way mine to distribute, divide, and re-divide the fund, until
and form, through their organs, the press, and in every they can get a share of it into ther own pockets. These
other way, in giving a false character to the act.

It was are some of the first fruits of dividing up surpluses declared to be a distribution bill, a law for dividing the among the people. surplus revenue among the States. But this was not all, But great as he considered the danger from sending nor the worst. The opponents of the measure united this money among the States, he regarded the evils of its and made common cause with its friends, its original remaining in your Treasury, and deposite banks, as still friends, in misleading the public and giving a false char- greater. Our act did not ereate the evils from this sur. acter to this law. Among them, his distinguished friend plus, although it may have transferred them from this from Missouri (Mr. Benton] had lent the influence of Government to the States, But the danger and the evil bis great name and fame, the extent of which no one existed: it was bere, it was upon Congress, tempting us knew better than himself, to give a character to this act. to extravagant expenditures; it was upon the deposite He had no doubt the gentleman supposed he gave it its banks, inflating and blowing up our whole paper systrue character; yet some of us, (said Mr. N.,) who had Whatever else might follow, one thing was cer. felt it a duty to support it, although as much upposed to tain: we had removed the evil from Congress; we had the principle of distribution as that Senator himself, thrown off a burden which had rested heavily upon us, thought he gave it a false character. He declared it to and which he considered was more than we could bear; be a distribution act, and the triumph of the scheme of he felt relieved, and rejoiced to get clear of the difficul. dividing surpluses among the States.

ties which surrounded Congress the last session. Under such circumstances it had been found of no use The only legitimate object of sending this document to attempt to present to the public the true character of to the Staies could not be accomplished; they had al. this measure, If we held up the act, and pointed the ready taken their course, and must be permitted to go public mind to its plain leller and distinct provisions, If the Senator from Missouri wislied - which lie which declare that the money is to be deposited with the presumed lie did not -- to send this paper io the States, States in trust for safe keeping, and to be returned io persuade them or the people that Congress had done when demanded, we were told: “It is of no use, every wrong at :he last session, that the money they were about body knows that this is a distribution of the surplus, and to receive was wanted for the legitimate purposes of this that the money will never be called for." Such were Gorernment, he could not aid him in that course; le the circumstances under which public opinion had been could see no good that was to result from it, and it did formed, and it was in vain to think to change it by send. nol appear to be exacily just towards those who lisd ing documents to the State Legislaturts at this time. voted for the deposite aci, although disapproving of the Nothing short of a voice from Heaven could satisfy a principle of distribution. large portion of the people that this money does noi be It would be presumption in him to allempt to advise long to the Sates, and it will be received and disposed so distinguished and experienced a Senator as the gen. of under these false and erroneous views.

lleman from Missouri. But he might be permitted to In regard to the benefits or the evils of handing this say wbat would be his own course, and what appeared surplus over to the Stales, they yet remained to be to him to be the course dictated by wisdom and policy. known. of the dangers and difficulties which it will be He would not revive the contentions of the last session; likely to occasion, he was as sensible as any one. We he would not unnecessarily fight our baliles over again. have removed the burden from our own shoulders, and I sufficient for the year are the evils thereof. Instead of

tem.

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